Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Nazarbayev University)
About this topic
Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1953, the articles in Wasserman et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1990 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are Van Inwagen 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and Armstrong 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1960, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1998 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2005, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
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  1. IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (IEEE BIBM 2015),.Jingshan Huang, Fernando Gutierrez, Dejing Dou, Judith A. Blake, Karen Eilbeck, Darren A. Natale, Barry Smith, Yu Lin, Xiaowei Wang & Zixing Liu (eds.) - 2015
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  2. IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (IEEE BIBM 2015).Huang Jingshan, Eilbeck Karen, A. Blake Judith, Dou Dejing, A. Natale Darren, Ruttenberg Alan, Smith Barry, T. Zimmermann Michael, Jiang Guoqian & Lin Yu (eds.) - 2015
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  3. Proceedings of the 2003 German Conference on Bioinformatics, Vol. II.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith (eds.) - 2003
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  4. Ontologia, , 154--158.Smith Barry (ed.) - 2003 - Naples: Guida.
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  5. W Kregu Filozofii Romana Ingardena.Barry Smith (ed.) - 1995 - Warsaw: PWN.
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  6. Abstract Objects.David Liggins - 2024 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Philosophers often debate the existence of such things as numbers and propositions, and say that if these objects exist, they are abstract. But what does it mean to call something 'abstract'? And do we have good reason to believe in the existence of abstract objects? This Element addresses those questions, putting newcomers to these debates in a position to understand what they concern and what are the most influential considerations at work in this area of metaphysics. It also provides advice (...)
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  7. An Organic System Open to an Intelligible Reality: The Concept of Method in Antonio Rosmini.Lucia Bissoli - 2024 - Religions 15 (5):535.
    Oftentimes, reality seems to us a chaos that we try to control with our theories. This article starts from the antithetic standpoint, inspired by Antonio Rosmini’s works: reality is intelligible, and originates our thinking. From this perspective, any research that tries to reach the truth is determined by the real, not the contrary. Moreover, interdisciplinarity, far from being a solipsistic enterprise, aims at achieving truth and guaranteeing scientific advancement. Here, we analyze the distinctive character of Rosminian encyclopedism and his principles (...)
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  8. Worlds are Pluralities.Isaac Wilhelm - 2024 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 102 (1):221-231.
    I propose an account of possible worlds. According to the account, possible worlds are pluralities of sentences in an extremely large language. This account avoids a problem, relating to the total number of possible worlds, that other accounts face. And it has several additional benefits.
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  9. Religious Fictionalism and the Ontological Status of God.Alberto Oya - 2023 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):133-151.
    In this paper, I will argue that the main contrast between religious fictionalism and other recently developed fictionalist positions in other non-religious fields of enquiry is the sort of personal and affective relationship said to be felt by the religious person between them and God, the feeling of being in a loving and personal communion with God. I will argue that a realist, non-Meingonian artifactual fictionalist understanding of God, along the lines that philosophers such as Schiffer and Thomasson have already (...)
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  10. Lumea lui Anaxagora, sau, Despre entitățile reflexive.Adrian Miroiu - 2017 - Iași: Polirom.
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  11. What is the Matter with Matter? Barad, Butler, and Adorno.P. Højme - 2024 - Matter: Journal of New Materialist Research 9.
    This article aims to read feminist new materialisms (Barad), together with ‘postulated’ linguistic or cultural primacy of Queer Theory (Butler), to show how both are engaged in similar critical-ethical endeavours. The central argument is that the criticism of Barad and new materialisms misses Butler’s materialistic insights due to a narrow interpretation of Butler's alleged social-constructivist position. There is, therefore, a specific focus on where they both make similar ethical appeals. Moreover, the article relies on Adorno's negative dialectic to highlight an (...)
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  12. Finite and eternal being: an attempt to ascend to the meaning of being.Edith Stein - 2023 - Washington, D.C.: ICS Publications, Institute of Carmelite Studies. Edited by Andreas Uwe Müller & Walter Redmond.
    Edith Stein's (1891-1942) pivotal philosophical study of being. Includes two appendixes: "Martin Heidegger's Philosophy of Existence" and "The Interior Castle".
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  13. Fondamenti di olologia: ontologia del mondo della vita nella prospettiva dell'intero.Marco Di Feo - 2023 - Milano: Mimesis.
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  14. The philosophy of theoretical linguistics: a contemporary outlook.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2024 - Cambridge ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    Drawing on perspectives ranging from generative syntax, optimality theory, computational linguistics, sign language phonology, and language evolution studies, this book explores the current philosophical issues in theoretical linguistics. It is an essential read for linguists, cognitive scientists and philosophers working in language studies.
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  15. Les dilemmes de la metaphysique pure.Charles Renouvier - 1901 - Paris,: F. Alcan.
    "Les Dilemmes de la métaphysique pure" de Charles Renouvier. Philosophe français (1815-1903).
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  16. Thinking about Stories: An Introduction to Philosophy of Fiction.Samuel Lebens & Tatjana von Solodkoff - 2024 - Routledge.
    Thinking About Stories is a fun and thought-provoking introduction to philosophical questions about narrative fiction in its many forms, from highbrow literature to pulp fiction to the latest shows on Netflix. Written by philosophers Samuel Lebens and Tatjana von Solodkoff, it engages with fundamental questions about fiction, like: What is it? What does it give us? Does a story need a narrator? And why do sad stories make us cry if we know they aren’t real? The format of the book (...)
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  17. Para ler A ordem do discurso de Michel Foucault.Alex Pereira de Araújo - 2017 - Academia.Edu.
    Este roteiro de leitura, que ora apresentamos, tem como objetivo principal tornar mais acessível, ou melhor, mais inteligível A ordem do discurso de Michel Foucault para aqueles que se arriscam a entrar nesta ordem por meio de sua análise do discurso redimensionada nesta sua aula inaugural. É um roteiro simples que procurou atender minimamente aos leitores iniciantes deste texto que se tornou um clássico no campo das Humanidades e das ciências empíricas como o Direito e a própria Medicina, campos que (...)
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  18. Niches and Niche Models.Katie H. Morrow - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    The niche has been central to ecology for most of the discipline’s history, yet there have been few attempts by philosophers to work out the ontology of the niche. A challenge is that there is a plurality of seemingly inconsistent definitions of the niche in ecology. This paper characterizes the population-level ecological niche by distinguishing among niche concepts, niche models, and the niche as a phenomenon. I argue that 'niche concepts' should be interpreted as theoretical frameworks or modelling strategies. I (...)
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  19. Jacob Roman Commentary on Aristotle's Physics : 218b10 to 223a23.Jacob Parr - manuscript
    The author Jacob Roman (Parr) provides commentary and line by line analysis of 218b10 through 223a23 , which is of Aristotle's Physica . -/- written in 2023 .
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  20. On the Genuine Identity Argument Against Disjunctive Universals.Francesco F. Calemi - 2022 - Logique Et Analyse 65:309--321.
    The sparseness thesis has notably gained momentum among contemporary realists about universals: indeed, most of them hold that some but not all predicates true of particulars are ontologically rooted in correlative universal properties, viz. some but not all predicates are property-predicates. Armstrong is one the main advocates of this position as he put forward a cluster of arguments to the conclusion that in mapping predicates onto universals we find gaps and discontinuity. One of the main Armstrongian arguments of this kind (...)
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  21. Mis, kes, kuidas ja millal on sotsiaalselt konstrueeritud.Riin Kõiv - 2020 - Akadeemia 1:54−76.
  22. Dark Cosmism: Or, the Apophatic Specter of Russo-Soviet Techno-utopianism.Taylor R. Genovese - 2023 - Dissertation, Arizona State University
    By utilizing words, photographs, and motion pictures, this multimodal and multisited project traces a rhizomatic genealogy of Russian Cosmism—a nineteenth century political theology promoting a universal human program for overcoming death, resurrecting ancestors, and traveling through the cosmos—throughout post-Soviet techno-utopian projects and imaginaries. I illustrate how Cosmist techno-utopian, futurist, and other-than-human discourse exist as Weberian “elective affinities” within diverse ecologies of the imagination, transmitting a variety of philosophies and political programs throughout trans-temporal, yet philosophically bounded, communities. With a particular focus (...)
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  23. I primi concetti buddisti - nella lingua di oggi.Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2024 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista - distribuzione gratuita.
    Una conoscenza adeguata del Buddismo è essenziale per l’educazione e la cultura di chiunque non voglia essere un altro membro alienato di un’eredità che cammina senza pensarci nel mezzo di una rivoluzione tecnologica. Secondo i modelli e i valori della nostra cultura occidentale, siamo più abituati a guardare verso l’esterno che verso noi stessi. Altre culture possono aiutarci ad ampliare e approfondire la nostra visione della realtà e della vita. Se qualcuno ti chiede del Buddismo, rispondi che è un'antica dottrina (...)
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  24. Toward an ontology of scientific concepts.Olin M. Robus - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Washington
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  25. Severino as a Temporarist Static Eternalist.Ernesto Graziani & Francesco Orilia - 2023 - Eternity and Contradiction. Journal of Fundamental Ontology 5 (8):99-120.
    We distinguish three debates within current analytic philosophy of time: a first one regarding the passage of time, where static and dynamic views oppose each other; a second one concerning the existence or non-existence of temporal entities, where presentism and eternalism are main contenders; a third one about permanence, where the conflict is between permanentism and temporarism. We then consider how Severino's Parmenidean view may be related to such debates and argue that it is best viewed as a kind of (...)
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  26. Dead Past, Ad hocness, and Zombies.Ernesto Graziani - 2024 - Acta Analytica:1-14.
    The Dead Past Growing Block theory of time—DPGB-theory—is the metaphysical view that the past and the present tenselessly exist, whereas the future does not, and that only the present hosts mentality, whereas the past lacks it and is, in this sense, dead. One main reason in favour of this view is that it is immune to the now-now objection or epistemic objection (which aims at undermining the certainty, within an A-theoretical universe, of being currently experiencing the objective present time). In (...)
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  27. Any Dilemma for Theorizing Universals?Wonjae Ha - 2023 - Inmun Gwahak 128:181-204.
    The theory of universals faces two opposing demands. On the one hand, it must be explanatory. That is, certain kinds of statements found in our everyday discourse and the theories used to explain them seem to require the existence of universals for their understanding or acceptance. On the other hand, it must be ontologically appropriate. This means that theories that intervene ontologically without sufficient reasons for the existence of implausible entities or theories that result in an excessive proliferation of new (...)
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  28. Wolność.George Santayana, Adam Grzeliński, Rafał Michalski & Alicja Pietras - 2023 - Studia Z Historii Filozofii 14 (3):147-166.
    Niniejszy esej stanowi piąty rozdział tomu The Realm of Spirit kończącego cykl The Realms of Being. Podstawą przekładu jest pierwsze wydanie dzieła: George Santayana, The Realms of Being (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., Toronto: The Macmillan Company, 1940), 67–89. -/- This essay is the fifth chapter of The Realm of Spirit volume concluding The Realms of Being series. The translation is based on the first edition of the work: George Santayana, The Realms of Being (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., Toronto: (...)
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  29. George Santayana i problem wolności.Adam Grzeliński & Alicja Pietras - 2023 - Studia Z Historii Filozofii 14 (3):123-146.
    This article is a commentary and an introduction to the Polish translation of George Santayana’s work, Freedom, which is a chapter in the fourth volume of his series, The Realms of Being, titled The Realm of Spirit (1940). It provides an overview of his previous works, particularly his series The Life of Reason (1905–1906) and Scepticism and Animal Faith (1926). Additionally, it briefly examines the evolution of Santayana’s standpoint and the meaning of the fundamental categories and concepts of his ontology. (...)
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  30. L'ambiguità dell'essere: intervista filosofica e altri saggi.Pietro Prini - 1989 - Genova: Casa editrice Marietti.
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  31. Wo yu ni he wo yu ta: Zhong xi she hui ben ti lun bi jiao yan jiu.Zailin Zhang - 1999 - Xi'an: Xi bei da xue chu ban she.
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  32. Sex or Gender Is Binary Due To Definiens Per Negationem.J. Camlin - manuscript
    This perspective asserts the existence of only two sexes/genders, male and female, based on not only biological and reproductive processes but also from claims of non-binary or transgender identities as defined through negation which rely on the binary concept of sex/gender. Thus, individuals claiming identities on the "gender/sex spectrum" are again defining themselves through negation (definiens per negationem). This perspective suggests that the diversity of gender experiences, (the sex or gender spectrum) is defined by what individuals are not rather than (...)
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  33. Epistemologically Different Worlds.Gabriel Vacariu - 2007 - Dissertation, University of New South Wales
    Abstract A fundamental error has dominated philosophy and science since ancient times, the assumption of the existence of the "unicom-world"—that is, the existence of one unique world. It is one of the oldest and most dominant paradigms in human thinking that has generated many pseudo-problems in philosophy and science. We can identify this thinking paradigm, the unicom-world, in the majority of myths, theological doctrines, philosophical approaches and scientific theories. In order to avoid this error, in Part I of this thesis, (...)
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  34. Essere e speranza nella dimensione ontologico-esistenziale della cura. Valutazioni teoretico-pratiche a partire da M. Heidegger, K. Jaspers, G. Marcel.Antonio Di Somma - 2024 - Dissertation, Pontificia Università Lateranense
    Il lavoro di dottorato condotto apre la ricerca filosofica ed etica, riguardo il pensiero e l’agire dell’aver cura, alla possibilità teoretico-pratica e valutativa di un’analitica della relazione fondamentale, originaria e vivente sussistente tra essere e speranza nella dimensione ontologica, esistenziale e trascendente della cura. Attraverso un’ermeneutica del rapporto contemporaneo tra cura, limite e speranza nel tempo della tecnica, sviluppata a partire dalle riflessioni avanzate su tali questioni da Heidegger, Jaspers e Marcel, si sono venute ad individuare, affrontare e verificare, nella (...)
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  35. Emanuele Severino on the Words of Philosophy.Paolo Pitari - 2024 - Res Philosophica 101 (1):81-108.
    In Beyond Language (Oltre il linguaggio), Emanuele Severino argues that “language reveals the meaning that man confers to the world.” Accordingly, this article infers that reflecting on the meaning of the most important words of philosophy will enable us to understand the foundation of the concrete history of our civilization. Severino offers a unique analysis of these words and their history, and consequently an original framework for interpreting the world. What follows thus presents a discursive glossary according to Emanuele Severino (...)
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  36. O lugar da memória e da História na arqueogenealogia foucaultiana.Alex Pereira De Araújo & Nilton Milanez - 2018 - Salvador, Brasil: Eduneb (Editora da Uneb). Edited by Elton Quadros.
    Este estudo tem como objetivo principal discutir qual o lugar da memória nas pesquisas históricas empreendidas pelo filósofo francês Michel Foucault, o qual foi responsável pelo desenvolvimento de duas frentes metodológicas de trabalho: a arqueologia do saber e a genealogia do poder, conhecidas hoje como arqueogenealogia foucaultiana. Ao longo de mais de 30 anos dedicados a estas pesquisas, Michel Foucault ganhou projeção nacional e internacional pela sua inquietante forma de aliar a militância política com o trabalho acadêmico, demonstrando, com isso, (...)
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  37. Discipline and Punish: The translation of the absent or the comment to be translated.Alex Pereira De Araújo - 2021 - Academia Letters 4367:01-05.
    This comment text brings, at the end, a part of Surveiller et Punir (Discipline and Punish), which has not been translated into Portuguese and does not appear in more than 40 editions of the Brazilian translation. It is on the back cover of the original in French, as if it were an afterword, signed by the author himself, Michel Foucault, which more than 40 years ago published by Editions Gallimard, his first copies in February 1975. Two years later, the Brazilian (...)
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  38. Elements of a New Rhetoric in Foucault’s Work (10th edition).Alex Pereira de Araújo - 2023 - International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (Ijaers) 10 (11):1-5.
    The principal objective of this study is to present and discuss the elements that emerge from Michel Foucault's archeological undertakings, which, in our view, configure the existence of a new rhetoric that deals with what the French philosopher called the rarefaction of the subject and rarefaction of discourse in his inaugural lecture at the Collège de France (Foucault, 1996). This new rhetoric would be in charge of reflecting and analyzing the phenomena that result from both the rarefaction of the subject (...)
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  39. Jin Yuelin yu Feng Youlan ben ti lun de bi jiao yan jiu =.Qingcan Zhao - 2020 - Zhengzhou Shi: Henan ren min chu ban she.
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  40. Liebe und Sein: die ontologische Grundrelation.Bernt Knauber - 2020 - New York: Peter Lang.
    Der Autor stellt die Seinsfrage von dessen Bejahung durch eine fundamentalontologische Liebe aus. Ihre psychosozialen Möglichkeiten sowie die christliche Vergebungslehre werden ausgelotet und die Konfessionen daran erinnert, ihrer Kernbotschaft gerecht zu werden: das von ihnen gepredigte Sein auch selbst zu leben.
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  41. Ontology in early Neoplatonism: Plotinus, Porphyry, Iamblichus.Riccardo Chiaradonna - 2023 - Berlin: De Gruyter.
    Neoplatonists from Plotinus onward incorporate Aristotle's logic and ontology into their philosophies: this process is of both intrinsic and historical interest and paves the way for subsequent philosophical debates in the Middle Ages and in the Modern Era. The fifteen essays collected in this book focus on the readings of Aristotle by Plotinus, Porphyry, and Iamblichus in the 3rd and 4th centuries. Their discussions cover key issues in the history of logic and metaphysics such as substance, hylomorphism, causation, existence, and (...)
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  42. Ontologia (metafizyka) napisana na podstawie realnego doświadczenia..Leon Birecki - 1901 - Przemyśl,: Z drukarni L. Schwarza.
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  43. Terra e mundo em obra: crítica à tradição estética e arte como alétheia em Heidegger.Gabriel Herkenhoff Coelho Moura - 2023 - Artefilosofia 19 (34).
    The importance of The Origin of The Work of Art in Heidegger’s path of thought is notorious. Besides adding to the framework of the thematization of the question of being a reflection on art, the conference is considered a landmark of the displacement from the existential analytic of Dasein to the problem of history of being. Divided in three parts, this paper connects such a displacement to the relationship between art and truth established in the conference. In the first part, (...)
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  44. Aristotle’s Ontology of Artefacts.Marilù Papandreou - 2023 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    It is commonly believed that Aristotle merely uses artefacts as examples or analogical cases. This book, however, shows that Aristotle gives a specific, coherent account of artefacts that in various ways owes much to Plato. Moreover, it proposes a new, definitive solution to the problem of artefacts' substantiality, which comprises two controversial positions: (i) that Aristotle holds a binary view of substantiality according to which artefacts are not substances at all; (ii) that artefacts fail to be substances because they exhibit (...)
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  45. Die welt als harmonie und logik.Eduard Friedrich Karl - 1911 - Charlottenburg,: G. Bürkner.
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  46. Human death as a triptych process.Marco Antonio Azevedo - 2020 - Mortality 25 (4):490-504.
    Influenced by James Bernat’s approach, the US President’s 1981 Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioural Research concluded that human death is an instant that separates the dying process from the cadaveric state. Death, as Bernat and the President’s Commission argue, cannot be a process. Because organisms cannot be both alive and dead, Bernat claims, the transition from one state to the other must be sudden and instantaneous. Since then, few have argued the opposite (...)
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  47. Ways of Overcoming Ontological Instability of the Concept of a Subject in Modern Philosophy.Konstantin Morozov, Denis Khnykin & Anna Krasnoperova - 2020 - Manuscript 13 (6):90-93.
    The study aims to expose vulnerabilities of the subject-object paradigm in modern philosophy. The article concentrates upon ontological limitations of the concept of a subject and changing the status of an object in subject-object relations in the context of changing characteristics of the object existence. Scientific novelty of the work lies in identifying points of ontological stability and limitations of the subject concept, which could be used in its further theoretical development. As a result of the research, the aspects necessary, (...)
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  48. Die philosophische Grundlehre.Rudolf Zocher - 1939 - Tübingen,: Mohr.
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  49. Der Streit um die Existenz der Welt.Roman Ingarden - 1964 - Tübingen,: Niemeyer.
    Roman Ingardens Werk über das Kausalproblem führt entscheidend über den Problemstand hinaus, wie er von John Stuart Mill und seinen Nachfolgern gekennzeichnet und seither kaum mehr verändert worden war. Anknüpfend an deren Analyse von Bedingungszusammenhängen unternimmt Ingarden es, die Bereiche und Verteilungen ursächlicher Beziehungen im Sinne relativ isolierter Systeme innerhalb des einen Weltzusammenhanges zu interpretieren. Es gelingt ihm mittels einer formalen Analyse, verschiedene Typen möglicher kausaler Beziehungen zu unterscheiden und insbesondere das Determinismusproblem aus der leidigen Alternative "Zufall oder Notwendigkeit" herauszuführen.
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  50. A Metametaphysics of Form.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - In Gaven Kerr (ed.), Thomism Revisited. Cambridge University Press.
    A model of metaphysics associated with EJ Lowe and Tuomas Tahko sees metaphysics as involving a priori knowledge of possible essences, or at least modal facts, and delimiting the actual ‘ontological categories,’ the ultimate and essential divisions of what exists, based on the results of a posteriori scientific investigation. Their approach to metaphysics has been criticized by those who argue that such metaphysics is unsuitably a priori, disconnected with empirical research in natural science, and ends up failing to provide meaningful (...)
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