Este artículo trata de contextualizar la dificultad de entender el término innovación y por ello el conocimiento de los valores encerrados en ella. Se apuesta entonces por definir innovación como producto de la actividad humana en campos diferentes. Asimismo se toma como marco de referencia la axiología de los valores tecnocientíficos de J. Echeverría. A partir de ahí se examinan diferentes valores como el de libertad, convivencialidad y comunidad propios del movimiento “open”. Se concluye que en este movimiento existe una (...) apuesta decisiva de una innovación basada en valores. (shrink)
The growth of niche markets in rural industries has been one response to the restructuring of established agricultural industries in developed countries. In some cases entry into niche markets is part of a diversification of activities from other areas of farm-based production or services. In other cases, operators have sought to diversify from niche market production into other areas, such as on-site selling and agritourism. This paper outlines the findings of an exploratory qualitative study of the factors that olive farmers (...) in Western Australia take into account when considering diversification, with a special focus on diversification into servicing visitors in the form of on-site selling and agritourism. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted among 23 small olive growing operations located in the main olive growing region of Western Australia. Decision-making is shown to involve an assessment of risk, which is shaped by their appraisal of economic conditions, market opportunities, access to resources (including labor), and lifestyle factors. The argument is made that a fuller understanding of diversification is gained by studying both those who seek to diversify and those who do not, in contrast to most previous research that has only focussed on those who diversify. Also argued is that diversification is best seen as a continuum of adjustment strategies, which is guided by a combination of economic need, risk assessment (based largely on resource access), market potential, and lifestyle factors. (shrink)
BackgroundAdvance directives imply the promise of determining future medical treatment in case of decisional incapacity. However, clinical practice increasingly indicates that standardized ADs often fail to support patients’ autonomy. To date, little data are available about the quality and impact of ADs on end-of-life decisions for incapacitated acute stroke patients.MethodsWe analyzed the ADs of patients with fatal stroke, focusing on: their availability and type, stated circumstances to which the AD should apply, and stated wishes regarding specific treatment options.ResultsBetween 2011 and (...) 2014, 143 patients died during their hospitalization on our stroke unit. Forty-two of them had a completed and signed, written AD, as reported by their family, but only 35 ADs were available. The circumstances in which the AD should apply were stated by 21/35 as a “terminal condition that will cause death within a relatively short time” or an ongoing “dying process.” A retrospective review found only 16 of 35 ADs described circumstances that, according to the medical file, could have been considered applicable by the treating physicians. A majority of patients objected to cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and artificial nutrition, while almost all directed that treatment for alleviation of pain or discomfort should be provided at all times even if it could hasten death.ConclusionsThe prevalence of ADs among patients who die from acute stroke is still low. A major flaw of the ADs in our cohort was their attempt to determine single medical procedures without focusing on a precise description of applicable scenarios. Therefore, less than half of the ADs were considered applicable for severe acute stroke. These findings stress the need to foster educational programs for the general public about advance care planning to facilitate the processing of timely, comprehensive, and individualized end-of-life decision-making. (shrink)
Para abordar el miedo desde el Coaching, hay primero que definir qué es el Coaching. Según la Internacional Coach Federation (ICF), e Coaching profesional consiste en una relación profesional continuada que ayuda a obtener resultados extraordinarios en la vida, profesión, empresa o negocios de las personas. Mediante el proceso de Coaching, el cliente (coachee) profundiza en su conocimiento, aumenta su rendimiento y mejora su calidad de vida.
Después de ofrecer una definición tipológica de profesión, se presenta desde diversas perspectivas (la de los sociólogos, la de los historiadores y la de los mismos profesionales) la problemática actual de la ética de las profesiones. Se parte de la tesis de que, hoy por hoy, en este campo, todo planteamiento es deudor de la deontología médica. Se concluye afirmando que la ética profesional no puede ser patrimonio exclusivo de los profesionales, pero tampoco puede ser hecha sin ellos.
With obstacles at various levels of government, multi-level settings provide complex challenges for the implementation of gender mainstreaming. Policy transfer appears to hold some explanatory potential in these sorts of contexts; scholarship however, still tends to focus on single sources of influence – either European or domestic – and potentially misses the broader picture. This article revisits the classic question of who learns what from whom by addressing the implementation of gender mainstreaming in research policies in the Spanish regions through (...) the lens of policy transfer. Measures to tackle gender inequality in science have been developed at the EU, state and regional levels, thus enabling the three regions studied here – Galicia, the Basque Country and the Balearic Islands – to ‘borrow’ good practices from different layers of government. This article suggests that more nuanced frameworks, recognizing that multi-level settings are potential sites for complex lesson-drawing processes, are likely to offer greater explanatory depth. (shrink)
COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness with higher mortality in older adults. This condition is spread person-to-person through close contact, and among policies employed to decrease transmission are the improvement of hygiene habits and physical distancing. Although social distancing has been recognized as the best way to prevent the transmission, there are concerns that it may promote increased depression symptoms risk and anxiety, mainly in older adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to verify self-concept of social distancing in adults compared to (...) older adults. All participants, over 18 years and residents of São Paulo state, were invited to join this research study by a message application and answered an interdisciplinary questionnaire during the period from May 23 to June 23, 2020. The questions were divided into the following aspects: sociodemographic data, financial conditions, routine-related perception, perception of health, physical and emotional state, and eating habits. The younger adult group was composed of 139 participants, with a mean age of 43.15 years, and the older adult group was composed of 437 participants with a mean age of 67.59 years of both sex. Changes in routine during the period of social distance were reported by 95% of adults and 96.8% of older adults, but adults indicated more significant alterations in routine. Although there was no difference between groups for several aspects, adults revealed greater alterations in sleep quality, evacuation frequency, and more difficulty to perform daily activities at home. Further studies are necessary to follow up the impacts of social distancing among adults and older adults in different socioeconomic contexts to better understand the long-term alterations and the necessity of interventions. (shrink)
This is both an illuminating and penetrating study of the history of casuistry, and a persuasive argument for its relevance in contemporary ethics. The authors seek to revitalize "case argument as a fruitful method of practical moral reasoning". In so doing, they hope to steer safely between a rigid morality which holds to certain eternal and invariable principles, and a relativistic morality which repudiates the notion of an inflexible body of dogmatic principles. To support their contention, they provide a historical (...) account of the practice of casuistry, identify its shortcomings and past abuses, and try to reconstruct it to make it appetizing to a modern audience. (shrink)
In this paper I argue that Seneca’s philosophy is a form of therapy and that one of its main concerns is the transformation of one’s life through time control. Aristotelian tradition lies in the idea that philosophy is, in its highest aspect, an abstract form of knowledge. Seneca, on the other hand, is an inheritor of a long tradition that takes philosophy as mind or soul therapy and bases its structure in a practical approach. Epicurus, for instance, goes as far (...) as to declare that “empty is the word of the philosopher by whom no human suffering is treated”. Even if Seneca doesn’t despise the theoretical principles that support the construction of a philosophical system, he builds, in his Letters to Lucilius, a strong therapeutic praxis whose purpose is to heal one’s mind and life. The upmost and fundamental step is providing the pupil with different ways of earning back time deprivation. Time seems to be, in a certain sense, the essential matter of Seneca’s philosophy. Time control, for him, is a kind of self-control that would make it possible to match a simple existence and a meaningful life. Therefore, Seneca’s opening letter to Lucile aims exclusively to identify how one loses time and why it’s essential to take control of it. (shrink)