Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Nazarbayev University)
About this topic
Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1953, the articles in Wasserman et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1990 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are van Inwagen 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and Armstrong 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1904, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1998 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2008, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
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  1. Pitagorejczycy, albo pochwała metafizyki.Jerzy Gołosz - 2021 - Filozofia i Nauka 1 (9):251-276.
    This paper attempts to demonstrate that the conviction about the harmony and order of the world was a fundamental metaphysical principle of the Pythagoreans. This harmony and order were primarily sought in the structures of arithmetics, yet following the discovery of incommensurable magnitudes (irrational numbers, as we now call them), the Pythagoreans began to see geometrical structure as a fundamental part of the world. On the example of the Pythagoreans’ metaphysics and science, the paper shows the mutual relations between metaphysics (...)
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  2. Mathematics is Ontology? A Critique of Badiou's Ontological Framing of Set Theory.Roland Bolz - 2020 - Filozofski Vestnik 2 (41):119-142.
    This article develops a criticism of Alain Badiou’s assertion that “mathematics is ontology.” I argue that despite appearances to the contrary, Badiou’s case for bringing set theory and ontology together is problematic. To arrive at this judgment, I explore how a case for the identification of mathematics and ontology could work. In short, ontology would have to be characterised to make it evident that set theory can contribute to it fundamentally. This is indeed how Badiou proceeds in Being and Event. (...)
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  3. Counterfactuals of Ontological Dependence.Sam Baron - 2022 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 8 (2):278-299.
    A great deal has been written about 'would' counterfactuals of causal dependence. Comparatively little has been said regarding 'would' counterfactuals of ontological dependence. The standard Lewis-Stalnaker semantics is inadequate for handling such counterfactuals. That's because some of these counterfactuals are counterpossibles, and the standard Lewis-Stalnaker semantics trivializes for counterpossibles. Fortunately, there is a straightforward extension of the Lewis-Stalnaker semantics available that handles counterpossibles: simply take Lewis's closeness relation that orders possible worlds and unleash it across impossible worlds. To apply the (...)
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  4. Seyn, ἕν, 道: Brevis tractatus meta-ontologicus de elephantis et testudinibus.Florian Marion - 2022 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 119 (1):1-51.
    The question of ontological foundation has undergone a noteworthy revival in recent years: metaphysicians today quarrel about how exactly to understand the asymmetrical and hypertensional relationship of grounding. One of the reasons for this revival is that the old quantificationalist meta-ontology inherited from Quine has been effectively criticised by leading philosophers favourable to a meta-ontology, the aim of which is to come to know “which facts/items ground (constitute the base of) which other facts/items”, thus to examine the relation of ontological (...)
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  5. The Structure of Nothingness: A Prelude to a Theory of the Absolute.Haikel Mubarek - manuscript
    Among the possible options for the origin of the universe the most sensible one is nothingness, because it is without a need for any other beginning. It must be possible for nothingness to have a structure so that we can speak about it. The structure of nothingness can be constructed by using inward-outward vanishing points, with a guiding principle of conservation of nothingness. When taken all at once, the inward-outward vanishing points remain as they are—nothing; but when they are taken (...)
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  6. Abstract Events in Semantics.Gilles Kassel - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-18.
    Here, we defend the thesis whereby the event plays a main role of sense in the meaning of certain sentences. This thesis is based on the one hand on recent work in the metaphysics of so-called “happening” entities, which has led to a distinction between concrete physical processes and abstract events, the latter being conceived as psychological constructs accounting for stabilities or changes in the world. Furthermore, we look back at the work on intentionality carried out in the Brentanian school (...)
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  7. L'ontologie du virtuel.Alexandre Declos - 2022 - Klēsis Revue Philosophique 52:1-25.
    David Chalmers a récemment soutenu que la réalité virtuelle est réelle, plutôt que fictionnelle. Dans cet article, j’examine les implications ontologiques de ce « réalisme virtuel ». Comme je le suggère, cette position s’associe naturellement à une ontologie algorithmique, qui identifie les objets virtuels à des structures de données comprises de manière fonctionnelle. Je présente ensuite plusieurs objections à cette ontologie algorithmique. Tant que celles-ci ne sont pas réglées, la question de l’identité des mondes et des objets virtuels reste encore (...)
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  8. Bradley’s Relation Regress and the Inadequacy of the Relata-Specific Answer.Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen - forthcoming - Acta Analytica:1-15.
    F. H. Bradley’s relation regress poses a difficult problem for metaphysics of relations. In this paper, we reconstruct this regress argument systematically and make its presuppositions explicit in order to see where the possibility of its solution or resolution lies. We show that it cannot be answered by claiming that it is not vicious. Neither is one of the most promising resolutions, the relata-specific answer adequate in its present form. It attempts to explain adhence (relating), which is a crucial component (...)
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  9. World and Logic.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - London, Vereinigtes Königreich: College Publications.
    What is the relationship between the world and logic, between intuition and language, between objects and their quantitative determinations? Rationalists, on the one hand, hold that the world is structured in a rational way. Representationalists, on the other hand, assume that language, logic, and mathematics are only the means to order and describe the intuitively given world. In World and Logic, Jens Lemanski takes up three surprising arguments from Arthur Schopenhauer’s hitherto undiscovered Berlin Lectures, which concern the philosophy of language, (...)
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  10. Heraclitean Flux Metaphysics.Andrew Dennis Bassford - forthcoming - Metaphysica: International Journal for Ontology and Metaphysics.
    This essay offers an original interpretation and defense of the doctrine of flux, as it is presented in Plato’s Theaetetus. The methodology of the paper’s analysis is in the style of rational reconstruction, and it is highly analytic in scope, in the sense that I will focus on the text itself, and only on certain parts of it too, while ignoring the rest of Plato’s extensive corpus, and without worrying about whether, how, and to what extent the interpretation of the (...)
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  11. Irreducibly Collective Existence and Bottomless Nihilism.Jonas Werner - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-16.
    This paper develops the metaphysical hypothesis that there are irreducibly collective pluralities, pluralities of objects that do not have a singular object among them. A way to formulate this hypothesis using plural quantification will be proposed and the coherence of irreducibly collective existence will be defended. Furthermore, irreducibly collective existence will be shown to allow for bottomless scenarios that do not involve things standing in relations of parthood. This will create logical space for an anti-atomistic form of mereological nihilism.
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  12. Poststructuralism and Transcendental Philosophy: Derrida’s Différance.James Cartlidge - forthcoming - Kritikos.
    This paper examines how Jacques Derrida appropriates and deepens Immanuel Kant’s transcendental philosophy. In Derrida’s early essay on différance, Kant is conspicuous in his absence. One of the essay’s key aims is to re-think space and time, drawing on the work of Heidegger, Hegel, Nietzsche, and several others to do so. It is therefore curious that Kant is never mentioned, especially because the method and conceptual framework Derrida ends up adopting owes a huge debt to transcendental arguments. Derrida posits a (...)
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  13. Paraphrasability and the Causal Status of Types.Alexey Aliyev - forthcoming - Theoria.
    Some are attracted to the view that repeatable artworks, such as films, novels, plays, symphonies, photographs, and the like, are a particular kind of abstracta—namely, types. This view, however, is not unproblematic. One of the most serious problems it faces is the so-called "creation problem." The core idea behind this problem is that, on the one hand, it seems reasonable to accept the claims that (1) repeatable artworks are types, (2) types cannot be created, and (3) repeatable artworks are created, (...)
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  14. Fundamental Ontology and Kurdish Experience Toward an Openness (in Kurdish).Dara Mostowfi - 2022 - academia.
    The Fundamental Ontology and Kurdish experience toward an openness is the title of the webinar series which was held by Radio Kurdistan in August 1,5 and 9, 2021. Here is a brief introduction of the whole text in English. This project aimed to familiarize those interested and to provide basic ideas about phenomenological research. Now this book consists of four contiguous sections:.
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  15. Thus Spoke Pushpa.Venkata Rayudu Posina - manuscript
    There is a lesson from the woods--Bollywood, Kollywood, Mollywood, and Tollywood--of make-believe, which speaks to the core concern of science: the practice of science. Puspha, an Indian movie that brought the movie industry to its senses, with its global popularity has this to say: Be thyself; keep it real. Situated in a remote region aeons apart from the vast concrete and intimate plastic world we are familiar with, the happenings in the distanct and alien universe of discourse--a hamlet adjacent to (...)
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  16. Quine Vs. Quine: Abstract Knowledge and Ontology.Gila Sher - 2020 - In Frederique Janssen-Lauret (ed.), Quine, Structure, and Ontology. Oxford: Oxford. pp. 230-252.
    How does Quine fare in the first decades of the twenty-first century? In this paper I examine a cluster of Quinean theses that, I believe, are especially fruitful in meeting some of the current challenges of epistemology and ontology. These theses offer an alternative to the traditional bifurcations of truth and knowledge into factual and conceptual-pragmatic-conventional, the traditional conception of a foundation for knowledge, and traditional realism. To make the most of Quine’s ideas, however, we have to take an active (...)
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  17. Equations Vs. Qualations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    A *qualation* does not contain merely references to qualia, but contains actual qualia. There are many differences to equations. Qualations are irreducibly 1st-person and are required for the statement of a hard problem.
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  18. An epistemological challenge to ontological bruteness.Joshua Matthan Brown - 2022 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 91 (1):23-41.
    It is often assumed that the first stage of many classical arguments for theism depends upon some version of the Principle of Sufficient Reason being true. Unfortunately for classical theists, PSR is a controversial thesis that has come under rather severe criticism in the contemporary literature. In this article, I grant for the sake of argument that every version of PSR is false. Thus, I concede with the critics of PSR, that it is possible that there is, at least, one (...)
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  19. Genders as Genres: Understanding Dynamic Categories.Alex Thinius - 2021 - Dissertation, University of Amsterdam
    What does it mean to be of a particular gender? I answer this question with an account of genders as dynamic categories, exploring the analogy between what genders are (e.g., men or women) and what genres are (e.g., Novels, Ballads, or Hip-Hop). For instance, due to its relation to other and earlier pieces, we recognize, e.g., a particular song as Hip-Hop. However, the piece will also develop that genre further. Likewise, e.g., the category of men emerges, persists and transforms through (...)
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  20. On Blass Translation for Leśniewski’s Propositional Ontology and Modal Logics.Takao Inoué - 2022 - Studia Logica 110 (1):265-289.
    In this paper, we shall give another proof of the faithfulness of Blass translation of the propositional fragment \ of Leśniewski’s ontology in the modal logic \ by means of Hintikka formula. And we extend the result to von Wright-type deontic logics, i.e., ten Smiley-Hanson systems of monadic deontic logic. As a result of observing the proofs we shall give general theorems on the faithfulness of B-translation with respect to normal modal logics complete to certain sets of well-known accessibility relations (...)
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  21. The Unity of Dependence.Jack Casey - 2022 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association (2):1-18.
    Most philosophers treat ontological dependence and metaphysical dependence as distinct relations. A number of key differences between the two relations are usually cited in support of this claim: ontological dependence's unique connection to existence, differing respective connections to metaphysical necessitation, and a divergence in their formal features. Alongside reshaping some of the examples used to maintain the distinction between the two, I argue that the additional resources offered by the increased attention the notion of grounding has received in recent years (...)
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  22. The Metaphysics of Physics From the Perspective of Sri Aurobindo’s Cosmology.Marco Masi - manuscript
    We review the spiritual cosmology of the 20th-century Indian mystic and yogi Sri Aurobindo. Our aim is twofold. First to furnish a basic philosophical understanding of Aurobindo’s vision, and secondly, that of making a comparative analysis with present scientific knowledge that could furnish an alternative metaphysical interpretation of the physical world. The rationale of our study is to question whether the observation of the physical world from the standpoint of the mystic experience could suggest some new theoretical framework for the (...)
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  23. El sentido de La docta ignorancia desde su reconstrucción crítica: la propuesta de un pluralismo religioso y la reestimación del cosmos.Daniel Caballero López - 2022 - Devenires 1 (45):9-40.
    El presente artículo tiene por propósito construir una interpretación de La docta ignorancia de Nicolás de Cusa que articula su contexto histórico-cultural con la obra para ofrecer un sentido: la limitación de la razón humana para aprehender una verdad absoluta y las propuestas de una armonía interreligiosa y una reestimación del cosmos como consecuencias. Ello implica (I) reconstruir el horizonte sobre el cual surge y con el cual dialoga Nicolás de Cusa; (II) elaborar una interpretación crítica de La docta ignorancia (...)
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  24. Fondamenti sonori del logos. Distribuzioni di senso all'interno dell'impero visuale.Elia Gonnella - 2020 - Illuminazioni. Rivista di Lingua, Letteratura E Comunicazione 54:48-74.
    The relationship between knowledge and vision seems really consolidated. It started in ancient Greece and we can found its basis in Plato. The history of logos as reason and as western foundation of culture gives us enormous examples in terms of metaphors and approaches in the knowledge-vision relationship. «I see it» is like «I know it». However if we look at the basis of logos we find the deep meaning of gathering, composition, bond and bind (lèghein), so as to we (...)
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  25. Aproximación a la ontología de Markus Gabriel y Graham Harman.Manuel Ángel González Berruga - 2022 - Madrid: Apeirón Ediciones.
    El objetivo del presente trabajo es ofrecer una aproximación al modelo ontológico de Markus Gabriel y Graham Harman, adheridos al movimiento del nuevo realismo o realismo especulativo, destacando los aciertos e insuficiencias que presentan los modelos. La tesis del trabajo defiende que los aportes de Markus Gabriel y Graham Harman sobre ontología suponen un cambio de perspectiva que aporta elementos para la reflexión y crítica que permiten superar algunos de los elementos en los que se había anclado la filosofía continental, (...)
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  26. Striving (Conatus).Valtteri Viljanen - manuscript
    The entry on striving (conatus) for the Cambridge Spinoza Lexicon, edited by Karolina Hübner and Justin Steinberg. This is the October 2021 draft; please do not quote, but comments are very welcome.
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  27. Milet Okulu Doğa Filozofları Bağlamında Tanrının İmkânı.Alper Bilgehan Yardımcı - 2016 - Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi 9 (43):1329-1333.
    Bu makalede Milet Okulu Filozofları ve ilk materyalistler olarak anılan Thales, Anaksimandros ve Anaksimenes’in ontolojileriyle ilişkili olarak arkhe arayışı içerisinde tanrıyla ilgili görüşlerine yer verilecektir. Bazı düşünürler tarafından tanrı tanımaz olarak nitelendirilen Miletli filozofların evrenin ilk maddesi nedir sorusuna vermiş oldukları yanıtların aslında o dönemki Antik Yunan din anlayışıyla bazı önemli noktalarda bağdaştığı gösterilecektir. Makalenin sonunda bu düşünürlerin kendilerine ait bir teoloji ve tanrı düşüncesine sahip oldukları sonucuna varılacaktır. -/- In this article, ideas of the Milesian philosophers; Thales, Anaximandros and (...)
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  28. Ontologia del tra. Metamorfosi e incontro per un’antropologia fenomenologica.Elia Gonnella - 2021 - Itinera - Rivista di Filosofia E di Teoria Delle Arti 22:227-258.
    Metamorphosis seems problematic for our occidental point of view. Becoming in general is viewed as an error or exception by our classic standpoint. In fact, it is strongly against identity and law of non-contradiction: A is fundamentally something different from B and for A it is impossible to be at the same time B. We need to think A as what-becomes-B in order to make metamorphosis possible. Anyway, how can A become B? As a matter of fact, this very claim (...)
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  29. What You Are and Its Affects on Moral Status: Godman's Epistemology and Morality of Human Kinds, Gunkel's Robot Rights, and Schneider on Artificial You.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2021 - Human Rights Review 22 (4):525-531.
    Thanks to mounting discussion about projected technologies’ possibly altering the species mentally and physically, philosophical investigation of what human beings are proceeds robustly. Many thinkers contend that whatever we are has little to do with how we should behave. Yet, tampering with what the human being is may tread upon human rights to be whatever one is. Rights given in widely recognized documents such as the U.N. Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples assume what humans are and need depends (...)
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  30. Am Abgrund des Nichts und des Gotteswesens. Über das Problem einer angemessen fundierten Erklärung der Schöpfung und des Ursprungs des Universums.Luka Perušić - 2020 - In Damir Smiljanić (ed.), Gotteshinterfragungen. Philosophische Beiträge zur Religionskritik. Aschaffenburg, Germany: pp. 243-293.
    Die zentralen Fragestellungen bezüglich der wahren Beschaffenheit des Universums betreffen Folgendes: seinen Ursprung, seine Entstehung, die Existenz und Kontingenz seiner Gesetze, seine Intentionalität, Fassbarkeit, Transzendenz und die Anwendung erster Grundsätze, die diesen Phänomenen zugrunde liegen. Häufig sind die entsprechenden Untersuchungen jedoch belastet von (1) einer „semantischen Transmutation“ von Konzepten und Begriffen zwischen und innerhalb von drei allgemeinen Wissensfeldem - dem physikalischen, philosophischen und theologischen - sowie von (2) den Einschränkungen der anfänglichen Leitgedanken des Betrachters, die oft von skeptischen Annahmen geleitet (...)
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  31. Um estudo sobre os universais em Ideias I.Nathalie de la Cadena - 2017 - Aoristo International Journal of Phenomenology, Hermeneutics and Metaphysics 1 (2):43-62.
    A questão dos universais permanece tema na filosofia tanto na ontologia como na epistemologia. Em Husserl, há universais particulares, o ‘X’ noemático, o idêntico, e universais stricto sensu, nomes universais atemporais. Neste artigo, apresento o tema conforme analisado por Husserl em Ideias I. Na primeira seção, descrevo a trajetória até os universais destacando o paralelismo entre noese e noema. Na segunda seção, traço o reflexo para a filosofia da linguagem também afetada pela correspondência noético-noemática. Na terceira e última seção, mostro (...)
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  32. Prison Break? In Defense of Correlationism.Emanuel Rutten - manuscript
    A core presumption of object oriented ontology and other speculative realisms is that there is a world independent of the mind that can be successfully inquired and should take center stage in our reflections again. A profound case for this realist presumption is found in Meillassoux’s After Finitude. He aims to secure our access to reality as it is in itself by refuting correlationism according to which we cannot escape reality as it is thought by us. He presents three arguments: (...)
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  33. Spinoza’s Actualist Model of Power.Valtteri Viljanen - 2009 - In Juhani Pietarinen & Valtteri Viljanen (eds.), The World as Active Power: Studies in the History of European Reason. Leiden: Brill. pp. 213–228.
    In addition to the notion of power (potentia), Spinoza employs the notion of power of acting (agendi potentia), especially in the Ethics. This raises the question, if Spinoza uses both ‘power’ and ‘power of acting’, what is the difference between the two? What else could power be, for Spinoza, but power of acting? What is the relationship between power and activity in his system? This essays aims at giving answers to these questions; thereby emerges what may be called an actualist (...)
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  34. A Primer on Bartlett's CRITIQUE OF IMPURE REASON.Steven James Bartlett - 2021 - Willamette Univesity Faculty Research Website.
    This is a primer on Steven James Bartlett's book CRITIQUE OF IMPURE REASON: HORIZONS OF POSSIBILITY AND MEANING. ●●●●● -/- Some books are long and complex. The Critique of Impure Reason is such a book. It is long enough and complex enough so that it may be a service to some readers to offer a primer to introduce and partially summarize the book’s objectives and method. Here, the author of Critique of Impure Reason: Horizons of Possibility and Meaning provides such (...)
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  35. Spinoza’s Ontology Geometrically Illustrated: A Reading of Ethics IIP8S.Valtteri Viljanen - 2018 - In Spinoza’s Philosophy of Ratio. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 5-18.
    This essay offers an in-depth reading of the geometrical illustration of Ethics IIP8S and shows how it can be used to explicate the whole architecture of Spinoza’s system by specifying the way in which all the key structural features of his basic ontology find their analogies in the example. The illustration can also throw light on Spinoza’s ontology of finite things and inform us about what is at stake when we form universal ideas. In general, my reading of IIP8S thus (...)
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  36. Spinoza’s Essentialism in the Short Treatise.Valtteri Viljanen - 2015 - In The Young Spinoza: A Metaphysician in the Making. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 183–195.
    This essay traces the rather consistent essentialist thread that runs through the whole Short Treatise. This allows us not only to better understand the work itself but also to obtain a firmer grasp of the nature of Spinoza’s entire philosophical enterprise. In many ways, the essentialism we find in the Short Treatise is in line with Spinoza’s mature thought; but there are also significant differences, and discerning them throws light on the development of Spinoza’s philosophy.
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  37. Spirit Calls Nature: Bridging Science and Spirituality, Consciousness and Evolution in a Synthesis of Knowledge.Marco Masi - 2021 - Indy Edition.
    This is a technical treatise for the scientific-minded readers trying to expand their intellectual horizon beyond the straitjacket of materialism. It is dedicated to those scientists and philosophers who feel there is something more, but struggle with connecting the dots into a more coherent picture supported by a way of seeing that allows us to overcome the present paradigm and yet maintains a scientific and conceptual rigor, without falling into oversimplifications. Most of the topics discussed are unknown even to neuroscientists, (...)
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  38. O interpretacji z punktu widzenia ontologii bytu duchowego Nicolaia Hartmanna.Alicja Pietras - 2012 - In J. Jakubowska M. Brodnicki (ed.), Historia interpretacji. Interpretacja historii. Gdańsk, Polska: pp. 25-35.
  39. “Noema” and “Noesis” by Information After Husserl’s Phenomenology Interpreted Formally.Penchev Vasil - 2021 - Metaphysics eJournal, SSRN 14 (22):1-19.
    Along with “epoché” or his “reductions”, Husserl’s “noema” and “noesis”, being neologisms invented by him, are main concepts in phenomenology able to represent its originality. Following the trace of a recent paper (Penchev 2021 July 23), its formal and philosophical approach is extended to both correlative notions, in the present article. They are able to reveal the genesis of the world from consciousness in a transcendental method relevant to Husserl, but furthermore described formally as a process of how subjective temporality (...)
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  40. In Defense of Countabilism.David Builes & Jessica M. Wilson - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-38.
    Inspired by Cantor's Theorem (CT), orthodoxy takes infinities to come in different sizes. The orthodox view has had enormous influence in mathematics, philosophy, and science. We will defend the contrary view---Countablism---according to which, necessarily, every infinite collection (set or plurality) is countable. We first argue that the potentialist or modal strategy for treating Russell's Paradox, first proposed by Parsons (2000) and developed by Linnebo (2010, 2013) and Linnebo and Shapiro (2019), should also be applied to CT, in a way that (...)
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  41. The Complexity of the Gene and the Precision of CRISPR : What is the Gene That is Being Edited?Esha Shah, David Ludwig & Phil Macnaghten - 2021 - Elementa: Science of Anthropocene 9.
    The rapid development of CRISPR-based gene editing has been accompanied by a polarized governance debate about the status of CRISPR-edited crops as genetically modified organisms. This article argues that the polarization around the governance of gene editing partly reflects a failure of public engagement with the current state of research in genomics and postgenomics. CRISPR-based gene-editing technology has become embedded in a narrow narrative about the ease and precision of the technique that presents the gene as a stable object under (...)
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  42. Entre a matéria e a forma: o problema da objetividade dos fenômenos quânticos em Werner Heisenberg.João Edson Gonçalves Cabral - 2019 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Norte
  43. Why We Are Almost Certainly *Not* in a Computer Simulation.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    I give a reason we are almost certainly *not* in a simulation. I also consider what happens if two simulators simulate each other.
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  44. Conception, Connotation, and Essential Predication: Peter Auriol’s Conceptualism to the Test in II Sententiarum, D. 9, Q. 2, Art. 1.Giacomo Fornasieri - 2021 - Analiza I Egzystencja 1 (54):81-126.
    This paper comprises two parts. The first part is an introduction to Auriol’s moderate conceptualism, as it is presented in his Commentary on Book II of the Sentences, distinction 9, question 2, article 1. The second part is an edition of the text. In the introduction, I focus on Auriol’s use of the noetic tool of connotation. My thesis, in particular, is that connotation is a necessary prerequisite to his moderate conceptu- alism. To this purpose, the first part of this (...)
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  45. Mitopoética: La Construcción Simbólica de la Identidad Humana. Oscar E. Muñoz.Oscar Enrique Muñoz - 2013 - Madrid, España: Mandala Editorial.
    Entiendo la acción filosófica como un proceso doble de crítica axiomática y construcción teórica. Cuando esta acción se aplica a las construcciones simbólicas de nuestra identidad, la llamo mitopoética. Por motivos evidentes, este libro no puede sino aspirar a ser el bosquejo de un mapa epistemológico a gran escala de las narraciones de la identidad humana, esquema que he dividido en tres partes. En las dos primeras, defino una estructura conceptual que será utilizada en la tercera para desarrollar una teoría (...)
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  46. Variationen und Implikationen der Frage ›Warum ist überhaupt etwas und nicht vielmehr nichts?‹.Jens Lemanski, Rico Hauswald & Daniel Schubbe - 2013 - In Daniel Schubbe, Jens Lemanski & Rico Hauswald (eds.), Warum ist überhaupt etwas und nicht nichts? Wandel und Variationen einer Frage. Hamburg, Deutschland: pp. 7-19.
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  47. Nominalism and Immutability.Daniel Berntson - manuscript
    Can we do science without numbers? How much contingency is there? These seemingly unrelated questions--one in the philosophy of math and science and the other in metaphysics--share an unexpectedly close connection. For as it turns out, a radical answer to the second leads to a breakthrough on the first. The radical answer is new view about modality called compossible immutabilism. The breakthrough is a new strategy for doing science without numbers. One of the chief benefits of the new strategy is (...)
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  48. Extended Modal Realism: A New Solution to Problems Related to Non-Existence.Andrew Thomas - 2021 - Dissertation, Durham University
    This thesis argues that we should consider extended modal realism as a new player in the debate about non-existence. The primary aim is to show that extended modal realism is a viable theory when it comes to solving problems of non-existence. At times I will argue that extended modal realism has advantages over Lewisian modal realism when it comes to examining the problems of non-existence, not only in the case of problems relating to thought but also problems concerning truth as (...)
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  49. The Constitution of Objects by Systems.David L. Thompson -
    Against the concept that objects are defined by their self-contained essence – “thing-in-themselves” – Husserl and Foucault claim they are defined by intersubjectivity or social institutions. I argue that biological and even physical (complex) systems can constitute the unity and meaning of objects.
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  50. Plotinus and Spinoza: A Comparative Analysis of Their Notion of Evil.Latif Kadri - manuscript
    The problem of evil has always haunted theologians and philosophers. Throughout the course of this paper I will peruse the concepts of evil put forth by Spinoza and Plotinus. These two notions of evil have many similarities, yet there are some vital distinctions between the two. Plotinus and Spinoza both had rather unique views on the concept of evil that seemed to be ahead of their time in many ways. These two philosophers’ outlook on the notion of evil departs from (...)
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