Phenomenology

Edited by Ammon Allred (University of Toledo)
About this topic
Summary Phenomenology refers to both a general branch of philosophy as well as a movement within the history of philosophy. As a branch of philosophy, phenomenology studies conscious experience from a perspective internal to it, elucidating the structures of lived experience, as well as the conditions under which it becomes meaningful. The historical movement called phenomenology is generally regarded as beginning with Edmund Husserl, who made phenomenological questions central to his entire philosophical approach, arguing that a phenomenological investigation of consciousness should ground philosophy construed broadly as well as the sciences.  Under the influence of a second generation of phenomenologists, most famously Martin Heidegger, the centrality of consciousness was often called into question.  Nonetheless, the name phenomenology continues to be used to describe the whole tradition that developed out of this Husserlian/Heideggerian framework.  As such, there have been "phenomenological" approaches to virtually every other branch of philosophy, including ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, etc.    In this regard, phenomenology remains one of the core movements that defines 20th century continental philosophy, where it is associated with adjacent (or sub) movements such as existentialism, phenomenological hermeneutics and deconstruction.
Key works Husserl was constantly formulating and reformulating the phenomenological project. Logical Investigations (Husserl 2000) was his first systematic approach to phenomenology.  Ideas (Husserl 1980) reformulated the project, introducing the core notion of the transcendental reduction.  The work of early phenomenologists such as Edith Stein (Stein 1964) and Max Scheler (Scheler 1992) on emotion, empathy and value theory helps to account for phenomenology's importance in the social sciences.  The Phenomenological Movement (Spiegelberg 1965) describes the work of Husserl and other early phenomenologists in great detail.  In the course of developing their own philosophical projects, subsequent generations would also reformulate how they understood phenomenology.  Edmund Husserl published Heidegger's Being and Time (Heidegger et al 1962) in order to help Heidegger secure Husserl's own chair at Freiburg.  It was only after its publication that he realized just how much Heidegger's approach to phenomenology departed from and revised his own.  Under the influence of both Husserl and Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness (Jean-Paul 1956) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty 1962), developed an existential phenomenology which dominated French intellectual thought in the mid twentieth century and which played a crucial role in introducing phenomenology to the English speaking world.  Jacques Derrida's work on Husserl early in his career, particularly his Introduction to the Origin of Geometry and Voice and Phenomena (Derrida 2011) demonstrated the continued importance of phenomenology to post-structuralism (despite the avowal of many other postructuralists). 
Introductions Husserl and Heidegger wrote an encyclopedia entry for phenomenology in Encyclopedia Brittanica (Heidegger 2009).  
Related categories
Subcategories:
Michel Henry (193)
Edmund Husserl (14,502 | 2,854)
Max Scheler (416)
History/traditions: Phenomenology

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  1. The Ego Amidst Power, Lies and Realities.Marcos Wagner Da Cunha - manuscript
    Starting from a critique of the Kantian condemnation of any and all lies, an analysis is made of the relationship between the decision to reveal the truth and the instances of power in which the subject is inserted. Given the introjection of power structures and their role in the deliberations of the Conscious Self, we conclude that lying implies a recognition of the power of the figure to whom one lies. The light act of lying results in irreparable damage to (...)
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  2. Celan and Heidegger at the Mountain of Death: Listening to Hope.Hagi Kenaan - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-14.
    In “Todtnauberg,” the poem in which Paul Celan responded to his encounter with Martin Heidegger, the concept of hope becomes central. The paper focuses on the ways in which hope figures in between...
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  3. The Ethos of Poetry: Listening to Poetic and Schizophrenic Expressions of Alienation and Otherness.Cathrine Bjørnholt Michaelsen - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-18.
    In the Letter of Humanism, Heidegger reinterprets the Greek notion of ethos as designating the way in which human beings dwell in the world through a “unifying” language. Through various down strok...
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  4. Listening to the Address of Existence.Bjarke Mørkøre Stigel Hansen - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-20.
    The aim of this essay is to reflect on the place and importance of the question of address and to show how it comes to the fore in Søren Kierkegaard’s writings. What shall be attempted, with regard...
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  5. Hegel and Derrida on Spirit’s Temporality.Cyprian Gawlik - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-16.
    This paper confronts G.W.F Hegel and Jacques Derrida in terms of their insights regarding the temporality of spirit. The context for the confrontation is Derrida’s deconstruction of the Husserlian...
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  6. Political Emotions and Political Atmospheres.Lucy Osler & Thomas Szanto - forthcoming - In Dylan Trigg (ed.), Shared Emotions and Atmospheres. London, UK:
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  7. Phenomenology and Medical Devices.Pat McConville - 2021 - In Susi Ferrarello (ed.), Phenomenology of Bioethics: Technoethics and Lived-Experience. Springer. pp. 23-32.
    Phenomenology has a rich tradition of interpreting technology, medicine, and the life sciences. It has not yet had much to say about the medical devices which have always been central to bioethics. In this chapter, I outline what is meant by medical devices, and connect the sense of intention in made-object design with the notion of intentionality in phenomenology. I survey three basicways of characterising medical devices grounded in the phenomenological literature: Albert Borgmann’s device paradigm, Don Ihde’s human-machine relations, and (...)
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  8. Modal History Versus Counterfactual History: History as Intention.Vasil Penchev - 2021 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 14 (22):1-8.
    The distinction of whether real or counterfactual history makes sense only post factum. However, modal history is to be defined only as ones’ intention and thus, ex-ante. Modal history is probable history, and its probability is subjective. One needs phenomenological “epoché” in relation to its reality (respectively, counterfactuality). Thus, modal history describes historical “phenomena” in Husserl’s sense and would need a specific application of phenomenological reduction, which can be called historical reduction. Modal history doubles history just as the recorded history (...)
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  9. Bergson and the Kantian Concept of Intensive Magnitude.Florian Vermeiren - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-14.
    Bergson’s critique of intensive magnitude in Time and Free Will mainly targets Kant’s “Anticipations of Perception”, in which the Kantian distinction between matter and form is lowered. Bergson pra...
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  10. Review of Lawrence J. Hatab, Proto‑Phenomenology, Language Acquisition, Orality, and Literacy: Dwelling in Speech II. [REVIEW]Chris Drain - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20:1-8.
  11. The Genesis of Action in Husserl’s Studien Zur Struktur des Bewusstseins.Nicola Spano - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-15.
    In the present article, I discuss Husserl’s analysis of the genesis of action in the Husserliana edition Studien zur Struktur des Bewusstseins. My aim is to clarify how a “voluntary action” has its...
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  12. Expanding the Active Mind.Jan Slaby - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-17.
    What I call the active mind approach revolves around the claim that what is “on” a person’s mind is in an important sense brought on and held on to through the agent’s self-conscious rational activ...
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  13. Magic, Emotion and Practical Metabolism: Affective Praxis in Sartre and Collingwood.Tom Greaves - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-22.
    This article develops a new way of understanding the integration of emotions in practical life and the practical appraisal of emotions, drawing on insights from both J-P. Sartre and R. G. Collingwo...
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  14. Bodily Saturation and Social Disconnectedness in Depression.Lucy Osler - forthcoming - Phenomenology and Mind.
    Individuals suffering from depression consistently report experiencing a lack of connectedness with others. David Karp (2017, 73), in his memoir and study of depression, has gone so far to describe depression as “an illness of isolation, a disease of disconnectedness”. It has become common, in phenomenological circles, to attribute this social impairment to the depressed individual experiencing their body as corporealized, acting as a barrier between them and the world around them (Fuchs 2005, 2016). In this paper, I offer an (...)
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  15. Controlling the Noise: A Phenomenological Account of Anorexia Nervosa and the Threatening Body.Lucy Osler - 2021 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 28 (1):41-58.
    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a complex disorder characterised by self-starvation, an act of self-destruction. It is often described as a disorder marked by paradoxes and, despite extensive research attention, is still not well understood. Much AN research focuses upon the distorted body image that individuals with AN supposedly experience. However, based upon reports from individuals describing their own experience of AN, I argue that their bodily experience is much more complex than this focus might lead us to believe. Such research (...)
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  16. (Un)Wanted Feelings in Anorexia Nervosa: Making the Visceral Body Mine Again.Lucy Osler - 2021 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 28 (1):67-69.
    In my article "Controlling the noise," I present a phenomenological investigation of bodily experience in anorexia nervosa. Turning to descriptions of those who have suffered from AN, which repeatedly detail the experience of finding their bodies threatening, out of control and noisy, I suggest that the phenomenological conceptions of body-as-object, body-as-subject and visceral body can help us unpack the complex bodily experience of AN throughout its various stages. My claim is that self-starvation is enacted by a bodily-subject who wishes to (...)
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  17. A Review of Dreyfus on Heidegger's Critique of Husserl's Intentionality.Napoleon M. Mabaquiao - 2009 - Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy (Philippine e-journal) 38 (1):84-104.
    This essay primarily disputes Dreyfus’s account of Heidegger’s critique of Husserl’s theory of intentionality. Specifically, it raises objections to the three central claims of such an account; namely: (1) that Searle’s theory of intentional action can be used as a stand-in for Husserl’s; (2) that Heidegger rejects the primordiality of the intentionality of consciousness; and (3) that Heidegger distinguishes between conscious and unconscious types of intentional actions and he privileges the latter over the former. I show the first to be (...)
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  18. "Hubert Dreyfus: Skillful Coping and the Nature of Everyday Expertise".Justin F. White - 2020 - In Christopher Erhard & Tobias Keiling (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Phenomenology of Agency. Routledge. pp. 219–234.
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  19. Prevention of Disease and the Absent Body: A Phenomenological Approach to Periodontitis.Dylan Rakhra & Māra Grīnfelde - forthcoming - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
    A large part of contemporary phenomenology of medicine has been devoted to accounts of health and illness, arguing that they contribute to the improvement of healthcare. Less focus has been paid to the issue of prevention of disease and the associated difficulty of adhering to health-promoting behaviours, which is arguably of equal importance. This article offers a phenomenological account of this disease prevention, focusing on how we – as embodied beings – engage with health-promoting behaviours. It specifically considers how we (...)
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  20. Introduction: The Phenomenological Method Today.Anthony Vincent Fernandez & Steven Crowell - forthcoming - Continental Philosophy Review:1-3.
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  21. Transitions: Crossing Boundaries in Japanese Philosophy.Leon Krings, Francesca Greco & Yukiko Kuwayama (eds.) - 2021 - Nagoya: Chisokudō.
    The tenth volume of the Frontiers of Japanese Philosophy focuses on the theme of “transition,” dealing with transitory and intermediary phenomena and practices such as translation, transmission, and transformation. Written in English, German and Japanese, the contributions explore a wide range of topics, crossing disciplinary borders between phenomenology, linguistics, feminism, epistemology, aesthetics, political history, martial arts, spiritual practice and anthropology, and bringing Japanese philosophy into cross-cultural dialogue with other philosophical traditions. As exercises in “thinking in transition,” the essays reveal novel (...)
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  22. Love’s Resistance: Heidegger and the Problem of First Philosophy.Ricky DeSantis - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-14.
    This paper offers a reading of passages in Heidegger’s Nietzsche lectures in which Heidegger describes love as a feeling which grants an essential vision. I contend that by invoking this language of vision while simultaneously contrasting love with infatuation, Heidegger is implicitly attempting to situate love within his category of fundamental attunements. While Heidegger does not explicitly follow this thought through, I argue that doing so leads to a problem—namely, how can love be a fundamental attunement if such attunements are (...)
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  23. “The Permanent Truth of Hedonist Moralities”: Plato and Levinas on Pleasures.Tanja Staehler & Alexander Kozin - 2021 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 52 (2):137-154.
    ABSTRACT Levinas maintains that there is a lasting significance to hedonism if we consider the important role of pleasures for our embodied existence. In this essay, we go back to Plato to explore the nature of pleasure, different kinds of pleasures, and their contribution to the good life. The good life is a considerate mixture of pleasures which requires knowing, understanding and remembering. Pleasures take us to the most basic level of existence which the Presocratics can help us understand through (...)
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  24. Being in Flux: A Post-Anthropocentric Ontology of the Self.Rein Raud - forthcoming - Cambridge, UK: Polity Books.
    Reality exists independently of human observers, but does the same apply to its structure? Realist ontologies usually assume so: according to them, the world consists of objects, these have properties and enter into relations with each other, more or less as we are accustomed to think of them. -/- Against this view, Rein Raud develops a radical process ontology that does not credit any vantage point, any scale or speed of being, any range of cognitive faculties with the privilege to (...)
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  25. Heidegger Zum Ereignis-Denken (GA73): An Index.Daniel Fidel Ferrer - manuscript
    Copyright©Daniel Fidel Ferrer, 2018. 1. Heidegger, Martin, -- 1889-1976. 2. Heidegger, Martin, -- 1889-1976 -- Concordances. 3. Heidegger, Martin, -- 1889-1976 -- Indexes. 4). Metaphysics. 5). Philosophy, German. 6). Philosophy, German – Greek influences. 7). Heidegger, Martin; -- Wörterbuch. 8). Ontology. 9). Heidegger, Martin, -- 1889-1976 -- Concordances. 10). Heidegger, Martin, 1889–1976—Homes and haunts— Germany—Todtnauberg. I. Ferrer, Daniel Fidel, 1952-. Language: English (Preface and Introduction). Language: German (Main Index). Includes bibliographical references. Cover graphics by Shawn Rodriguez. Motto At the beginning (...)
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  26. Heidegger’s Relative Essentialism.Timothy J. Nulty - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-21.
    There is relatively little comprehensive treatment of Heidegger’s theory of essences despite his ubiquitous use of essences. It is commonplace in contemporary analytic philosophy to view essences a...
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  27. Melancholic Joy: On Life Worth Living.Brian Treanor - 2021 - London, UK: Bloomsbury.
    See the external link on this entry for a "widget" supplied by Bloomsbury, which will give you access to the first chapter. -/- Today, we find ourselves surrounded by numerous reasons to despair, from loneliness, suffering and death at an individual level to societal alienation, oppression, sectarian conflict and war. No honest assessment of life can take place without facing up to these facts and it is not surprising that more and more people are beginning to suspect that the human (...)
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  28. Le jeu rituel. Contribution à une phénoménologie de la mémoire corporelle.Gabor Csepregi - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (36):97-118.
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  29. Levinas and the Question of Method in Phenomenology.James Dodd - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (36):65-95.
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  30. Le survenir de l’art.Éliane Escoubas - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (36):39-48.
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  31. Entre le vide et l’événement pur.Claude Romano - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (36):5-37.
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  32. L’événement du désir.Marlène Zarader - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (36):49-64.
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  33. Phénoménologie française, tradition surréaliste et identité de l’Europe.Manlio Iofrida - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (35):51-70.
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  34. L’idée de réduction chez Fichte et Husserl.Olivier Lahbib - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (35):99-115.
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  35. Avant-propos.Bernard Stevens - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (36):3-3.
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  36. L’humanité juive.Michel Deguy - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (35):29-50.
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  37. Husserl’s Breakthrough Revisited.Rosemary R. P. Lerner - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (35):71-98.
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  38. Sur une manière française.Denis Guénoun - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (35):5-28.
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  39. Avant-propos.La rédaction - 2002 - Études Phénoménologiques 18 (35):3-3.
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  40. Rejecting Dreyfus’ Introspective ‘Phenomenology’. The Case for Phenomenological Analysis.Alexander A. Jeuk - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20 (1):117-137.
    I argue that Hubert Dreyfus’ work on embodied coping, the intentional arc, solicitations and the background as well as his anti-representationalism rest on introspection. I denote with ‘introspection’ the methodological malpractice of formulating ontological statements about the conditions of possibility of phenomena merely based on descriptions. In order to illustrate the insufficiencies of Dreyfus’ methodological strategy in particular and introspection in general, I show that Heidegger, to whom Dreyfus constantly refers as the foundation of his own work, derives ontological statements (...)
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  41. Review: Perception and its Development in Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology. [REVIEW]Dimitris Apostolopoulos - 2017 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2017.
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  42. Phenomenological Themes in Aron’s Philosophy of History.Dimitris Apostolopoulos - 2021 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 59 (1):113-143.
    Aron’s writings are lauded for their contributions to liberal political theory, international relations, and sociology. I argue that his early thought also offers phenomenological considerations for a relativist view of historical meaning, whose important role in the text’s argument has been suppressed by received interpretations. Drawing a direct link between introspective, intersubjective, and historical understanding, Aron argues that the “objectification” of intentions necessarily transforms their meaning. This impedes an objective account of historical subjects’ lived experience. Some of the Introduction’s appraisals (...)
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  43. Sens et langue chez Heidegger.Pol Vandevelde - 2003 - Études Phénoménologiques 19 (37):149-174.
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  44. La décapitation de I'art. Interrogations phénoménologiques sur l'art contemporain.Pierre Rodrigo - 2003 - Études Phénoménologiques 19 (37):197-219.
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  45. Les mains du logos et la voix de I'être.Martina Roesner - 2003 - Études Phénoménologiques 19 (37):85-114.
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  46. On the Way to Being. Heidegger and the Phenomenological Reduction.Einar Øverenget - 2003 - Études Phénoménologiques 19 (37):51-83.
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  47. La Critique de la Perception Interne de Brentano À Heidegger.Denis Seron - 2003 - Études Phénoménologiques 19 (37):115-147.
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  48. The Clearing and its Truth.Daniel Dahlstrom - 2003 - Études Phénoménologiques 19 (37):3-25.
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  49. Brain Control Interfaces in the Coming Age of Trans-Humans: Philosophical and Regulatory Mappings.Aayush Shankar - manuscript
    This article discusses the Philosophical and Regulatory mappings of Brain Control Interfaces in the coming age of Trans-humans. The author combines perspectives from Material Engagement theory, Don Ihde’s post-phenomenological perspective and Veerback’s cyborg intentionality on human-technology relations and juxtaposes this post-phenomenological hybrid-intentionality on upcoming BCI such as Neuralink. Taking the hybrid-intentionality as point of departure, the author then develops Regulatory approaches and principles in context of the normative harms borne out of such transfiguration while also highlighting these key harms.
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  50. A Phenomenology of the Devout Life: A Philosophy of Christian Life, Part I by GeorgePattison (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), Ix + 220 Pp. [REVIEW]Lee C. Barrett - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (1):215-217.
    A Phenomenology of the Devout Life offers a phenomenological approach to the kind of Christian spirituality set out in François de Sales’s Introduction to the Devout Life but with parallels in other movements in both Protestant and Catholic spirituality. Situating the subject in relation to contemporary philosophical discussions of selfhood, the book arrives at a view of the devout self as essentially motivated by an affective orientation towards God that, via the experience of temptation and the practice of humility, subordinates (...)
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