RESUMO Com base na noção de currículo como uma arena de embates discursivos, este artigo tem por objetivo principal analisar de que modo a Base Nacional Comum Curricular de Língua Portuguesa e Literaturas compreende os conceitos de fruição e de leitor-fruidor. Com efeito, é nossa intenção compreender como a ideia de leitura literária é proposta por esse documento oficial curricular. Para tanto, as habilidades e conteúdos indicados pela Base Nacional Comum Curricular foram analisados a partir de uma perspectiva metodológica interpretativista (...) e sob a perspectiva dialógica de análise do discurso desenvolvida pelo Círculo de Bakhtin. ABSTRACT Based on the notion of curriculum as an arena of discursive clashes, this paper aims at verifying how the Base Nacional Comum Curricular [Common Core] for Portuguese Language and Literature understands the concepts of fruition and reader-in-fruition. Indeed, it is our intention to understand the very idea of literary reading proposed by this official curriculum document. For this purpose, the skills and contents indicated by BNCC were analyzed from an interpretive research methodology view and under the dialogic perspective for discourse analysis developed by the Bakhtin Circle. (shrink)
At the height of the COVID-19 crisis in the Netherlands a shortness of intensive care beds was looming. Dutch professional medical organizations asked a group of ethicists for assistance in drafting guidelines and criteria for selection of patients for intensive care treatment in case of absolute scarcity, when medical selection criteria would no longer suffice. This article describes the Dutch context, the process of drafting the advice and reflects on the role of ethicists and lessons learned. We argue that timely (...) interaction between clinical and ethical expertise is necessary since the distinction between medical and non-medical considerations is not as clearcut as sometimes assumed. Furthermore, pragmatic considerations related to the specifics of an epidemic are of importance, for example, in relation to prioritizing health care workers. As a consequence, any protocol already present before the pandemic would need alterations to fit the current situation. The ‘fair innings’ criterion we proposed, rephrased as an argument of intergenerational solidarity, was considered reasonable by professionals as well as patient organizations. While it is desirable to draft ethical guidelines in ‘peacetime’ as a matter of pandemic preparedness, the pressure of an actual crisis facilitates decision-making, although it will also complicate a more democratic approach. (shrink)
Blood service organizations employ various ways to ensure transfusion blood safety, including the testing of all donations for transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI) and the exclusion of donors who are at increased risk of a recent infection. As some TTIs are more common among men who have sex with men (MSM), many jurisdictions (temporarily) defer the donation of blood by sexually active MSM. This boils down to a categorical exclusion of a large group solely on the basis of their sexual orientation, which (...) is seen as unduly discriminatory and stigmatizing. Blood service organizations in the U.K. and the Netherlands have recently changed their deferral policies for MSM. The problem of the MSM deferral involves a conflict between fundamental rights: the right of MSM to equal treatment and the right to health of the recipients of blood and blood products. We distinguish and discuss three broad alternative options to the current categorical deferral of MSM donations: (1) completely abandoning donor selection on the basis of sexual behavior, (2) individual risk assessment of the sexual activities of each potential donor, and (3) individual risk assessment of the sexual activities of MSM only. The new U.K. policy falls within the second category, and the new Dutch policy is in the third category. We argue that each approach comes with moral costs but that the most reasonable option is different from the policies of both the U.K. and the Netherlands. (shrink)
The article focuses on one of the central themes of Gabriel Marcel’s thought: the afterlife and the presence of the dead. Marcel approaches such a “mystery” through his plays, one of the most important aspects of his thought.
This ar ti cle pres ents cer tain el e ments of what has been called the lan guage phi los o phy of Wittgenstein ac cord ing to re cent stud ies car ried out in sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics. Among these el e ments, a prag matic vi sion of lan guage and inter-sub jec tive forms of life..
A la recherche du temps perdu van Proust lezen is binnen een reflectie op de zintuiglijkheid niets minder dan een feest. We raken via de rijke evocaties en metaforen in de werkelijkheid van oorden en plekken ondergedompeld. Dat wil zeggen dat we zelf deel gaan uitmaken van hun lijfelijkheid en bijgevolg van hun eigen tijd. In de reflectie genieten we van een ‘ont-plooiing’ van het sensuele, van een verlangen naar wereldlijkheid. Een tegenpool vinden we in het latere werk van Beckett. (...) Zijn wereld schijnt af te sterven, het lichaam-subject vergaat, de oorden en plekken verschrompelen, de dingen vervreemden en de gebeurtenissen zijn nog slechts accidenten waarvan de reikwijdte niet meer te verwoorden valt. Er is een ‘in-plooiing’ van het sensuele. De woorden sterven. De wereld ‘ontwereldlijkt’. (shrink)