Philosophy of Neuroscience

Edited by Robert Foley (University of Western Ontario)
Assistant editor: Michelle Thomas (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary The philosophy of neuroscience includes applications of neuroscience to philosophical problems as well as philosophical investigations of neuroscience. The application of neuroscience to philosophical problems (such as problems in philosophy of mind) is sometimes referred to as "neurophilosophy". The philosophical investigation of neuroscience is a sub-discipline of the philosophy of science.
Key works See the pioneering Churchland 1986 for an early overview of key themes in philosophy of neuroscience. Anthologies of note include Bickle 2009 and Bechtel et al 2001.
Introductions For a concise introductory overview, see Bickle et al 2006. See also Mandik & Brook 2007 and Bechtel et al 2001.
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  1. Moral Appraisal for Everyone: Neurodiversity, Epistemic Limitations, and Responding to the Right Reasons.Claire Field - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-34.
    De Re Significance accounts of moral appraisal consider an agent’s responsiveness to a particular kind of reason, normative moral reasons de re, to be of central significance for moral appraisal. Here, I argue that such accounts find it difficult to accommodate some neuroatypical agents. I offer an alternative account of how an agent’s responsiveness to normative moral reasons affects moral appraisal – the Reasonable Expectations Account. According to this account, what is significant for appraisal is not the content of the (...)
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  2. Is There an Aesthetic Brain? A Brief Essay on the Neuroaesthetic Quantification of Beauty.Paulo Alexandre E. Castro - 2021 - In Joaquim Braga (ed.), eQVODLibet. Coimbra, Portugal: pp. 127-138.
    It is possible today to determine, with some precision (according to the most recent studies in neuroscience and evolutionary psychology), the areas of the brain and the neural networks involved when an individual contemplates art, when feeling pleasure, or when judging about aesthetic experience. However, many questions remain open. First, the philosophical question about the subjective nature of this kind of judgments. Then, what happens in the mind (or should it be said, in the brain?) of the beholder when contemplating (...)
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  3. Public Value, Psychology, and Neuroscience.Hyemin Han - forthcoming - Journal of Public Value.
    Research on public value is inevitable interdisciplinary in its nature due to its aim and purpose. Both philosophical and empirical approaches are necessary to conduct such research in a successful manner. In the present paper, I intend to discuss the importance of empirical approaches in research on public values, particularly psychological and neuroscientific approaches with concrete examples. I proposed that such empirical approaches are essential in better understanding the processes and mechanisms associated with how people address issues engaging in public (...)
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  4. Does Neuroplasticity Support the Hypothesis of Multiple Realizability?Amber Maimon & Meir Hemmo - unknown
    It is commonly maintained that neuroplastic mechanisms in the brain provide empirical support for the hypothesis of multiple realizability. We show in various case studies that neuroplasticity stems from preexisting mechanisms and processes inherent in the neural structure of the brain. We argue that not only does neuroplasticity fail to provide empirical evidence of multiple realization, its inability to do so strengthens the mind-body identity theory. Finally, we argue that a recently proposed identity theory called Flat Physicalism can be enlisted (...)
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  5. A Neuroscience Levels of Explanation Approach to the Mind and the Brain.Edmund T. Rolls - forthcoming - Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience.
    The relation between mental states and brain states is important in computational neuroscience, and in psychiatry in which interventions with medication are made on brain states to alter mental states. The relation between the brain and the mind has puzzled philosophers for centuries. Here a neuroscience approach is proposed in which events at the sub-neuronal, neuronal, and neuronal network levels take place simultaneously to perform a computation that can be described at a high level as a mental state, with content (...)
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  6. The Neural Correlates of Effortful Cognitive Processing Deficits in Schizophrenia: An ERP Study.Chen-Guang Jiang, Jun Wang, Xiao-Hong Liu, Yan-Ling Xue & Zhen-He Zhou - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Individuals’ information processing includes automatic and effortful processes and the latter require sustained concentration or attention and larger amounts of cognitive “capacity.” Event-related potentials reflect all neural activities that are related to a certain stimulus. Investigating ERP characteristics of effortful cognitive processing in people with schizophrenia would be helpful in further understanding the neural mechanism of schizophrenia.Methods: Both schizophrenia patients and health controls completed ERP measurements during the performance of the basic facial emotion identification test and the face-vignette task. (...)
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  7. Case Report: Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert for Advanced Alzheimer's Disease.Wei Zhang, Wei Liu, Bhavana Patel, Yingchuan Chen, Kailiang Wang, Anchao Yang, Fangang Meng, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Shanshan Cen, John Yu, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora & Jianguo Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease experience cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in daily life. Currently, there are no treatments available to slow down the course of the disease, and limited treatments exist only to treat symptoms. However, deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert has been reported to improve cognitive function in individuals with AD. Here, we report the effects of NBM-DBS on cognitive function in a subject with severe AD. An 80-year-old male with severe AD underwent surgery (...)
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  8. Antiepileptic Efficacy and Network Connectivity Modulation of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation by Vertex Suppression.Cong Fu, Aikedan Aisikaer, Zhijuan Chen, Qing Yu, Jianzhong Yin & Weidong Yang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    A core feature of drug-resistant epilepsy is hyperexcitability in the motor cortex, and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a suitable treatment for seizures. However, the antiepileptic effect causing network reorganization has rarely been studied. Here, we assessed the impact of rTMS on functional network connectivity in resting functional networks and their relation to treatment response. Fourteen patients with medically intractable epilepsy received inhibitive rTMS with a figure-of-eight coil over the vertex for 10 days spread across two weeks. We designed (...)
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  9. Colors and Handles: How Action Primes Perception.Marcello Costantini, Davide Quarona & Corrado Sinigaglia - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    How deeply does action influence perception? Does action performance affect the perception of object features directly related to action only? Or does it concern also object features such as colors, which are not held to directly afford action? The present study aimed at answering these questions. We asked participants to repeatedly grasp a handled mug hidden from their view before judging whether a visually presented mug was blue rather than cyan. The motor training impacted on their perceptual judgments, by speeding (...)
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  10. Neural Biomarkers Distinguish Severe From Mild Autism Spectrum Disorder Among High-Functioning Individuals.Di Chen, Tianye Jia, Yuning Zhang, Miao Cao, Eva Loth, Chun-Yi Zac Lo, Wei Cheng, Zhaowen Liu, Weikang Gong, Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian & Jianfeng Feng - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Several previous studies have reported atypicality in resting-state functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder, yet the relatively small effect sizes prevent us from using these characteristics for diagnostic purposes. Here, canonical correlation analysis and hierarchical clustering were used to partition the high-functioning ASD group into subgroups. A support vector machine model was trained through the 10-fold strategy to predict Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores within the ASD discovery group, which was further validated in an independent sample. The neuroimage-based partition derived (...)
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  11. Dissociating Sensorimotor Recovery and Compensation During Exoskeleton Training Following Stroke.Nadir Nibras, Chang Liu, Denis Mottet, Chunji Wang, David Reinkensmeyer, Olivier Remy-Neris, Isabelle Laffont & Nicolas Schweighofer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The quality of arm movements typically improves in the sub-acute phase of stroke affecting the upper extremity. Here, we used whole arm kinematic analysis during reaching movements to distinguish whether these improvements are due to true recovery or to compensation. Fifty-three participants with post-acute stroke performed ∼80 reaching movement tests during 4 weeks of training with the ArmeoSpring exoskeleton. All participants showed improvements in end-effector performance, as measured by movement smoothness. Four ArmeoSpring angles, shoulder horizontal rotation, shoulder elevation, elbow rotation, (...)
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  12. What to Expect When the Unexpected Becomes Expected: Harmonic Surprise and Preference Over Time in Popular Music.Scott A. Miles, David S. Rosen, Shaun Barry, David Grunberg & Norberto Grzywacz - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Previous work demonstrates that music with more surprising chords tends to be perceived as more enjoyable than music with more conventional harmonic structures. In that work, harmonic surprise was computed based upon a static distribution of chords. This would assume that harmonic surprise is constant over time, and the effect of harmonic surprise on music preference is similarly static. In this study we assess that assumption and establish that the relationship between harmonic surprise and music preference is not constant as (...)
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  13. Sex Differences in Re-Experiencing Symptoms Between Husbands and Wives Who Lost Their Only Child in China: A Resting-State Functional Connectivity Study of Hippocampal Subfields.Yifeng Luo, Yu Liu, Zhao Qing, Li Zhang, Yifei Weng, Xiaojie Zhang, Hairong Shan, Lingjiang Li, Rongfeng Qi, Zhihong Cao & Guangming Lu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background: Losing one’s only child may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder, of which re-experiencing is the core symptom. However, neuroimaging studies of sex differences in re-experiencing in the context of the trauma of losing one’s only child and PTSD are scarce; comparisons of the functional networks from the hippocampal subfields to the thalamus might clarify the neural basis.Methods: Thirty couples without any psychiatric disorder who lost their only child, 55 patients with PTSD, and 50 normal controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic (...)
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  14. BCCT: A GUI Toolkit for Brain Structural Covariance Connectivity Analysis on MATLAB.Qiang Xu, Qirui Zhang, Gaoping Liu, Xi-Jian Dai, Xinyu Xie, Jingru Hao, Qianqian Yu, Ruoting Liu, Zixuan Zhang, Yulu Ye, Rongfeng Qi, Long Jiang Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang & Guangming Lu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Brain structural covariance network can delineate the brain synchronized alterations in a long-range time period. It has been used in the research of cognition or neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, causal analysis of structural covariance network, winner-take-all and cortex–subcortex covariance network, and modulation analysis of structural covariance network have expended the technology breadth of SCN. However, the lack of user-friendly software limited the further application of SCN for the research. In this work, we developed the graphical user interface toolkit of brain structural (...)
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  15. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Deep Brain Stimulation Think Tank: Advances in Optogenetics, Ethical Issues Affecting DBS Research, Neuromodulatory Approaches for Depression, Adaptive Neurostimulation, and Emerging DBS Technologies.Vinata Vedam-Mai, Karl Deisseroth, James Giordano, Gabriel Lazaro-Munoz, Winston Chiong, Nanthia Suthana, Jean-Philippe Langevin, Jay Gill, Wayne Goodman, Nicole R. Provenza, Casey H. Halpern, Rajat S. Shivacharan, Tricia N. Cunningham, Sameer A. Sheth, Nader Pouratian, Katherine W. Scangos, Helen S. Mayberg, Andreas Horn, Kara A. Johnson, Christopher R. Butson, Ro’ee Gilron, Coralie de Hemptinne, Robert Wilt, Maria Yaroshinsky, Simon Little, Philip Starr, Greg Worrell, Prasad Shirvalkar, Edward Chang, Jens Volkmann, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa, Andrea A. Kühn, Luming Li, Matthew Johnson, Kevin J. Otto, Robert Raike, Steve Goetz, Chengyuan Wu, Peter Silburn, Binith Cheeran, Yagna J. Pathak, Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Aysegul Gunduz, Joshua K. Wong, Stephanie Cernera, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Wissam Deeb, Addie Patterson, Kelly D. Foote & Michael S. Okun - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    We estimate that 208,000 deep brain stimulation devices have been implanted to address neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders worldwide. DBS Think Tank presenters pooled data and determined that DBS expanded in its scope and has been applied to multiple brain disorders in an effort to modulate neural circuitry. The DBS Think Tank was founded in 2012 providing a space where clinicians, engineers, researchers from industry and academia discuss current and emerging DBS technologies and logistical and ethical issues facing the field. The (...)
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  16. Distributed Functional Connectome of White Matter in Patients With Functional Dyspepsia.Qiang Xu, Yifei Weng, Chang Liu, Lianli Qiu, Yulin Yang, Yifei Zhou, Fangyu Wang, Guangming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang & Rongfeng Qi - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Purpose: We aimed to find out the distributed functional connectome of white matter in patients with functional dyspepsia.Methods: 20 patients with FD and 24 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included into the study. The functional connectome of white matter and graph theory were used to these participants. Two-sample t-test was used for the detection the abnormal graph properties in FD. Pearson correlation was used for the relationship between properties and the clinical and neuropshychological information.Results: Patients with FD and healthy (...)
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  17. Contextual Cueing Accelerated and Enhanced by Monetary Reward: Evidence From Event-Related Brain Potentials.Guang Zhao, Qian Zhuang, Jie Ma, Shen Tu & Shiyi Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The vital role of reward in guiding visual attention has been supported by previous literatures. Here, we examined the motivational impact of monetary reward feedback stimuli on visual attention selection using an event-related potential component called stimulus-preceding negativity and a standard contextual cueing paradigm. It has been proposed that SPN reflects affective and motivational processing. We focused on whether incidentally learned context knowledge could be affected by reward. Both behavior and brain data demonstrated that contexts followed by reward feedback not (...)
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  18. The Social Effects of Advances in Neuroscience: Legal Problems, Legal Perspectives.Henry Greely - 2005 - In Judy Illes (ed.), Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy. Oxford University Press.
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  19. Ethical Dilemmas in Neurodegenerative Disease: Respecting Patients at the Twlight of Agency.Agnieszka Jaworska - 2005 - In Judy Illes (ed.), Neuroethics: Defining the Issues in Theory, Practice, and Policy. Oxford University Press.
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  20. Can There Be a Cognitive Neuroscience of Central Cognitive Systems?Vinod Goel - 2005 - In Christina E. Erneling & David Martel Johnson (eds.), The Mind as a Scientific Object: Between Brain and Culture. Oup Usa.
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  21. Learning and Conceptual Change: The View From the Neurons.Paul M. Churchland - 1999 - In Andy Clark & Peter Millican (eds.), Connectionism, Concepts, and Folk Psychology: The Legacy of Alan Turing, Volume Ii. Clarendon Press.
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  22. On Thinking of Kinds: A Neuroscientific Perspective.Dan Ryder - 2006 - In Graham Macdonald & David Papineau (eds.), Teleosemantics. Clarendon Press.
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  23. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Patient Perspective.Chencheng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Xian Qiu, Yingying Zhang, Zhengyu Lin, Peng Huang, Yixin Pan, Eric A. Storch, Bomin Sun & Dianyou Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    BackgroundPublic health guidelines have recommended that elective medical procedures, including deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson’s disease, should not be scheduled during the coronavirus pandemic to prevent further virus spread and overload on health care systems. However, delaying DBS surgery for PD may not be in the best interest of individual patients and is not called for in regions where virus spread is under control and inpatient facilities are not overloaded.MethodsWe administered a newly developed phone questionnaire to 20 consecutive patients (...)
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  24. Spontaneous Activity in Primary Visual Cortex Relates to Visual Creativity.Yibo Wang, Junchao Li, Zengjian Wang, Bishan Liang, Bingqing Jiao, Peng Zhang, Yingying Huang, Hui Yang, Rengui Yu, Sifang Yu, Delong Zhang & Ming Liu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Cognitive and neural processes underlying visual creativity have attracted substantial attention. The current research uses a critical time point analysis to examine how spontaneous activity in the primary visual area is related to visual creativity. We acquired the functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 16 participants at the resting state and during performing a visual creative synthesis task. According to the CTPA, we then classified spontaneous activity in the PVA into critical time points, which reflect the most useful and important (...)
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  25. Morphological Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Structures in Multiple System Atrophy Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment.Chenghao Cao, Qi Wang, Hongmei Yu, Huaguang Yang, Yingmei Li, Miaoran Guo, Huaibi Huo & Guoguang Fan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate the morphometric alterations in the cortical and subcortical structures in multiple system atrophy patients with mild cognitive impairment, and to explore the association with cognitive deficits.MethodsA total of 45 MSA patients and 29 healthy controls were recruited. FreeSurfer software was used to analyze cortical thickness, and voxel-based morphometry was used to analyze the gray matter volumes. Cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes were correlated with cognitive scores.ResultsCompared to healthy controls, both MSA subgroups exhibited widespread (...)
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  26. Prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease Using a Random Forest Model Based on an Orthogonal Experimental Design: A Pilot Study.Zhonelue Chen, Gen Li, Chao Gao, Yuyan Tan, Jun Liu, Jin Zhao, Yun Ling, Xiaoliu Yu, Kang Ren & Shengdi Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to introduce an orthogonal experimental design to improve the efficiency of building and optimizing models for freezing of gait prediction.MethodsA random forest model was developed to predict FOG by using acceleration signals and angular velocity signals to recognize possible precursor signs of FOG. An OED was introduced to optimize the feature extraction parameters.ResultsThe main effects and interaction among the feature extraction hyperparameters were analyzed. The false-positive rate, hit rate, and mean prediction time were 27%, (...)
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  27. Functional Network Alterations as Markers for Predicting the Treatment Outcome of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Focal Epilepsy.Jiaxin Hao, Wenyi Luo, Yuhai Xie, Yu Feng, Wei Sun, Weifeng Peng, Jun Zhao, Puming Zhang, Jing Ding & Xin Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Background and PurposeTranscranial direct current stimulation is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique for focal epilepsy. Because epilepsy is a disease affecting the brain network, our study was aimed to evaluate and predict the treatment outcome of cathodal tDCS by analyzing the ctDCS-induced functional network alterations.MethodsEither the active 5-day, −1.0 mA, 20-min ctDCS or sham ctDCS targeting at the most active interictal epileptiform discharge regions was applied to 27 subjects suffering from focal epilepsy. The functional networks before and after ctDCS were (...)
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  28. A New Subject-Specific Discriminative and Multi-Scale Filter Bank Tangent Space Mapping Method for Recognition of Multiclass Motor Imagery.Fan Wu, Anmin Gong, Hongyun Li, Lei Zhao, Wei Zhang & Yunfa Fu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Objective: Tangent Space Mapping using the geometric structure of the covariance matrices is an effective method to recognize multiclass motor imagery. Compared with the traditional CSP method, the Riemann geometric method based on TSM takes into account the nonlinear information contained in the covariance matrix, and can extract more abundant and effective features. Moreover, the method is an unsupervised operation, which can reduce the time of feature extraction. However, EEG features induced by MI mental activities of different subjects are not (...)
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  29. Assessing the Effectiveness of Automated Emotion Recognition in Adults and Children for Clinical Investigation.Maria Flynn, Dimitris Effraimidis, Anastassia Angelopoulou, Epaminondas Kapetanios, David Williams, Jude Hemanth & Tony Towell - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
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  30. Social Exclusion Down-Regulates Pain Empathy at the Late Stage of Empathic Responses: Electrophysiological Evidence.Min Fan, Jing Jie, Pinchao Luo, Yu Pang, Danna Xu, Gaowen Yu, Shaochen Zhao, Wei Chen & Xifu Zheng - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Social exclusion has a significant impact on cognition, emotion, and behavior. Some behavioral studies investigated how social exclusion affects pain empathy. Conclusions were inconsistent, and there is a lack of clarity in identifying which component of pain empathy is more likely to be affected. To investigate these issues, we used a Cyberball task to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Two groups participated in the same pain empathy task while we recorded event-related potentials when participants viewed static images of body parts (...)
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  31. Structural and Functional Changes Are Related to Cognitive Status in Wilson’s Disease.Sheng Hu, Chunsheng Xu, Ting Dong, Hongli Wu, Yi Wang, Anqin Wang, Hongxing Kan & Chuanfu Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Patients with Wilson’s disease suffer from prospective memory impairment, and some of patients develop cognitive impairment. However, very little is known about how brain structure and function changes effect PM in WD. Here, we employed multimodal neuroimaging data acquired from 22 WD patients and 26 healthy controls who underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated gray matter volumes with voxel-based morphometry, DTI metrics using the fiber tractography method, and RS-fMRI using the seed-based (...)
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  32. Stable Anatomy Detection in Multimodal Imaging Through Sparse Group Regularization: A Comparative Study of Iron Accumulation in the Aging Brain.Matthew Pietrosanu, Li Zhang, Peter Seres, Ahmed Elkady, Alan H. Wilman, Linglong Kong & Dana Cobzas - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Multimodal neuroimaging provides a rich source of data for identifying brain regions associated with disease progression and aging. However, present studies still typically analyze modalities separately or aggregate voxel-wise measurements and analyses to the structural level, thus reducing statistical power. As a central example, previous works have used two quantitative MRI parameters—R2* and quantitative susceptibility —to study changes in iron associated with aging in healthy and multiple sclerosis subjects, but failed to simultaneously account for both. In this article, we propose (...)
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  33. Altered Frequency-Dependent Brain Activation and White Matter Integrity Associated With Cognition in Characterizing Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Stages.Siyu Wang, Jiang Rao, Yingying Yue, Chen Xue, Guanjie Hu, Wenzhang Qi, Wenying Ma, Honglin Ge, Fuquan Zhang, Xiangrong Zhang & Jiu Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    BackgroundSubjective cognitive decline, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and amnestic mild cognitive impairment are regarded to be at high risk of converting to Alzheimer’s disease. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations can reflect functional deterioration while diffusion tensor imaging is capable of detecting white matter integrity. Our study aimed to investigate the structural and functional alterations to further reveal convergence and divergence among SCD, naMCI, and aMCI and how these contribute to cognitive deterioration.MethodsWe analyzed ALFF under slow-4 and slow-5 bands and white matter (...)
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  34. Common and Specific Alterations of Amygdala Subregions in Major Depressive Disorder With and Without Anxiety: A Combined Structural and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.Yao Yao Li, Xiao Kang Ni, Ya Feng You, Yan hua Qing, Pei Rong Wang, Jia shu Yao, Ke Ming Ren, Lei Zhang, Zhi wei Liu, Tie jun Song, Jinhui Wang, Yu-Feng Zang, Yue di Shen & Wei Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Anxious major depressive disorder is a common subtype of major depressive disorder; however, its unique neural mechanism is not well-understood currently. Using multimodal MRI data, this study examined common and specific alterations of amygdala subregions between patients with and without anxiety. No alterations were observed in the gray matter volume or intra-region functional integration in either patient group. Compared with the controls, both patient groups showed decreased functional connectivity between the left superficial amygdala and the left putamen, and between the (...)
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  35. 7T MRI and Computational Modeling Supports a Critical Role of Lead Location in Determining Outcomes for Deep Brain Stimulation: A Case Report.Lauren E. Schrock, Remi Patriat, Mojgan Goftari, Jiwon Kim, Matthew D. Johnson, Noam Harel & Jerrold L. Vitek - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation is an established therapy for Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms. The ideal site for implantation within STN, however, remains controversial. While many argue that placement of a DBS lead within the sensorimotor territory of the STN yields better motor outcomes, others report similar effects with leads placed in the associative or motor territory of the STN, while still others assert that placing a DBS lead “anywhere within a 6-mm-diameter cylinder centered at the presumed middle of the (...)
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  36. Altered Dynamic Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Patients With Migraine Without Aura.Hong Chen, Guiqiang Qi, Yingxia Zhang, Ying Huang, Shaojin Zhang, Dongjun Yang, Junwei He, Lan Mu, Lin Zhou & Min Zeng - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Migraine is a chronic and idiopathic disorder leading to cognitive and affective problems. However, the neural basis of migraine without aura is still unclear. In this study, dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations analyses were performed in 21 patients with migraine without aura and 21 gender- and age-matched healthy controls to identify the voxel-level abnormal functional dynamics. Significantly decreased dALFF in the bilateral anterior insula, bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and left middle frontal cortex (...)
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  37. Right Temporoparietal Junction Plays a Role in the Modulation of Emotional Mimicry by Group Membership.Shenli Peng, Beibei Kuang, Ling Zhang & Ping Hu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Our prior research demonstrated that the right temporoparietal junction exerted a modulatory role in ingroup bias in emotional mimicry. In this study, two experiments were conducted to further explore whether the rTPJ is a neural region for emotional mimicry or for the modulation of emotional mimicry by group membership in a sham-controlled, double-blinded, between-subject design. Both experiments employed non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation to temporarily change the cortical excitability over the rTPJ and facial electromyography to measure facial muscle activations as (...)
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  38. Directly Exploring the Neural Correlates of Feedback-Related Reward Saliency and Valence During Real-Time fMRI-Based Neurofeedback.Bruno Direito, Manuel Ramos, João Pereira, Alexandre Sayal, Teresa Sousa & Miguel Castelo-Branco - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Introduction: The potential therapeutic efficacy of real-time fMRI Neurofeedback has received increasing attention in a variety of psychological and neurological disorders and as a tool to probe cognition. Despite its growing popularity, the success rate varies significantly, and the underlying neural mechanisms are still a matter of debate. The question whether an individually tailored framework positively influences neurofeedback success remains largely unexplored.Methods: To address this question, participants were trained to modulate the activity of a target brain region, the visual motion (...)
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  39. Logic as Marr's Computational Level: Four Case Studies.Giosuè Baggio, Michiel van Lambalgen & Peter Hagoort - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):287-298.
    We sketch four applications of Marr's levels‐of‐analysis methodology to the relations between logic and experimental data in the cognitive neuroscience of language and reasoning. The first part of the paper illustrates the explanatory power of computational level theories based on logic. We show that a Bayesian treatment of the suppression task in reasoning with conditionals is ruled out by EEG data, supporting instead an analysis based on defeasible logic. Further, we describe how results from an EEG study on temporal prepositions (...)
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  40. Revisiting the L-Dopa Response as a Predictor of Motor Outcomes After Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease.Zhengyu Lin, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Linbin Wang, Yingying Zhang, Haiyan Zhou, Qingfang Sun, Bomin Sun, Peng Huang & Dianyou Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between preoperative response to the L-dopa challenge test and efficacy of deep brain stimulation on motor function in Parkinson’s disease.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 38 patients with idiopathic PD who underwent DBS surgery with a median follow-up duration of 7 months. Twenty underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna DBS, and 18 underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS. The Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-Motor Part was assessed before surgery and at the last follow-up (...)
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  41. Brain Hemispheres Swap Dominance for Processing Semantically Meaningful Pitch.Xiao-Dong Wang, Hong Xu, Zhen Yuan, Hao Luo, Ming Wang, Hua-Wei Li & Lin Chen - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The question of what determines brain laterality for auditory cognitive processing is unresolved. Here, we demonstrate a swap of hemisphere dominance from right to left during semantic interpretation of Chinese lexical tones in native speakers using simultaneously recorded mismatch negativity response and behavioral reaction time during dichotic listening judgment. The mismatch negativity, which is a brain wave response and indexes auditory processing at an early stage, indicated right hemisphere dominance. In contrast, the behavioral reaction time, which reflects auditory processing at (...)
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  42. Functional Disconnection of the Angular Gyrus Related to Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.Fei Qi, Dongsheng Zhang, Jie Gao, Min Tang, Man Wang, Yu Su, Yumeng Lei, Zhirong Shao & Xiaoling Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is related to a variety of cognitive impairments that may even progress to dementia. Studies have found the angular gyrus is a cross-modal integration hub that is involved in a variety of cognitive processes. However, few studies have focused on the patterns of resting-state functional connections of the AG in patients with T2DM. This study explored the functional connection between the AG and the whole brain and the relationship between the FC and clinical/cognitive variables in patients (...)
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  43. Corrigendum: Evaluation of Glymphatic System Using Diffusion MR Technique in T2DM Cases.Guangwei Yang, Nan Deng, Yi Liu, Yingjiang Gu & Xiang Yao - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
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  44. A Look Into the Power of fNIRS Signals by Using the Welch Power Spectral Estimate for Deception Detection.Jiang Zhang, Jingyue Zhang, Houhua Ren, Qihong Liu, Zhengcong Du, Lan Wu, Liyang Sai, Zhen Yuan, Site Mo & Xiaohong Lin - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Neuroimaging technologies have improved our understanding of deception and also exhibit their potential in revealing the origins of its neural mechanism. In this study, a quantitative power analysis method that uses the Welch power spectrum estimation of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals was proposed to examine the brain activation difference between the spontaneous deceptive behavior and controlled behavior. The power value produced by the model was applied to quantify the activity energy of brain regions, which can serve as a neuromarker for (...)
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  45. Disrupted Subcortical-Cortical Connections in a Phonological but Not Semantic Task in Chinese Children With Dyslexia.Lihuan Zhang, Jiali Hu, Xin Liu, Emily S. Nichols, Chunming Lu & Li Liu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Reading disability has been considered as a disconnection syndrome. Recently, an increasing number of studies have emphasized the role of subcortical regions in reading. However, the majority of research on reading disability has focused on the connections amongst brain regions within the classic cortical reading network. Here, we used graph theoretical analysis to investigate whether subcortical regions serve as hubs during reading both in Chinese children with reading disability and in age-matched typically developing children using a visual rhyming judgment task (...)
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  46. Abnormal Static and Dynamic Local-Neural Activity in COPD and Its Relationship With Pulmonary Function and Cognitive Impairments.Zhi Lv, Qingqing Chen, Yinling Jiang, Panpan Hu, Lei Zhang, Tongjian Bai, Kai Wang, Yongsheng Wang & Xiaoyun Fan - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are characterized by attenuated pulmonary function and are frequently reported with cognitive impairments, especially memory impairments. The mechanism underlying the memory impairments still remains unclear. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the brain local activities with static and dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations among patients with COPD and healthy controls. Compared with HC, COPD patients exhibited decreased sALFF in the right basal ganglia and increased dALFF in the bilateral parahippocampal/hippocampal gyrus. The (...)
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  47. Causal Inferences in Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Research: Challenges and Perspectives.Justyna Hobot, Michał Klincewicz, Kristian Sandberg & Michał Wierzchoń - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14:574.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used to make inferences about relationships between brain areas and their functions because, in contrast to neuroimaging tools, it modulates neuronal activity. The central aim of this article is to critically evaluate to what extent it is possible to draw causal inferences from repetitive TMS data. To that end, we describe the logical limitations of inferences based on rTMS experiments. The presented analysis suggests that rTMS alone does not provide the sort of premises that are sufficient (...)
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  48. International Legal Approaches to Neurosurgery for Psychiatric Disorders.Jennifer A. Chandler, Laura Y. Cabrera, Paresh Doshi, Shirley Fecteau, Joseph J. Fins, Salvador Guinjoan, Clement Hamani, Karen Herrera-Ferrá, C. Michael Honey, Judy Illes, Brian H. Kopell, Nir Lipsman, Patrick J. McDonald, Helen S. Mayberg, Roland Nadler, Bart Nuttin, Albino J. Oliveira-Maia, Cristian Rangel, Raphael Ribeiro, Arleen Salles & Hemmings Wu - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders, also sometimes referred to as psychosurgery, is rapidly evolving, with new techniques and indications being investigated actively. Many within the field have suggested that some form of guidelines or regulations are needed to help ensure that a promising field develops safely. Multiple countries have enacted specific laws regulating NPD. This article reviews NPD-specific laws drawn from North and South America, Asia and Europe, in order to identify the typical form and contents of these laws and to (...)
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  49. The Force of Numbers: Investigating Manual Signatures of Embodied Number Processing.Alex Miklashevsky, Oliver Lindemann & Martin H. Fischer - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    The study has two objectives: to introduce grip force recording as a new technique for studying embodied numerical processing; and to demonstrate how three competing accounts of numerical magnitude representation can be tested by using this new technique: the Mental Number Line, A Theory of Magnitude and Embodied Cognition account. While 26 healthy adults processed visually presented single digits in a go/no-go n-back paradigm, their passive holding forces for two small sensors were recorded in both hands. Spontaneous and unconscious grip (...)
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  50. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Subcortical Brain Regions Resulting in Cognitive Enhancement.Ahsan Khan, Xin Wang, Chun Hang Eden Ti, Chun-Yu Tse & Kai-Yu Tong - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    Transcranial direct current stimulation has been widely utilized in research settings and modulates brain activity. The application of anodal tDCS on the prefrontal cortex has indicated improvement in cognitive functioning. The cingulate cortex, situated in the medial aspect of the prefrontal cortex, has been identified as a core region performing cognitive functions. Most of the previous studies investigating the impact of stimulation on the prefrontal cortex stimulated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, however, the impact of stimulation on cingulate has not been (...)
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