The Routledge Handbook of Critical Pedagogies for Social Work traverses new territory by providing a cutting-edge overview of the work of classic and contemporary theorists, in a way that expands their application and utility in social work education and practice; thus, providing a bridge between critical theory, philosophy, and social work. -/- Each chapter showcases the work of a specific critical educational, philosophical and/or social theorist including: Henry Giroux, Michel Foucault, Cornelius Castoriadis, Herbert Marcuse, Paulo Freire, bell hooks, Joan (...) Tronto, Iris Marion Young, Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci and many others to elucidate the ways in which their key pedagogic concepts can be applied to specific aspects of social work education and practice. The text exhibits a range of research-based approaches to educating social work practitioners as agents of social change. It provides a robust and much needed, alternative paradigm to the technique-driven ‘conservative revolution’ currently being fostered by neoliberalism in both social work education and practice. -/- The volume will be instructive for social work educators who aim to teach for social change, by assisting students to develop counter-hegemonic practices of resistance and agency, and reflecting on the pedagogic role of social work practice more widely. The volume holds relevance for both postgraduate and undergraduate/qualifying social work and human services courses around the world. (shrink)
Historicist and political reflection of Freire, gives us a deep look promising in the world. His conviction that oppressor and oppressed can liberate each other and together build a more just and equal, is embodied in education as an emancipatory praxis, which must be built into a dialogic relationship between teacher and learner. Paulo Freire's postulates it has influence of diverse intellectual currents and in this tour, we find a permanent invocation to Antonio Gramsci's contributions. La reflexión (...) historicista y política de Freire, nos entrega una mirada profundamente esperanzadora del mundo. Su convicción que opresor y oprimido se pueden liberar mutuamente y en conjunto construir una sociedad más justa e igualitaria, se materializa en la educación como una praxis emancipadora, la cual debe construirse en una relación dialógica entre educador y educando. Los postulados de Paulo Freire tienen influencia de diversas corrientes intelectuales y en ese recorrido, encontramos una permanente invocación a los aportes de Antonio Gramsci. (shrink)
In this essay, I investigate the human act of spectatorship as found in the work of John Dewey and Paulo Freire. I will show that each is thoroughly anti-watching when it comes to educational practices. I then problematize their positions by looking at their spectatorial commitments in the realm of aesthetics. Both Dewey and Freire have a different opinion about spectatorship when it is a matter of watching art. I claim that this different in opinion derives from the (...) practice of ‘educational humanism’. By educational humanism, I mean the tendency to posit stock human traits that derive from pedagogical practices. Ultimately, I will take a stand against educational humanism, against the process of back-forming, from educational circumstances, the desirability, or the undesirability, of human traits. (shrink)
This article considers key differences and similarities between Freirean and Taoist ideals. I limit my focus to the Tao Te Ching, paying brief attention to the origins of this classic work of Chinese philosophy before concentrating on several themes of relevance to Freire's work. An essay by James Fraser, who makes three references to the Tao Te Ching in his discussion of love and history in Freire's pedagogy, provides a helpful starting point for investigation. A summary of Fraser's (...) account is followed by a more detailed discussion of the meaning of ‘action’ and ‘non‐action’, the nature and role of knowing and knowledge, and the relations between ignorance, happiness and education for Freire and Lao Tzu. I conclude that while the differences between these two systems of thought are significant and must be acknowledged, reflection upon these differences has the potential to be educationally productive. (shrink)
This book provides the first detailed account of Gramsci's work in the context of current critical and socio-cultural debates. Renate Holub argues that Gramsci was ahead of his time in offering a theory of art, politics and cultural production. Gramsci's achievement is discussed particularly in relation to the Frankfurt School (Adorno, Horkheimer, Benjamin, Bloch, Habermas), to Brecht's theoretical writings and to thinkers in the phenomenological tradition especially Merleau-Ponty. She argues for Gramsci's continuing relevance at a time of retreat from Marxist (...) positions on the postmodern left. Antonio Gramsci is distinguished by its range of philosophical grasp, its depth of specialized historical scholarship, and its keen sense of Gramsci's position as a crucial figure in the politics of contemporary cultural theory. (shrink)
Dialogue is a seminal concept within the work of the Brazilian adult education theorist, Paulo Freire, and the Russian literary critic and philosopher, Mikhail Bakhtin. While there are commonalities in their understanding of dialogue, they differ in their treatment of dialectic. This paper addresses commonalities and dissonances within a Bakhtin-Freire dialogue on the notions of dialogue and dialectic. It then teases out some of the implications for education theory and practice in relation to two South African contexts of (...) learning that facilitate the access to education of disadvantaged groups, one in higher education and the other in early childhood education. (shrink)
While theorizing in distinctly different times, distinctly different cultures, and under distinctly different circumstances, notable philosophical similarities can be drawn between John Dewey and Paulo Freire. This article focuses on two major themes evident in a sample of each philosopher's major works, democracy and experience, and draws theoretical comparisons between the way each philosopher approaches these concepts in terms of definition and application to educational and social practice. The author suggests that, despite some paradigmatic differences, the fundamental definitions and (...) uses of these concepts expressed by both philosophers are largely comparable and complementary. (shrink)
Es ist wahr, die frühe Neuzeit hatte nur einen Descartes. Aber sie hatte hunderte schreibende Gelehrte. Auch solche, die Descartes und allen anderen zeigten, wer was wo schon geschrieben hatte. Solche Universal-Gelehrten dachten an den einzelnen Schreiber, sie halfen ihm absichtlich nicht, die Quellen zu verbergen, sondern sie zu finden. Keine Träumereien an französischen oder schwäbischen Kaminen, sondern effiziente Arbeit am Jesuitenkolleg waren Ziel und Inhalt z.B. der Bibliotheca selecta , in der Antonio Possevino SJ das Bildungsprogramm der Jesuiten (...) mit einem Literaturkanon und allgemeinen Erörterungen zur Bildung und Ausbildung versah. Dieses Handbuch stellt, entgegen gewissen Anzeichen, kein System der Wissenschaften dar, sondern konstruiert deren Gemeinsamkeit mittels der direkten Zwecksetzung zum Seelenheil der Menschen, woraus einerseits die Notwendigkeit einer Psychologie des Lernens, andererseits eine größere Unabhängigkeit der Wissenschaften von einander resultiert. Mit seiner Mischung von humanistischer Gelehrsamkeit, frommer Finalität, Kultur des Individuums und allgemeiner Nützlichkeit ist die Bibliotheca selecta ein Schnittpunkt von Humanismus und Schulweisheit. (shrink)
Subtractive schooling is a type of pedagogy that subtracts from the student aspects of her identity in order to assimilate and reshape her identity to fit the American mainstream. Here, I question the value of assimilation as it takes place in our public school systems. Currently, immigrant children are often made to feel inadequate for being culturally different. This is detrimental to their development as students given that at their young age they do not yet have the emotional maturity to (...) know that their experience, language and culture are legitimate and valuable. My goal is to shift the focus of subtractive schooling to one that fosters the growth of students through recognition. I suggest that John Dewey’s and Paulo Freire’s pedagogy of recognition is a helpful approach to this problem. Both Dewey and Freire’s pedagogy emphasize recognition as central to their pedagogy. (shrink)
Este artigo intenta apresentar como a pregação de Santo António de Pádua está conectada com a cidade. Através de alguns exemplos tomados das legendas hagiográficas e sermões, o autor reconstrói as mudanças de atitudes de hagiógrafos e pregadores ligados a António algumas vezes a um contexto urbano geral e, em última medida, a cidade de Pádua. Em particular, o artigo se detém sobre alguns textos que destacam o efeito da pregação de Santo António no seu público-alvo, ou seja, a população (...) da cidade em que falava. O período da análise é primariamente compreendido durante a canonização do santo, em meados do século XIV. Apesar disso, algumas referências a autores da época posterior serão feitas como comparação e aprofundamento da panorâmica oferecida. No final da Idade Média, santo António acabaria por ser, em certa medida, o modelo para os frades mendicantes, talvez atraídos pelos santos mais próximos no tempo. (shrink)
Paulo Freire's major work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, owes adebt to psychoanalysis. In particular, as this paper argues,Freire's account of teacher authority needs to be understoodthrough psychoanalytic sensibilities. Paulo Freire maintains thatteacher authority can be ``on the side of freedom.'' This is ahighly charged claim given that liberalist traditions generallycast authority as the enemy of freedom. Breaking with liberalunderstandings of authority, Freire's ``authority on the sideof freedom'' is a matter of maintaining the delicate psychicbalance that leads (...) neither to domination nor to submission.This paper investigates how such an authoritative balance functions. (shrink)
M. Lipman and P. Freire are two thinkers who support the practice of liberty. Liberty is liberty to learn to think, and to exist in communities of dialogue, questioning, and search. This is the project that leads human beings to understand themselves and recognize others. Without liberty there..
Os dois subgêneros epistolares desenvolvidos por Antônio Vieira entre 1646 e 1696, a carta familiar e a carta negocial, reatualizam os preceitos das artes dictaminis antigas. Escritas como imitação verossímil e decorosa de fala de pessoa natural, as canas produzem a presença do corpo e voz do remetente, reativando neo-escolasticamente as técnicas da sermocinatio latina. A comunicação tratará de categorias retóricas e teológico-políticas das articulações dos dois subgêneros: a - a enunciação ou o contrato enunciativo, em que caracteres e afetos (...) constantes qualificam o remetente como tipo discreto que se dirige ao destinatário aplicando decoros específicos da pessoa e da circunstância; b - o enunciado ou a narração, em que as tópicas da invenção e as partes da disposição constituem a verossimilhança adequada ao subgênero e à matéria exposta. (shrink)
RESUMO: Este ensaio investiga um conceito que tem origem entre os gregos - o diálogo – e se desloca para o campo educacional brasileiro. O trabalho pedagógico de Paulo Freire e o pensamento do hermeneuta Hans Georges Gadamer constituem nossa base teórica. Deseja-se demonstrar que a dialogicidade é um elemento relevante e emancipatório e interfere na formação dos sujeitos e na construção de saberes de forma significativa. Paulo Freire na obra Pedagogia do oprimido realiza uma análise fenomenológica do (...) cotidiano educacional e uma reflexão refinada desse processo e vai além da compreensão quando recomenda o diálogo como alternativa para um fazer pedagógico vivo e transformador. Há uma dissonância entre o que foi validado por Freire e a realidade escolar no Brasil em diferentes níveis e modalidades. Outra perspectiva que tem chamado atenção de estudiosos do campo educacional e que trata do diálogo é a Hermenêutica Filosófica de Gadamer; discute-se a possibilidade compreensiva da hermenêutica, nos moldes como fora pensado pelo hermeneuta, poder auxiliar nas bases de justificação da educação, favorecendo o debate acerca das racionalidades envolvidas no fazer pedagógico que nessa trilha parece superar os modelos de normatividade da modernidade técnico-científica, que declara o poderio da objetividade. Este estudo quer compreender a noção de diálogo vivo nesses autores e discutir sobre sua efetividade em nossos dias. (shrink)
Antonio Ungar (Bogota, 1974) has published two novels: Zanahorias voladoras (Alfaguara, 2004) and Las orejas del lobo (Ediciones B, 2006). This paper aims to analyze the two literary works, based on the relationship between abjection and revolt (Kristeva 2006 (1980), 1998 (1996)) presented in the novels. This relationship will make it possible to understand, to a great extent, the author’s esthetic proposal, as well as his position in the current Colombian literary field and his answer to the social conditions (...) of his time. (shrink)
En el presente artículo analizamos cuáles son las posibilidades de una nueva democracia basada en las condiciones de producción de la sociedad y no en la representación política del Estado. Desarrollamos así el concepto negriano de La República constituyente, como democracia real de la multitud global, en contraposición a las ideas, intrínsecamente totalitarias, de pueblo y soberanía. Palabras clave: Antonio Negri; democracia real; república constituyente; multitud global; ideas totalitarias. Antonio Negri, the constituent Republic and the democracy to comeIn (...) this paper we analyze what are the possibilities for a new democracy, based on society’s production conditions rather than on the State’s political representation. We thereby develop Negri’s concept of constituent Republic as real democracy of the global multitude, as opposed to the intrinsically totalitarian ideas of people and sovereignty. Keywords : Antonio Negri; real democracy; constituent Republic; global multitude; totalitarian ideas. (shrink)
The notion of hope occupies a central position in Paulo Freire’s work. Since he understands hope to be a motor for change, an ontological necessity and a political act, Freire concludes that it is important to educate hope so that it is not converted into infertile hopelessness or tragic despair. Imbued with Freirean spirit, my purpose in this paper is to construct a dialogue between this great educator’s thoughts and those of Spinoza. This impossible encounter between these two (...) men who rebelled in thought and action against the oppressions of their times will occur through the investigation of the following themes: 1) the role of hope in the Freirean conception of history; 2) relationships between freedom and necessity; 3) hope’s social functions and 4) Freire’s proposal of an ‘education of hope’. Two notions of hope will be discussed: naïve hope and critical hope. The spinozist provocation consists in suggesting an ethical and political attitude which is primarily moved by our power to think and act and is, therefore, not based on hope. (shrink)
O texto busca reconstituir alguns momentos fundamentais da leitura negriana de Espinosa, mostrando como ela se presta a uma releitura da modernidade filosófica bem como abre-se para a reflexão política contemporânea. Por fim, são apontados certos aspectos problemáticos da interpretação de Negri.
Se analiza en este estudio, las implicaciones que para el campo de la ética filosófica comporta el desarrollo de algunas de las investigaciones científicas en el campo de las neurociencias. El organismo humano nunca disocia de manera tajante la razón práctica de la teórica y, por tanto, las dimensio..
Born in Granada, April 30, 1901, Antonio De Luna was educated in the universities of Granada and of Madrid, continued his studies at Freiburg in Bresgovia, Paris, and Oxford and received the doctorate in law from Bologna. At the age of 27 he was appointed to the chair of natural law at the University of La Laguna in the Canary Isles, and from there went on to Salamanca and Granada. In 1932 he obtained the chair of international public law (...) of the Faculty of Law of the University of Madrid. At this time he began a period of intense professional activity: He was Secretary of the Federation of Spanish Associations of International Studies (1932–1936), founder and director of the Institute of International and Economic Studies (1932–1936), and Secretary of the Juridical Assessory Commission of the Spanish Republic (1931–1934). After the interruption of the Civil War, Luna, with a sense of continuity, resumed his essential tasks. (shrink)
In several enigmatic passages, Paulo Freire describes the pedagogy of the oppressed as a ‘pedagogy of laughter’. The inclusion of laughter alongside problem‐posing dialogue might strike some as ambiguous, considering that the global exploitation of the poor is no laughing matter. And yet, laughter seems to be an important aspect of the pedagogy of the oppressed. In this paper, I examine the role of laughter in Freire's critical pedagogy through a series of questions: Are all forms of laughter (...) equally emancipatory? Certainly a revolutionary pedagogue can laugh, but should he or she, and what are the political implications of this laughter? In order to shed new light on Freire's fleeting yet provocative comments, I turn to Jacques Rancière for his emphasis on the aesthetics of politics, and Paulo Virno who connects joke telling with critical theory. Overall, I argue that we need to take Freire's gesture toward a pedagogy of laughter seriously in order to understand the aesthetics of critical pedagogy and the fundamental need for a redistribution of the sensible that underlies educational relations between masters and pupils. (shrink)
Paulo Freire : the educator, his oeuvre, and changing contexts -- Holistic interpretations of Freire's work : a critical review -- Critical literacy, praxis, and emancipatory politics -- "Remaining on the same side of the river" : neo-liberalism, party movements, and the struggle for greater coherence -- Reinventing Freire in a Southern context : the Mediterranean -- Engaging with practice : a Freirean reflection on different pedagogical sites.
This article examines the principal arguments found in the work of Paulo Freire concerning policy and ethics in the field of higher education in Latin America. It critically analyzes the university reform in Latin America dominated by the thought and practice promoted by various international financial institutions beginning in the 1980s and then looks at the feasibility of an alternative Freirian view. The work of Paulo Freire celebrated the liberating role that public university education should play in the (...) training of citizens and professionals, that is with a critical and ethical conscience, committed to the needs of the locality, region and the world. All this is in clear opposition to what has happened to Latin American universities, influenced by neo-liberal reforms over the last decades. (shrink)
This article claims that Freire’s work offers an important ground for a potential theory of intercultural ethics and, for that purpose, examines his ideas at different levels: the ontological; the ideological; the political; languages and languaging; and cultural identity and diversity. Freire never used the word ‘intercultural’, although it is suggested here that this is due to the fact that terminology related to cultural diversity has changed over time and in his day this term was not yet common (...) currency. Moreover, Freire uses more often the term ‘multiculturalidade’ rather than ‘multiculturalismo’ since the former suffix ‘-dad’ has a different meaning which refers to the ontological nature of the condition and is more usual in both Portuguese and Spanish. This article also argues for the relevance of a theory of intercultural ethics in the contemporary world that imprints cultural flexibility on the current hermeneutics of ethics while preventing excessive abuses on behalf of relativism, dogmatism, essentialism and fundamentalism. (shrink)
In this article, I critically engage with a vital assumption behind the work of Paulo Freire, and more generally behind any critical pedagogy, viz. the belief that education is fundamentally about emancipation. My main goal is to conceive of a contemporary critical pedagogy which stays true to the original inspiration of Freire’s work, but which at the same time takes it in a new direction. More precisely, I confront Freire with Jacques Rancière. Not only is the latter’s (...) work on education fully predicated on the idea of emancipation. For both Freire and Rancière, literacy initiation practice can be seen as an archetypical model for understanding the emancipatory moment in education. For both, educational practices are never neutral, as they decide to a great extent on the fate of our common world. Reflecting on similarities and differences in both their positions, I will propose to conceive of critical pedagogy in terms of a thing-centred pedagogy. As such, I take a clear position in the discussion between teacher- and student-centred approaches. According to Rancière, it is the full devotion to a ‘thing’, i.e. to a subject matter we study, which makes emancipation possible. Over and against Freire’s defense of emancipatory education, I highlight with Rancière the importance of educational emancipation. (shrink)