Edited by Ammon Allred (University of Toledo)
About this topic
Summary Phenomenology refers to both a general branch of philosophy as well as a movement within the history of philosophy. As a branch of philosophy, phenomenology studies conscious experience from a perspective internal to it, elucidating the structures of lived experience, as well as the conditions under which it becomes meaningful. The historical movement called phenomenology is generally regarded as beginning with Edmund Husserl, who made phenomenological questions central to his entire philosophical approach, arguing that a phenomenological investigation of consciousness should ground philosophy construed broadly as well as the sciences.  Under the influence of a second generation of phenomenologists, most famously Martin Heidegger, the centrality of consciousness was often called into question.  Nonetheless, the name phenomenology continues to be used to describe the whole tradition that developed out of this Husserlian/Heideggerian framework.  As such, there have been "phenomenological" approaches to virtually every other branch of philosophy, including ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, etc.    In this regard, phenomenology remains one of the core movements that defines 20th century continental philosophy, where it is associated with adjacent (or sub) movements such as existentialism, phenomenological hermeneutics and deconstruction.
Key works Husserl was constantly formulating and reformulating the phenomenological project. Logical Investigations (Husserl 2000) was his first systematic approach to phenomenology.  Ideas (Husserl 1980) reformulated the project, introducing the core notion of the transcendental reduction.  The work of early phenomenologists such as Edith Stein (Stein 1964) and Max Scheler (Scheler 1992) on emotion, empathy and value theory helps to account for phenomenology's importance in the social sciences.  The Phenomenological Movement (Spiegelberg 1965) describes the work of Husserl and other early phenomenologists in great detail.  In the course of developing their own philosophical projects, subsequent generations would also reformulate how they understood phenomenology.  Edmund Husserl published Heidegger's Being and Time (Heidegger 1967) in order to help Heidegger secure Husserl's own chair at Freiburg.  It was only after its publication that he realized just how much Heidegger's approach to phenomenology departed from and revised his own.  Under the influence of both Husserl and Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness (Jean-Paul 1956) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty 1962), developed an existential phenomenology which dominated French intellectual thought in the mid twentieth century and which played a crucial role in introducing phenomenology to the English speaking world.  Jacques Derrida's work on Husserl early in his career, particularly his Introduction to the Origin of Geometry and Voice and Phenomena (Derrida 2011) demonstrated the continued importance of phenomenology to post-structuralism (despite the avowal of many other postructuralists). 
Introductions Husserl and Heidegger wrote an encyclopedia entry for phenomenology in Encyclopedia Brittanica (Heidegger 2009).  
Related categories
Michel Henry (180)
Edmund Husserl (13,957 | 2,878)
Max Scheler (380)
History/traditions: Phenomenology

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  1. Impure Phenomenology: Dilthey, Epistemology, and Interpretive Psychology.Eric S. Nelson - 2010 - Studia Phaenomenologica 2010:19-44.
  2. Science and Wisdom.Maurice Cranston - 1995 - Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 7 (1-2):30-48.
  3. Bruce B. Janz (Ed.): Place, Space and Hermeneutics. [REVIEW]Sanna Lehtinen - 2018 - Phenomenological Reviews 4.
  4. Literature and the Expressions of Being in Merleau-Ponty’s Unpublished Course Notes.Lovisa Andén - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-12.
    ABSTRACTIn this article I examine Merleau-Ponty’s understanding of the relation between literature, being and perception. I focus especially on two of Merleau-Ponty’s courses at Collège de France: the first course, Le monde sensible et le monde de l’expression, and the unpublished course Sur le problème de la parole. In the former Merleau-Ponty presents a new understanding of perception, according to which being is expressed in perception through the style of movement of the perceived phenomenon. In the latter he advances a (...)
  5. Miłość i samotność. Wokół myśli Sørena Kierkegaarda.Grzegorz Uzdański Przemysław Bursztyka, Maciej Kaczyński, Maciej A. Sosnowski (ed.) - 2007 - Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
  6. The Interstices of Reality. [REVIEW]Przemysław Bursztyka - 2018 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 1 (3):112-122.
  7. "Szczeliny w nieskończoność..." Brunona Schulza metafizyka śladu.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2014 - In Joanna Michalik & Przemysław Bursztyka (eds.), Schulz: między mitem a filozofią. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Słowo/Obraz Terytoria. pp. 123-153.
  8. Doświadczenie zewnętrza. Jean-Luc Mariona próba radykalizacji projektu fenomenologicznego.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2011 - In Joanna Michalik (ed.), Kultura i metoda. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo ENETEIA. pp. 97-124.
  9. Fenomen i przedstawienie. Francuska estetyka fenomenologiczna - założenia/zastosowania/konteksty.Iwona Lorenc, Mateusz Salwa & Piotr Schollenberger (eds.) - 2012 - Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN.
  10. Granice widzialnego. Jeana Luca Mariona fenomenologiczna koncepcja idola.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2012 - In Iwona Lorenc, Mateusz Salwa & Piotr Schollenberger (eds.), Fenomen i przedstawienie. Francuska estetyka fenomenologiczna - założenia/zastosowania/konteksty. Warszawa, Polska: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN. pp. 287-313.
  11. Teleology and World From Different Perspectives: Philosophy of Mind and Transcendental Phenomenology.Rodolfo Giorgi & Danilo Manca - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (34).
    During the last century, most philosophers of science have tried to expunge teleological explanations from the fields of epistemology. They took for granted that the Darwinian concepts of natural selection and evolution effectively dispense us with any presence of goal-directedness in nature: based on an anti-metaphysical attitude, they hold purposes and goals to be of religious and spiritual nature, thereby obstacles to any effective comprehension of biological processes. Accordingly, teleological categories have been abandoned in many ways in favor of mechanical (...)
  12. Phenomenology of Language in a 4e-World.Andrew Inkpin - 2016 - In Jack Alan Reynolds & Richard Sebold (eds.), Phenomenology and Science. New York, USA: Palgrave. pp. 141-159.
    In recent years there has been much productive interaction between phenomenological authors and work in (‘4e’) cognitive science emphasizing the embodied, embedded, enactive and extended nature of cognition. These interactions have centred on areas of interest common to phenomenology and philosophy of mind, such as embodiment or first-personal experience, with language receiving relatively little attention. This paper aims to broaden these interactions by showing how phenomenology of language complements systematic empirical theories in the 4e tradition. It begins by outlining a (...)
  13. Flesh and Body: The Phenomenology of Husserl.Hannah Berry - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-2.
  14. Husserl Et le Jeune Heidegger Sur L’Intentionnalité de Valeur Pratique Et Sociale: De L’Enroulement Intentionnel a L’Auto-Suffisance de la Vie.Paul Slama - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:231-254.
    This paper examines how practical intentionality is described by Husserl and Heidegger respectively, and looks at the phenomenological and sociological issues of these descriptions. In Husserl, the phenomenological reduction reveals that the practices of the world involve two intentionalities which wrap one inside the other. The foundation of this dynamic is a theoretical intentionality: there are always reasons which make it possible to understand why such and such an object is surrounded by such and such a value. In the early (...)
  15. Resistance of the Sensible World an Introduction to Merleau-Ponty.Gerald Cipriani - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-4.
  16. Reprises du Donné.Cătălina Condruz - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:369-371.
  17. Husserl Handbuch. Leben – Werk – Wirkung.Christian Ferencz-Flatz - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:371-374.
  18. Übersetzungshermeneutik. Historische und systematische Grundlegung.Saša Hrnjez - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:380-383.
  19. La métaphysique chez Merleau-Ponty. Première partie : phénoménologie et métaphysique; Seconde partie : métaphysique et ontologie.Miklos Vetö - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:375-380.
  20. Endo-Ontology and the Later Merleau-Ponty’s Thoughts on Space-Time.Michel Dalissier - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:303-328.
    In this paper, I consider the idea of space-time in its philosophical specificity. Such an approach must satisfy three main conditions. First, the inquiry must meditate on the link epitomized by the hyphen in the expression “space-time”. Second, it must not reduce either space to time or time to space, but must instead explore the significance of their in-between-ness and of their interweaving reality. Third, the inquiry must rid itself of any priority of space over time or of time over (...)
  21. Das „Ich“ als „Alibi der Wahrheit“ bei Jacques Lacan: Zum Verhältnis von Cogito und Begehren in der Psychoanalyse.Rolf Kühn - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:345-366.
    In Lacan’s perspective, the cogito is unable to account for the separation between desire and language for the individual. The fundamental difference pertaining to the signifier makes it impossible for the enunciation to ever coincide with what is enunciated. Therefore no final knowledge of self, being and reality is possible within the framework of the imaginary-symbolic life-world. This analysis, which is decisive for the therapeutic process, is then confronted with a radical-phenomenological critique that questions Lacan’s presuppositions about alterity from the (...)
  22. Verantwortung in Gottes Grund: Zur Bedeutung der genetischen Phänomenologie in ethischer und religionsphilosophischer Perspektive.Tammo Mintken - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:207-228.
    Many genetic approaches in philosophy, psychology or sociology lead to a partially or fully deterministic understanding of the self and its position-taking. In this article, I argue that Husserl’s view of genesis differs broadly from such deterministic conceptions, as he investigates the genesis as the awakening of consciousness as consciousness or spirit as spirit. Husserl claims that the passive foundation of conscious life is the topsoil of activity and rational position-taking. But still the genetic process of the awakening of the (...)
  23. Husserl et le jeune Heidegger sur l’intentionnalité de valeur pratique et sociale.Paul Slama - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:231-254.
    This paper examines how practical intentionality is described by Husserl and Heidegger respectively, and looks at the phenomenological and sociological issues of these descriptions. In Husserl, the phenomenological reduction reveals that the practices of the world involve two intentionalities which wrap one inside the other. The foundation of this dynamic is a theoretical intentionality: there are always reasons which make it possible to understand why such and such an object is surrounded by such and such a value. In the early (...)
  24. Le monde comme champ pré-individuel: Jacques Garelli, critique de Heidegger.Ovidiu Stanciu - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:277-302.
    The purpose of this enquiry is to lay out the core features of Garelli’s conception of the world as a “pre-individual field,” as they emerge from his confrontation with Heidegger’s thought. In the first part, I am exploring Garelli’s interpretation of the “poetical expression” and the consequences he draws from it with regard to the process of “worlding”. Then, I am restating his criticism with regard to the concept of the world Heidegger developed within the framework of “fundamental ontology” and (...)
  25. Die „Verkehrte Welt“: Er-Örterung Raumtheoretischer Dimensionen der Flucht.Giovanni Tidona - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:329-344.
    The discourse on escaping is primarily directed towards the who of escape. The question of what and how of escaping in its cultural-anthropological significance is usually neglected. The present paper claims to overcome this inadequacy by exploring escape eo ipso and as a spatial-theoretical phenomenon. For this purpose, it is necessary to rethink escape as a triple articulated phenomenological topology based on three vectors: escape as a start, escape as a transition and escape as a destination/refuge. The escape-vectors play the (...)
  26. Destruktion und formale Anzeige: Zur Erläuterung der methodischen Grundlage des frühen Heidegger am Beispiel der Bestimmungen von Geschichte und Philosophie.Hongjian Wang - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:255-275.
    From the hermeneutics of facticity to phenomenological destruction, Heidegger’s constant effort has been to achieve a non-metaphysical, pre-theoretical methodology of philosophy. His ideas finally lead to the development of the method of formal indication. In this essay, I will consider first the methodological function of historical things, in order to illustrate the method of destruction. Then, I will explain the definition of philosophy from the point of view of formal indication, thereby showing how different this method is from traditional philosophical (...)
  27. Language and Tradition in Merleau-Ponty’s Reading of Husserl and Saussure.Lovisa Andén - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:183-205.
    In this paper, I examine how Merleau-Ponty develops Husserl’s genetic phenomenology through an elaboration of language, which is largely influenced by Saussure’s linguistics. Specifically, my focus will be on the unpublished notes to the course Sur le problème de la parole. I show how Merleau-Ponty recasts Husserl’s notion of the historicity of truth by means of an inquiry into the relation between truth and its linguistic expression. The account that Merleau-Ponty offers differs from Husserl’s in two important respects. Firstly, whereas (...)
  28. Introduction: Notes on a Troubled Reception History.Christian Ferencz-Flatz & Andrea Staiti - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:11-30.
  29. Husserls Phänomenologie biologischer Generativität.Peter Gaitsch - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:129-152.
    The present article intends to show that genetic phenomenology, as conceived by Edmund Husserl, implies an essential biological dimension. In his later research manuscripts, from the 1920s and 1930s, Husserl not only reflects on the conceivability of forms of intropathy regarding animal and plant bodies, based on dismantling reduction, but also on the embeddedness of the human monad in ontogenetic and phylogenetic generative becoming. On that basis, the article aims to locate the place of bio-generative phenomena within the field of (...)
  30. Roman Ingarden: phénoménologie génétique et ontologie réaliste.Olivier Malherbe - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:153-181.
    Roman Ingarden, one of Husserl’s most gifted students, devoted several thousand pages to the development of an ontological, epistemological, aesthetical and even anthropological framework that would allow him to firmly reject the so-called “idealistic turn” of his master Husserl. This paper aims at reconstructing an often overlooked side of his philosophy: his theory of consciousness and his analysis of the constitutive process involved in sense perception. After emphasizing the distinctive character of Ingarden’s ontological frame and its impact on understanding concepts (...)
  31. Motivational Analysis in Husserl’s Genetic Phenomenology.Alice Pugliese - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:91-108.
    The paper discusses motivation as the inner lawfulness of consciousness and a central methodological principle of genetic phenomenology, highlighting the problem of its ambiguous status oscillating between a historical-empirical and a transcendental account of consciousness. The focus on motivation allows for the practical character of intentionality to emerge, thus presenting genetic phenomenology as a more comprehensive approach to subjective life which takes into account its constitutive indeterminacy.
  32. Die Verteilung und Fortpflanzung der Affektion in der Wahrnehmung nach Husserl.Honghe Wang - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:71-90.
    Affection in perception does not exhaust itself in a single subjective act of turning-towards an object. Husserl’s analyses of the propagation of affection in perception, which have not been systematically or thoroughly thematized up until now, offer a much more complex picture of affection, which this article brings to the fore. The affective power distributes itself irregularly in perception. The differentiation of perceptual field into foreground and background prepares the field for the investigation of the distribution of affections. This investigation (...)
  33. Interest and Pregivenness in Husserl’s Genealogy of Logic.Tarjei Larsen - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:49-70.
    The problem of accounting for the cognitively relevant relation between experience and thought is among the defining problems of modern philosophy. I suggest that addressing this problem provides an important motive for the “genealogy of logic” that Husserl outlines in his posthumously published Experience and Judgment. Arguing that the notions of “interest” and “pregivenness” are crucial to this approach, I seek to assess it through a detailed analysis of the use to which these notions are put in its most decisive (...)
  34. On Some Motives for Husserl’s Genetic Turn in His Research on a Foundation of the Geisteswissenschaften.Dieter Lohmar - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:31-48.
    My contribution tries to outline some of the motives that lead Husserl to genetic phenomenology. The starting point are the analyses he wrote to include in Ideas I and Ideas II, which are dedicated to the founding of human sciences during the period 1910–1916. Here we find an intertwinement of investigations concerned with an understanding of others and their contribution to the constitution of objectivity, and new research of the genesis of the way in which individual experience shapes our access (...)
  35. The Phantasmatic Reality: A Phenomenological Study of the Cinematic Imagination.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2017 - In Christine Reeh & José Manuel Martins (eds.), Thinking Reality and Time through Film. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 35-47.
  36. Pomiędzy doświadczeniem zależności a psychozą. Problem podmiotu w fenomenologii J.- L. Mariona.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2017 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 102 (2):195-212.
  37. La phénoménologie de la vie chez Erwin Straus.Charles Bobant - 2018 - Études Phénoménologiques 2:199-215.
    This paper focuses on Erwin Straus' phenomenology of life. I start by clarifying its object - the human being - and its purpose - to found a human nosology. I then reframe two well-known aspects of his thought. First, the "primary animal situation" which includes many conceptual dualities (animal/human, sensing/perceiving, landscape/geography, life-world/world of perception, schizophrenia/melancholy) as well as a major philosophical proposition: the identity between sensing and movement. Second, I took at the I-World relation, understood by Straus as a relation (...)
  38. Heidegger, Dreyfus, and the Intelligibility of Practical Comportment.Leslie A. MacAvoy - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):68-86.
  39. A Phenomenological Grounding of Feminist Ethics.Anya Daly - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):1-18.
    ABSTRACTThe central hypothesis of this paper is that the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty offers significant philosophical groundwork for an ethics that honours key feminist commitments – embodiment, situatedness, diversity and the intrinsic sociality of subjectivity. Part I evaluates feminist criticisms of Merleau-Ponty. Part II defends the claim that Merleau-Ponty’s non-dualist ontology underwrites leading approaches in feminist ethics, notably Care Ethics and the Ethics of Vulnerability. Part III examines Merleau-Ponty’s analyses of embodied percipience, arguing that these offer a powerful critique of the (...)
  40. Patočka and Foucault: Taking Care of the Soul and Taking Care of the Self.Vladislav Suvák - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):19-36.
    ABSTRACTThe paper deals with Jan Patočka’s and Michel Foucault’s influential interpretations of the ancient Greek approach to care. At first sight, it might seem that Foucault’s care of the self is opposed to Patočka’s care of the soul. On closer reading, however, it becomes clear that the two interpretations lead to similar conclusions, as exemplified by the way the two authors interpret Plato’s Laches: both of them see it in relation to the issue of how to live one’s life. Further (...)
  41. The Relevance of Fink’s Notion of Operative Concepts for Derrida’s Deconstruction.Pietro Terzi - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):50-67.
    ABSTRACTIn the literature on Derrida’s philosophical formation, the name of Eugen Fink is usually forgotten. When it is recalled, it is most often because of his 1930s articles on phenomenology. In this paper, I claim on the contrary that Fink’s writings exerted a lasting influence on Derrida’s thought, well beyond his early phenomenological works. More specifically, I focus on a 1957 paper presented at a conference on Husserl’s thought where Fink formulates an important distinction between operative and thematic concepts. By (...)
  42. Merleau-Ponty and the Radical Sciences of Mind.Robin M. Muller - forthcoming - Synthese:1-35.
    In this paper, I critically reconstruct the development of Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and “radical embodied cognitive science” out of Berlin-School Gestalt theory. I first lay out the basic principles of Gestalt theory and then identify two ways of revising that theory: one route, followed by enactivism and ecological psychology, borrows Gestaltist resources to defend a pragmatic ontology. I argue, however, that Merleau-Ponty never endorses this kind of ontology. Instead, I track his second route toward an ontology of “flesh.” I show how (...)
  43. On the Subject Matter of Phenomenological Psychopathology.Anthony Vincent Fernandez & Allan Køster - forthcoming - In Giovanni Stanghellini, Matthew Broome, Anthony Vincent Fernandez, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrea Raballo & René Rosfort (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Phenomenological Psychopathology.
    “On the Subject Matter of Phenomenological Psychopathology” provides a framework for the phenomenological study of mental disorders. The framework relies on a distinction between (ontological) existentials and (ontic) modes. Existentials are the categorial structures of human existence, such as intentionality, temporality, selfhood, and affective situatedness. Modes are the particular, concrete phenomena that belong to these categorial structures, with each existential having its own set of modes. In the first section, we articulate this distinction by drawing primarily on the work of (...)
  44. Merleau-Ponty and the Ethics of Intersubjectivity, Written by Anya Daly.Susi Ferrarello - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):247-251.
  45. Erwin Straus: Suggestion and Hypnosis.Stephen J. Rojcewicz & James A. Beshai - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):197-213.
  46. On Attachment: The View From Developmental Psychology, Written by Ian Rory Owen.Idun Røseth - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):257-260.
  47. Studying the Intentionality of Human Being.Casper Feilberg, Annelise Norlyk & Kurt Dauer Keller - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):214-246.
  48. Merleau-Ponty on the Mirror Stage: Affect and the Genesis of the Body Proper in the Sorbonne Lectures.Shiloh Whitney - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):135-163.
  49. The Incompatibility of Phenomenological Data and Dominant Nosological Systems Like DSM-5: Binswanger’s Psychopathological Phenomenology.Albert-Jan van de Pol & Jan Derksen - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):164-196.
  50. Carnal Hermeneutics, Edited by Richard Kearney & Brian Treanor.Richard Rojcewicz - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):252-256.
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