No mais profundo centro: João da Cruz e o Sufismo Sadili cantam a união transformante Carlos Frederico Barboza de Souza O camelô em Belo Horizonte: aspectos da informalidade e da identidade Maria Aparecida Carvalho de Castro Igreja, povo de Deus, sujeito da comunhão e da missão Cleto Caliman A literatura como questionamento do sujeito da modernidade: Memórias do cárcere, de Graciliano Ramos, e A peste, de Albert Camus JoãoPereiraPinto O ensino religioso na rede pública (...) estadual de Belo Horizonte -MG: história, modelos e percepções de professores sobre formação e docência Douglas Cabral Dantas. (shrink)
O presente texto tem como preocupação discutir a concepção de clemência que Sêneca desenvolve no Tratado sobre a clemência. A obra foi destinada a Nero com a finalidade de orientá-lo a utilizar essa virtude em seu exercício de poder. Por meio da prudência política que dela derivaria, o Imperador seria capaz de harmonizar suas ações com a sociedade romana. As reflexões realizadas ao longo do trabalho levam à compreensão de que a clemência, em Sêneca, seria um modelo de sabedoria a (...) ser aplicado pelo príncipe em suas ações políticas. Assumindo esse princípio fundamental de um bom governo e tornando-o um exemplo moral e ético, ele disseminaria essa prática por todos, selando a lealdade do povo para com seu governante. Ao mesmo tempo, de maneira velada, Sêneca procurava desviar Nero de uma tendência tirânica, cujos indícios já estariam se manifestando. (shrink)
The research team measured the enterprise web accessibility levels of the Forbes 250 largest enterprises using the fully automatic accessibility evaluation tool Sortsite, and presented the compliance of the evaluated websites to WCAG 1.0, WCAG 2.0 and Section 508 accessibility levels. Given the recent attention to organizational leaders having ethical duties towards their dedicated employees, we propose that ‘societal citizenship behaviour’ concerns ethical duties of organizational leaders towards society in general and in particular to those who have less means to (...) assert their needs. In effect, we found enterprise website accessibility levels to be in need of significant improvement. An interpretation of a positive path forward to better enterprise website accessibility levels is put forth based on a focus-group interaction and using BNML—a novel Business Narrative Modelling Language. (shrink)
In his interesting, original and well organized paper "O Ceticismo Pirrônico e os Problemas Filosóficos" Oswaldo Porchat Pereira reinterprets ancient Pyrrhonism and claims a new domain for the philosophical activity, namely the "phenomenic" one. The present text examines this doctrine in order to unravel not only the similarities between the Porchatian approach and contemporary pragmatism, but also some of the main difficulties connected with that reinterpretarion of Pyrrhonism.
O enfoque principal deste artigo é a relação da ética com a vivência e a prática religiosas. A presença de uma ética não se restringe ao vasto campo da tradição semítica ou religiões proféticas, mas se entende também às raízes da religiosidade mística e sapiencial. O texto tem como um dos principais objetivos aprofundar a compreensão dessa relação, seja nos códigos e normas das diversas religiões, como também na prática religiosa das comunidades. A ética ocupa um lugar fundamental como ciência (...) do ethos. Fazem parte ainda desse estudo algumas distinções terminológicas e semânticas dos termos ética e moral. Dentro do universo religioso, o lugar fundamental da ética será pesquisado através da racionalidade dos valores morais das principais religiões do planeta. Palavras-chave: Filosofia; Ética; Moral; Religião; Antropologia. ABSTRACT This article focuses on the relation between ethics and religious practice and experience. The presence of ethics is not restricted to the wide scope of Semitic tradition or prophetic religions, but reaches the roots of mystical and sapient religiosity. The text aims at understanding that relation in depth, in what concerns the codes and norms of various religions, as well as the religious practice of communities. Ethics plays a fundamental role as a science of ethos. The article also comprises some terminological and semantic distinctions between the terms ‘ethics’ and ‘morals’. Within the religious universe, the fundamental place of ethics is investigated through the rationality of moral values of the main world religions. Key words: Philosophy; Ethics; Morals; Religion; Anthropology. (shrink)
It is sometimes asserted that Philo of Alexandria is the creator of systematic theology – not because he created systematics , that is, a body of doctrine classified and integrated by a set of principles defined in philosophical terms, but because he created theology , that is, a mode of philosophizing which derives its main categories from a supernatural revelation. Such a mode was pursued by Philo's Christian disciples, among whom was Origen , one of the first of his faith (...) to attempt, unsuccessfully, to formulate a systematics. Not until John Damascene was the attempt realized, but only in part: for while Damascene does classify the doctrinal truths of the Christian faith in an orderly manner, and through the use of philosophically defined concepts, he does not seek to investigate their inner philosophical intelligibility and cohesiveness. Christian doctrine was too involved for being viewed comprehensively all at once, and while some theologians, like Dionysius and Maximus the Confessor , appear to have grasped its inner architectonics, they seem to have been unable to express it in a clear and structured literary form. (shrink)
O presente artigo examina a maneira como João Filopono se apropria da noção aristotélica de phantasía no seu comentário ao De anima de Aristóteles. O objetivo deste exame é mostrar a articulação entre a recepção e interpretação de Filopono a respeito da phantasía e as estratégias de defesa da incorruptibilidade e impassibilidade do intelecto elaboradas pelo comentador. Com isso, esperamos lançar alguma luz sobre a complexa trajetória de transmissão da referida noção e problematizar, ainda que em linhas muito gerais, (...) a tentativa de estabelecer correspondência significativa entre a disputa pelo sentido da phantasía aristotélica no século VI e no século XX. (shrink)
El presente artículo busca enfocar la correlación entre el uso de la energía, el espacio, el territorio y el desarrollo local, teniendo en cuenta la utilización del gas natural en las cerámicas de Mato Grosso del Sur/Brasil. La importancia de los hechos geográficos es pautada por muchos parámetros, como el paso del tiempo, los nuevos descubrimientos tecnológicos, las necesidades de materias primas, los objetivos nacionales e internacionales y la ética de las relaciones internacionales. El gas natural no es utilizado aún (...) como fuente alternativa de energía en gran escala en el Estado. Puede ser considerado como uno de los resultados de la valorización de la política socio económica, de la cultura local y del medio ambiente preservado como parte de la identidad local del ser humano al mejorar su calidad de vida. (shrink)
Much has been said about intuitionistic and classical logical systems since Gentzen’s seminal work. Recently, Prawitz and others have been discussing how to put together Gentzen’s systems for classical and intuitionistic logic in a single unified system. We call Prawitz’ proposal the Ecumenical System, following the terminology introduced by Pereira and Rodriguez. In this work we present an Ecumenical sequent calculus, as opposed to the original natural deduction version, and state some proof theoretical properties of the system. We reason (...) that sequent calculi are more amenable to extensive investigation using the tools of proof theory, such as cut-elimination and rule invertibility, hence allowing a full analysis of the notion of Ecumenical entailment. We then present some extensions of the Ecumenical sequent system and show that interesting systems arise when restricting such calculi to specific fragments. This approach of a unified system enabling both classical and intuitionistic features sheds some light not only on the logics themselves, but also on their semantical interpretations as well as on the proof theoretical properties that can arise from combining logical systems. (shrink)
SOUZA PINTO. L. E. A concepção biocêntrica e sua viabilidade na doutrina da igreja católica . Dissertação (Mestrado) 2013. 94f - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte. Palavras-chave: Antropocentrismo. Biocentrismo. Catecismo da Igreja Católica.
No estudo de Philippe Ariès observou-se que a partir do século XVII, houve uma crescente ênfase na instituição escolar que propunha a substituição da família, por profissionais da educação, no ensino dedicado à criança, que de depreciada, começava a receber destaque e se tornava figura central na família. A criança de filho passou a ser intuída como aluno e percebida como criança-aluno. Nesse contexto, Comenius, Pai da Pedagogia Moderna, um apologista da instituição escolar, ao propor sua organização escolar, inicia pela (...) escola materna e denomina-a de “escola da infância”, o que demonstra claro entendimento, de que o espaço familiar era uma das classes escolares essenciais em sua proposta de reformar e organizar a instituição escolar, uma vez que, dela dependeria todas as demais classes. Aos pais-professores era indispensável prover manuais para que soubessem ensinar a criança-aluno. No atendimento dessa demanda é que Comenius escreveu suas obras pedagógicas, dentre elas, A escola da infância , que delimita o presente artigo e, que por sua vez pretende identificar os conteúdos da educação religiosa cristã, a serem ensinados às crianças de zero a seis anos. Palavras-chave : Educação religiosa cristã. Pais-professores. Educação da primeira infância. John Amos Comenius. Família. Escola.According the study by Philippe Ariès it was noticed that from the XVII century on there was a growing emphasis in the kind of school institution that proposed the substitution of the family for professionals of the education. The child ceases to be depreciated and starts being valued, becoming the central figure within family. The son also came to be intuited as a student and perceived as a child-student. In this context, while proposing his school organization, Comenius, Father of the Modern Pedagogy, an apologist of the school institution, begins from the motherly school. named by him of “school of the childhood”, which demonstrates clear understanding that familiar space was one of the school essential classes in its proposal of reforming and organizing the school institution. In order to attend such demand, Comenius wrote some pedagogic works, among them "The school of the childhood", that delimits the present article and intends to identify the contents of the religious Christian education to be taught to children from birth to six years old. Keywords : Religious Christian education. Parents-teachers. Education of the early childhood. John Amos Comenius. Family. School. (shrink)
There is a growing interest in understanding consumer ethical actions in relation to their dealings with firms. This paper examines whether there are differences between Northern and Southern European Union (EU) consumers'' perceptions of ethical consumer behaviour using Muncy and Vitell''s (1992) Consumer Ethics Scale (CES). The study samples 962 university students across four Northern EU countries (Germany, Denmark, Scotland, The Netherlands) and four Southern EU countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece). Some differences are identified between the two samples, which might (...) question the ability of organisations to consider the EU as one homogeneous market. (shrink)
Argumentation involves offering and/or exchanging reasons – either reasons for adopting various attitudes towards specific propositional contents or else reasons for acting in various ways. This paper develops the idea that the force of reasons is through and through a normative force because what good reasons accomplish is precisely to give one a certain sort of entitlement to do what they are reasons for. The paper attempts to shed light on what it is to have a reason, how the sort (...) of entitlement arising from reasons differs from other species of entitlement and how the norms by which such entitlement is assessed obtain their status as norms. (shrink)
We present a new method for characterizing the interpretive possibilities generated by elliptical constructions in natural language. Unlike previous analyses, which postulate ambiguity of interpretation or derivation in the full clause source of the ellipsis, our analysis requires no such hidden ambiguity. Further, the analysis follows relatively directly from an abstract statement of the ellipsis interpretation problem. It predicts correctly a wide range of interactions between ellipsis and other semantic phenomena such as quantifier scope and bound anaphora. Finally, although the (...) analysis itself is stated nonprocedurally, it admits of a direct computational method for generating interpretations. (shrink)
Following David Hitchcock and Stephen Toulmin, this paper takes warrants to be material inference rules. It offers an account of the form such rules should take that is designed (a) to implement the idea that an argument/inference is valid only if it is entitlement preserving and (b) to support a qualitative version of evidence proportionalism. It attempts to capture what gives warrants their normative force by elaborating a concept of reliability tailored to its account of the form such rules should (...) take. (shrink)
This paper challenges the view that arguments are (by definition, as it were) attempts to persuade or convince an audience to accept (or reject) a point of view by presenting reasons for (or against) that point of view. I maintain, first, that an arguer need not intend any effect beyond that of making it manifest to readers or hearers that there is a reason for doing some particular thing (e.g., for believing a certain proposition, or alternatively for rejecting it), and (...) second that when an arguer is in fact trying to induce an effect above and beyond rendering a reason manifest, the effect intended—the use to which his or her argument is put—need not be that hearers do what the stated reasons are reasons for doing. Where the actual or intended effect of making a reason R for doing X manifest is something other than doing X, I call it an oblique—as opposed to a direct—effect of making that reason manifest. The core of the paper presents an overview or map of the main categories of effect which arguments can have, and the main sub-types within each category, calling attention to the points at which such effects can be indirect or oblique effects. The purpose of that typology is to make it clear (i) how oblique effects can come about and (ii) how important a role they can play in the conduct of argumentation. (shrink)
Burnout is a phenomenon characterized by fatigue and frustration, usually related to work stress and dedication to a cause, a way of life that does not match the person’s expectations. Although it seems to be associated with risk factors stemming from a professional environment, this problem may affect any person. Palliative care is provided in a challenging environment, where professionals often have to make demanding ethical decisions and deal with death and dying. This article reports on the findings of a (...) systematic review aimed at identifying described burnout levels in palliative care nurses and physicians, and the related risks and protective factors. The main findings indicate that burnout levels in palliative care, or in health care settings related to this field, do not seem to be higher than in other contexts. (shrink)
Abstract Occupational stress in nursing has attracted considerable attention as a focus for research and as a consequence multiple objects of nurses' stress, or 'stressors', have been identified. This paper puts into question the dominant conceptual and methodological approach to occupational stress in nursing research by both foregrounding the notion of anxiety and juxtaposing it with the notion of 'stress'. It is argued that the notion of 'stress' and the domination of the questionnaire have produced a narrow reading of the (...) topic. Some of the literature on occupational stress/anxiety in nursing is reviewed and our analysis illustrates how the identified objects of stress have a tendency to multiply contingent on the number of studies undertaken. Thus definitive objects of nurses' stress remain elusive. We argue that a return to the notion of 'anxiety' and methodological approaches other than empirical ones can bring both depth and breadth to the consideration of occupational distress in nursing. Further, we argue that the object of 'anxiety' is unconscious, thus unknown, and given this, a more informative approach is to map nurses' response to anxiety, the discursive formations arising out of anxiety, rather than attempt to define those objects of anxiety. (shrink)
In recent multicultural conflicts, such as the Danish Muhammad cartoons affair and the religious controversy about having a gay pride parade in the holy city of Jerusalem, religious minority members have argued that certain acts should be prohibited because they offend their religious and cultural feelings. According to the orthodox view in current liberal thought, however, there should be no legal protection from mere insult to feelings and sensibilities, as related to sacred religious and cultural values as they may be. (...) In this article I challenge this view. I argue that certain offensive acts ought to be legally regulated and propose a normative principle for their regulation, which is consistent with neutral liberalism. I argue that some claims of offence to feelings boil down to a struggle for equality in the public sphere between competing cultural identities. I conceptualize such claims as claims that purport to protect people’s right in the integrity of their cultural identity. I suggest the vulnerable cultural identity principle, according to which the more vulnerable the social and civic status of one’s cultural identity is, the stronger her claim is from integrity of cultural identity. I argue that this principle avoids the problems of legal moralism and the subjectivity in evaluating painful feelings. (shrink)
The relationship between Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) functional structures (f-structures) for sentences and their semanticinterpretations can be formalized in linear logic in a way thatcorrectly explains the observed interactions between quantifier scopeambiguity, bound anaphora and intensionality.Our linear-logic formalization of the compositional properties ofquantifying expressions in natural language obviates the need forspecial mechanisms, such as Cooper storage, in representing thescoping possibilities of quantifying expressions. Instead, thesemantic contribution of a quantifier is recorded as a linear-logicformula whose use in a proof will establish the (...) scope of thequantifier. Different proofs can lead to different scopes. In eachcomplete proof, the properties of linear logic ensure thatquantifiers are properly scoped. (shrink)
ABSTRACT: This paper highlights the difference between Lilian Bermejo-Luque’s account of warrants with the quite different accounts of warrants offered by Toulmin, Hitchcock, and myself, and lays out some of the reasons why I think a “Toulminesque” account of warrants captures crucial aspects of arguing more adequately than her account does.RESUMEN: Este artículo subraya la diferencia entre el análisis de los garantes que nos propone Lilian Bermejo-Luque con los de Toulmin, Hitchcok y el mío propio. Presento algunas razones por las (...) que pienso que un análisis toulminiano de los garantes capta mejor que el suyo algunos aspectos cruciales de la argumentación. (shrink)
Benefits and costs on prospective memory performance, of enactment at encoding and a semantic association between a cue-action word pair, were investigated in two experiments. Findings revealed superior performance for both younger and older adults following enactment, in contrast to verbal encoding, and when cue-action semantic relatedness was high. Although younger adults outperformed older adults, age did not moderate benefits of cue-action relatedness or enactment. Findings from a second experiment revealed that the inclusion of an instruction to perform a prospective (...) memory task led to increments in response latency to items from the ongoing activity in which that task was embedded, relative to latencies when the ongoing task only was performed. However, this task interference ‘cost’ did not differ as a function of either cue-action relatedness or enactment. We argue that the high number of cue-action pairs employed here influenced meta-cognitive consciousness, hence determining attention allocation, in all experimental conditions. (shrink)
A critical review of gravitational wave theory is made. It is pointed out that the usual linear approach to the gravitational wave theory is neither conceptually consistent nor mathematically justified. Relying upon that analysis it is argued that—analogously to a Yang-Mills propagating field, which must be nonlinear to carry its gauge charge—a gravitational wave must necessarily be nonlinear to transport its own charge—that is, energy-momentum.
We prove that a combinatorial consequence of the negation of the PCF conjecture for intervals, involving free subsets relative to set mappings, is not implied by even the strongest known large cardinal axiom.
In this paper we show the embedding of Hybrid Probabilistic Logic Programs into the rather general framework of Residuated Logic Programs, where the main results of (definite) logic programming are validly extrapolated, namely the extension of the immediate consequences operator of van Emden and Kowalski. The importance of this result is that for the first time a framework encompassing several quite distinct logic programming semantics is described, namely Generalized Annotated Logic Programs, Fuzzy Logic Programming, Hybrid Probabilistic Logic Programs, and Possibilistic (...) Logic Programming. Moreover, the embedding provides a more general semantical structure paving the way for defining paraconsistent probabilistic reasoning with a logic programming semantics. (shrink)
De Sousa's comprehensive two-part review of a diversity of contemporary approaches to the study of consciousness is highly welcome. He makes us aware of a proliferation of theoretical and empirical approaches targeting a common theme, but diverging in many ways. He skilfully accomplishes a classification of kinds of approach, identification of the main representatives, their contributions, and respective limitations. However, he does not show how the desired integration could be accomplished. Besides summarising De Sousa's efficient analytical work, I make critical (...) comments and briefly report my contribution for the integration project. (shrink)
Fazer uma abordagem na qual seja apresentada a análise crítica de Reid acerca da teoria da identidade pessoal de Locke constitui-se como o objetivo principal desse artigo. Tal análise aponta para duas consequências significativas: a) se a mesma consciência pode ser transferida de um ser inteligente para outro, então, dois ou vinte seres inteligentes podem ser a mesma pessoa; b) a de que um homem pode ser e, ao mesmo tempo, não ser a pessoa que praticou uma determinada ação. Tendo (...) como ponto de partida essas consequências, Reid explicitará algumas considerações em torno do assunto. (shrink)