Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Virginia Tech)
About this topic
Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1961, the articles in Chalmers et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1991 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are van Inwagen 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and Armstrong 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1960, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1999 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2008, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
Related categories
Subcategories:
Events (219)
Existence (249)
Metaontology* (1,298 | 112)
Propositions* (810 | 157)
Objects* (6,003)
Properties* (2,745 | 109)
Substance (635)
Truthmakers (585)
See also:History/traditions: Ontology

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  1. Making AI Meaningful Again.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - manuscript
    Artificial intelligence (AI) research enjoyed an initial period of enthusiasm in the 1970s and 80s. But this enthusiasm was tempered by a long interlude of frustration when genuinely useful AI applications failed to be forthcoming. Today, we are experiencing once again a period of enthusiasm, fired above all by the successes of the technology of deep neural networks or deep machine learning. In this paper we draw attention to what we take to be serious problems underlying current views of artificial (...)
  2. Schleiermacher Between Kant and Leibniz.Jacqueline Mariña - 2004 - In Christine Helmer & Marjorie Suchocki (eds.), Schleiermacher and Whitehead: Open Systems in Dialogue.
    This paper takes stock of Leibnizian influences on Schleiermacher's thought through an examination and comparison of the views of Leibniz, Kant, and Schleiermacher on predication. I analyze each thinker's foundational ontological and epistemological commitments and their implications for their understanding of predication. More specifically, I explore whether Schleiermacher's adoption of Leibiniz' theory of the complete concept and the theory of prediction it entails conflicts with his adoption of Kant's two-source theory of knowledge. I conclude that it does, and that it (...)
  3. Causality and Becoming: Scotistic Reflections.Liran Shia Gordon - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (1):95-110.
    Becoming is a process in which a thing moves from one state to another. In Section 1, the study will elaborate on the discussion of the Aristotelian causes taken broadly, primarily focusing on the relation between efficient and final causes. In Section 2, the study discusses the implications of Scotus’s conception of freedom, as it is reflected in the relation of the future to the past, for the efficient and final causalities. Similarly in Section 3 an examination of Scotus’s conception (...)
  4. A Product Life Cycle Ontology for Additive Manufacturing.Munira Mohd Ali, Rahul Rai, J. Neil Otte & Barry Smith - 2019 - Computers in Industry 105:191-203.
    The manufacturing industry is evolving rapidly, becoming more complex, more interconnected, and more geographically distributed. Competitive pressure and diversity of consumer demand are driving manufacturing companies to rely more and more on improved knowledge management practices. As a result, multiple software systems are being created to support the integration of data across the product life cycle. Unfortunately, these systems manifest a low degree of interoperability, and this creates problems, for instance when different enterprises or different branches of an enterprise interact. (...)
  5. Faits divers.Clément Rosset, Nicolas Delon & Santiago Espinosa - 2013 - Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.
    Gilles Deleuze, les vampires, Emil Cioran, Samuel Beckett, le dandysme, Friedrich Nietzsche, Raymond Roussel, Casanova, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jean-Luc Godard, Goscinny & Uderzo, Jean-Paul Sartre, Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Le réel, le double, l’illusion, le tragique, la joie, la musique, la philosophie, la politique, le péché, l’enseignement. Faits divers sont les miscellanées de Clément Rosset : le répertoire désordonné et jubilatoire de ses passions et de ses dégoûts, de ses intérêts et de ses bâillements, de ses tocades et de ses coups de (...)
  6. Fiat Objects.Barry Smith - 1994 - In Nicola Guarino, Laure Vieu & Simone Pribbenow (eds.), Parts and Wholes: Conceptual Part-Whole Relations and Formal Mereology, 11th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Amsterdam, 8 August 1994, Amsterdam:. Amsterdam: European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence. pp. 14-22.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards entities of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. A categorial scheme for the objects of human cognition should be (1) critical and realistic. Cognitive subjects are liable to error, even to systematic error of the sort that is manifested by believers in the Pantheon of Olympian gods. Thus not all putative object-directed acts should be recognized as having objects of their own. (...)
  7. Mereological Composition and Plural Quantifier Semantics.Manuel Lechthaler & Ceth Lightfield - 2018 - Philosophia 46 (4):943-958.
    Mereological universalists and nihilists disagree on the conditions for composition. In this paper, we show how this debate is a function of one’s chosen semantics for plural quantifiers. Debating mereologists have failed to appreciate this point because of the complexity of the debate and extraneous theoretical commitments. We eliminate this by framing the debate between universalists and nihilists in a formal model where these two theses about composition are contradictory. The examination of the two theories in the model brings clarity (...)
  8. The Theory of the Self in the Zhuangzi: A Strawsonian Interpretation.Jenny Hung - forthcoming - Philosophy East and West.
    I argue that the Zhuangzian conception of the self can be understood via Galen Strawson’s theories of thin subjects of experience and process metaphysics. I adopt Strawson’s two uses of “I” to understand “wu 吾” and “wo 我” in the context of “I (wu 吾) have lost myself (wo 我).”.
  9. Aristotle's Axology.Seyed Mohammad Hosseini - 2010 - Ayeneh Marefat 20 (7):95-121.
    This Paper attempts to Jude the axiology of Aristotle’s Philosophy based on Aristotelian Philosophy. For this Purpose, we will first Prove axiology as a kind of knowledge and then we will study the relation between axiology and two others knowledge domains, that is, ontology and epistemology. We will demonstrate that values like goodness and beauty, are same final cause and formal cause for explanation of values of every thing. At least, in the nature, goodness and beauty are the idea of (...)
  10. SNOMED CT Standard Ontology Based on the Ontology for General Medical Science.Shaker El-Sappagh, Francesco Franda, Ali Farman & Kyung-Sup Kwak - 2018 - BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 76 (18):1-19.
    Background: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine—Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT, hereafter abbreviated SCT) is acomprehensive medical terminology used for standardizing the storage, retrieval, and exchange of electronic healthdata. Some efforts have been made to capture the contents of SCT as Web Ontology Language (OWL), but theseefforts have been hampered by the size and complexity of SCT. Method: Our proposal here is to develop an upper-level ontology and to use it as the basis for defining the termsin SCT in a way that will (...)
  11. Ontology-Based Fusion of Sensor Data and Natural Language.Erik Thomsen & Barry Smith - 2018 - Applied Ontology 13 (4):295-333.
    We describe a prototype ontology-driven information system (ODIS) that exploits what we call Portion of Reality (POR) representations. The system takes both sensor data and natural language text as inputs and composes on this basis logically structured POR assertions. The goal of our prototype is to represent both natural language and sensor data within a single framework that is able to support both axiomatic reasoning and computation. In addition, the framework should be capable of discovering and representing new kinds of (...)
  12. Warum ist überhaupt etwas und nicht nichts? Wandel und Variationen einer Frage.Daniel Schubbe, Jens Lemanski & Rico Hauswald - 2013 - Hamburg: Meiner.
    Die Frage ›Warum ist überhaupt etwas und nicht vielmehr nichts?‹ gehört zu den ebenso traditionsreichen wie umstrittenen Problemen der Philosophie. Bereits mehrmals in die Mottenkiste der Philosophiegeschichte verbannt, erlebt sie doch zuverlässig ihre Renaissancen. Der vorliegende Band nimmt sich der ›Grundfrage‹ in einer ideengeschichtlichen Perspektive an. Dabei stellt sich heraus, dass die systematisch keineswegs erst mit Leibniz auftauchende Frage in ihrer Geschichte von der Antike bis zur gegenwärtigen analytischen Philosophie nicht nur jeweils unterschiedliche Antworten provoziert hat, sondern vor allem auch (...)
  13. Teoria de relaciones.Carlos Alejandro Ordoñez Villegas - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy.
    The origin of Being as a live concept is one of the most difficult questions in history of metaphysics and ontology. This work analyses the postulate that being is constructed by the interaction of terms. In fact, being and the idea of Being has come from the possibility of relations. It is known that metaphysics and ontology has overestimated think Being like something that never change, a substance unchangeable. Reduce Being as ousía, translated as substance, does not understand central affirmation (...)
  14. Biomedical Ontology Alignment: An Approach Based on Representation Learning.Prodromos Kolyvakis, Alexandros Kalousis, Barry Smith & Dimitris Kiritsis - 2018 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 9 (21).
    While representation learning techniques have shown great promise in application to a number of different NLP tasks, they have had little impact on the problem of ontology matching. Unlike past work that has focused on feature engineering, we present a novel representation learning approach that is tailored to the ontology matching task. Our approach is based on embedding ontological terms in a high-dimensional Euclidean space. This embedding is derived on the basis of a novel phrase retrofitting strategy through which semantic (...)
  15. The Industrial Ontologies Foundry Proof-of-Concept Project.Evan Wallace, Dimitris Kiritsis, Barry Smith & Chris Will - 2018 - In Ilkyeong Moon, Gyu M. Lee, Jinwoo Park, Dimitris Kiritsis & Gregor von Cieminski (eds.), Advances in Production Management Systems. Smart Manufacturing for Industry 4.0. IFIP. pp. 402-409.
    The current industrial revolution is said to be driven by the digitization that exploits connected information across all aspects of manufacturing. Standards have been recognized as an important enabler. Ontology-based information standard may provide benefits not offered by current information standards. Although there have been ontologies developed in the industrial manufacturing domain, they have been fragmented and inconsistent, and little has received a standard status. With successes in developing coherent ontologies in the biological, biomedical, and financial domains, an effort called (...)
  16. On Defining Bruxism.W. Ceusters & B. Smith - 2018 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 247:551-555.
    In a series of recent publications, orofacial researchers have debated the question of how ‘bruxism’ should be defined for the purposes of accurate diagnosis and reliable clinical research. Following the principles of realism-based ontology, we performed an analysis of the arguments involved. This revealed that the disagreements rested primarily on inconsistent use of terms, so that issues of ontology were thus obfuscated by shortfalls in terminology. In this paper, we demonstrate how bruxism terminology can be improved by paying attention to (...)
  17. The Planteome Database: An Integrated Resource for Reference Ontologies, Plant Genomics and Phenomics.Laurel Cooper, Austin Meier, Marie-Angélique Laporte, Justin L. Elser, Chris Mungall, Brandon T. Sinn, Dario Cavaliere, Seth Carbon, Nathan A. Dunn, Barry Smith, Botong Qu, Justin Preece, Eugene Zhang, Sinisa Todorovic, Georgios Gkoutos, John H. Doonan, Dennis W. Stevenson, Elizabeth Arnaud & Pankaj Jaiswal - 2018 - Nucleic Acids Research 46 (D1):D1168–D1180.
    The Planteome project provides a suite of reference and species-specific ontologies for plants and annotations to genes and phenotypes. Ontologies serve as common standards for semantic integration of a large and growing corpus of plant genomics, phenomics and genetics data. The reference ontologies include the Plant Ontology, Plant Trait Ontology, and the Plant Experimental Conditions Ontology developed by the Planteome project, along with the Gene Ontology, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, Phenotype and Attribute Ontology, and others. The project also provides (...)
  18. Trouble Up at T’Ontological Mill: An Inconclusive Dialog.Peter Simons - 2017 - Cosmos + Taxis 4 (4):64-66.
    Grenon and Smith (2004) propose a framework for the ontology of things in space and time involving and invoking the distinction between continuants and occurrents, which has become a key element of Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). The terminology of SNAP (from “snapshot:” state of a continuant at a time) and SPAN (how an occurrent develops over an interval or timespan) occurs in that paper’s title. While any commonsense ontology will have a place for both continuants and occurrents, there is much (...)
  19. From Phenomenology to Formal Ontology: How Barry Smith and Kevin Mulligan Made Husserl’s Descriptive Psychology Into a Form of Realism.Marco Tedeschini - 2015 - Archivio Di Filosofia 83 (3):177-188.
    In this paper I will discuss Barry Smith’s and Kevin Mulligan’s revision of Husserl’s phenomenology, starting from the fact that many Italian scholars seem to follow them in a sense, by dealing with phenomenology as a sort of a priori ontology. Therefore, I will first reconstruct Smith’s and Mulligan’s attempt and its objectives, then I will show how it is rooted in the school of Brentano and, in particular, in Husserl’s phenomenology. Finally, I will provide some arguments against this attempt (...)
  20. Het spatium: Leibniz en Deleuze over ruimte en uitgebreidheid.Florian Vermeiren - forthcoming - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie.
    This paper aims to show that Deleuze’s ideas on space and extension are heavily in debt to Leibniz. The focus is on chapter five, ‘the Asymmetrical Synthesis of the Sensible’, of Difference and Repetition. Concepts such as ‘intensive magnitude’, ‘distance’, ‘order’ and most importantly ‘spatium’ are shown to have their origin in Leibniz’s philosophy. In order to do so, the article starts with Leibniz’s critique on Cartesian mechanics and how this leads Leibniz to a conception of space that goes beyond (...)
  21. Review: Truth in Perspective: Recent Issues in Logic, Representation and Ontology. [REVIEW]Daniel Nolan - 2001 - Studia Logica 68 (3):404-407.
  22. Donatella Di Cesare “Heidegger, entre apocalíptica y revolución” [traducción].Facundo Bey & Donatella Di Cesare - 2017 - Argumenta Philosophica 2 (2017):7-17.
    El artículo describe el horizonte apocalíptico de la filosofía de la historia contenidaen los Cuadernos negros de Heidegger. Ser-para-la-muerte, el gran tema de Ser yTiempo, se transfiere a la historia, donde Heidegger mira hacia el final. Esta es unade las grandes novedades de los Cuadernos negros, donde el tema de la revoluciónsiempre ha sido concebido en términos demasiado metafísicos, como un simple giro,no como un acontecimiento, mientras surgen interesantes reflexiones sobre el comunismo.
  23. Jacques Derrida, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, “Heidegger, Philosophy, and Politics: The Heidelberg Conference”. [REVIEW]Facundo Bey - 2017 - Phenomenological Reviews 3.
    Heidegger, Philosophy, and Politics: The Heidelberg Conference Autor: Jacques Derrida, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Edited by Mireille Calle-Gruber, Translated by Jeff Fort, Foreword by Jean-Luc Nancy, Editorial: Fordham University Press, Fecha de Publicación: 2016, Formato: Hardback $85.00, Páginas: 116, Reviewed by: Facundo Bey (Universidad Nacional de General San Martín / CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires).
  24. Timothy L. S. Sprigge.Leemon McHenry - 2002 - In Philip Dematteis, Peter Fosl & Leemon McHenry (eds.), British Philosophers, 1800-2000. Detroit, MI, USA: pp. 266-274.
    This biographical essay covers the life and thought of British philosopher, Timothy Sprigge, including the development of his metaphysics and ethics.
  25. Metaphysics.Leemon McHenry - 1993 - In Leemon McHenry & Frederick Adams (eds.), Reflections on Philosophy: Introductory Essays. New York, NY, USA: pp. 35-51.
    In this introduction to metaphysics, I examine the origin of metaphysics, explain the basic project of ontology, and then defend this traditional branch of philosophy against criticisms from pragmatism and logical positivism.
  26. Paradoxical Utterances. An Approximation About Nishida’s Use of Heraclitus’ Fragments in An Inquiry Into the Good (1911).Montserrat Crespin Perales - 2018 - Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy.
    Paradoxical Utterances. An Approximation about Nishida’s Use of Heraclitus’ Fragments in An Inquiry into the Good (1911) -/- The paper discusses the use of Heraclitus’ ideas in Nishida Kitarõ early work, An inquiry into the Good (1911), in order to show how both thinkers, distant in time and philosophical tradition, coincide in present the formative process of reality, defending a common principle that impulses the process (named logos and “pure experience”). It also discusses how these principles can be feasible strategies (...)
  27. Jakob von Uexküll : une ontologie des milieux.Olivier Surel - 2014 - Critique 2014 (803):306-319.
  28. Let A Hundred Natures Bloom. A Polemical Trope in the "Ontological Turn" of Anthropology.Olivier Surel - 2014 - Krisis. Journal for Contemporary Philosophy 2014 (2):14-29.
  29. Materialism Most Miserable: The Prospects for Dualist and Physicalist Accounts of Resurrection.Jonathan J. Loose - 2018 - In Jonathan J. Loose, Angus John Louis Menuge & J. P. Moreland (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Substance Dualism. Oxford, UK: pp. 470-487.
  30. The Axiomatic Matrix of Whitehead's Process and Reality.Leemon B. McHenry - 1986 - Process Studies 15 (3):172-180.
    This essay compares the fundamental metaphysical principles, the Categoreal Scheme of A. N. Whitehead's Process and Reality with the axiomatic-deductive scheme of Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica to reveal the influence of mathematical logic on Whitehead's metaphysics.
  31. Bradley, James, and Whitehead on Relations.Leemon B. Mchenry - 1989 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 3 (3):149 - 169.
    In this essay, I provide an exposition of F. H. Bradley's arguments against relations and then critically evaluate his view using arguments advanced by William James and A. N. Whitehead. Against Bradley, I argue for the reality of relations as concrete aspects of the temporal process.
  32. The Ontology of the Past: Whitehead and Santayana.Leemon B. McHenry - 2000 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 14 (3):219-231.
    This essay examines the question of the ontological basis for historical propositions and contrasts the positions of A. N. Whitehead and George Santayana, i.e., presentism vs. eternalism. I argue that Whitehead's presentism is a more satisfactory solution to how propositions refer to the past.
  33. Quine's Pragmatic Ontology.Leemon McHenry - 1995 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 2 (9):147-158.
    W. V. Quine has been interpreted as a contemporary adaption of the American pragmatist movement that originated with Peirce, James and Dewey. While pragmatism plays some role in Quine's views on theory choice in science and ontology, I argue that this is insufficient for classifying his work with the early pragmatists or with recent revivals of pragmatism.
  34. S. cypriaan: Het Heil in de kerk.R. Hardowirjono - 1958 - Bijdragen 19 (2):137-161.
  35. Empirical Physicalism and the Boundaries of Physics.Michele Paolini Paoletti - forthcoming - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
    I shall argue in this article that there are certain objectual and methodological boundaries imposed by the nature of physics that all formulations of physicalism based on physical theories should respect. Therefore, empirical physicalism – i.e., the sort of physicalism that is eager to accept all the entities included in some future, ideal and complete physical theory and all entities dependent on them (see Jeffrey Poland and Janice Dowell) – is already committed to the exclusion of certain sorts of entities (...)
  36. Heidegger on the Absoluteness of Death.Nate Zuckerman - 2018 - New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 16.
    If we interpret ‘death’ in Heidegger not, like most readers, as the end of a particular person’s life or culture’s way of life, but more broadly as the absolute end of any capacity for sense-making whatsoever, I argue, we can best account for its role in Being and Time’s ontology of Dasein; find a systematic place for the various, more ‘local’ forms of breakdown that get called ‘death’ on the most prominent readings of the text; and highlight the continuity between (...)
  37. The Singularities as Ontological Limits of the General Relativity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The singularities from the general relativity resulting by solving Einstein's equations were and still are the subject of many scientific debates: Are there singularities in spacetime, or not? Big Bang was an initial singularity? If singularities exist, what is their ontology? Is the general theory of relativity a theory that has shown its limits in this case? In this essay I argue that there are singularities, and the general theory of relativity, as any other scientific theory at present, is not (...)
  38. Categories We Live By: The Construction of Sex, Gender, Race, and Other Social Categories.Ásta . - 2018 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    We are women, we are men. We are refugees, single mothers, people with disabilities, and queers. We belong to social categories and they frame our actions, self-understanding, and opportunities. But what are social categories? How are they created and sustained? How does one come to belong to them? -/- Ásta approaches these questions through analytic feminist metaphysics. Her theory of social categories centers on an answer to the question: what is it for a feature of an individual to be socially (...)
  39. Ontological Fundamentality.Joaquim Giannotti - manuscript
    The notion of fundamentality is supposed to play an important role in philosophical inquiry and scientific theorising. Yet there is no consensus on how to formulate it more precisely. According to a promising view, fundamentality is a form of ontological independence. This view has the merit of capturing a natural connection between fundamentality and ontological dependence. However, it has been recently argued that it is possible that there are fundamental and yet ontologically dependent entities; therefore, we should not characterize the (...)
  40. Response to Christopher Tomaszewski’s “Intentionality as Partial Identity”.Klaus Ladstaetter - 2017 - Southwest Philosophy Review 33 (2):1-13.
    Intentionality is a curious notion and so is partial identity; the latter is employed by Christopher Tomaszewski (henceforth, CT) in his paper to afford solutions to a wide array of different philosophical problems. The author’s central thesis is that intentionality is a kind of partial identity; i.e. when the mind is intentionally directed towards an external object, it "takes in" a part of the object – its form, but not its matter. In my essay I first expound Franz Brentano's views (...)
  41. Commitment.Christopher Brisson - 2002 - Feminist Studies 28 (3):665.
  42. Interdyscyplinarne Perspektywy Rozwoju, Integracji I Zastosowań Ontologii Poznawczych.Joanna Hastings, Gwen A. Frishkoff, Barry Smith, Mark Jensen, Russell A. Poldrack, Jane Lomax, Anita Bandrowski, Fahim Imam, Jessica A. Turner & Maryann E. Martone - 2016 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 7 (3):101-117.
    We discuss recent progress in the development of cognitive ontologies and summarize three challenges in the coordinated development and application of these resources. Challenge 1 is to adopt a standardized definition for cognitive processes. We describe three possibilities and recommend one that is consistent with the standard view in cognitive and biomedical sciences. Challenge 2 is harmonization. Gaps and conflicts in representation must be resolved so that these resources can be combined for mark-up and interpretation of multi-modal data. Finally, Challenge (...)
  43. Ontology.Barry Smith - 2003 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 155-166.
    Ontology as a branch of philosophy is the science of what is, of the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes and relations in every area of reality. ‘Ontology’ in this sense is often used by philosophers as a synonym of ‘metaphysics’ (a label meaning literally: ‘what comes after the Physics’), a term used by early students of Aristotle to refer to what Aristotle himself called ‘first philosophy’. But in recent years, in a development hardly noticed by philosophers, the (...)
  44. Die Ontologie des Embryos.Barry Smith & Berit Brogaard - 2008 - In Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith (eds.), Biomedizinische Ontologie: Wissen strukturieren für den Informatik-Einsatz. Zurich: UTB Forum (vdf). pp. 199-228.
    Der Abschluß der Gastrulation, der gleichzeitig auch den Anfang der Neurulation bedeutet, ist die zeitliche Grenze, die Beginn eines menschlichen Individuums markiert. Oft wird behauptet, daß jegliche natürliche Veränderung stetig ist. Wie ist es dann aber möglich, eine zeitliche Grenze auszuzeichnen, an der ein menschliches Lebewesen zu existieren beginnt? Man beachte, was geschieht, wenn wir vom Thema zeitlicher Unstetigkeit zum räumlichen übergehen. Lebewesen haben räumliche Grenzen (wie sie durch ihre Haut geformt wird). Die letzteren sind genuine Diskontinuitäten, auch angesichts der (...)
  45. Sechzehn Tage: Wann Beginnt Ein Menschliches Leben?Barry Smith & Berit Brogaard - 2006 - In G. Imaguirer & Christine Schneider (eds.), Untersuchungen zur Ontologie. Munich: Philosophia. pp. 3-40.
    Der Abschluß der Gastrulation, der gleichzeitig auch den Anfang der Neurulation bedeutet, ist die zeitliche Grenze, die Beginn eines menschlichen Individuums markiert. Oft wird behauptet, daß jegliche natürliche Veränderung stetig ist. Wie ist es dann aber möglich, eine zeitliche Grenze auszuzeichnen, an der ein menschliches Lebewesen zu existieren beginnt? Man beachte, was geschieht, wenn wir vom Thema zeitlicher Unstetigkeit zum räumlichen übergehen. Lebewesen haben räumliche Grenzen (wie sie durch ihre Haut geformt wird). Die letzteren sind genuine Diskontinuitäten, auch angesichts der (...)
  46. Cartesian Trialism on Trial: The Conceptualist Account of Descartes’ Human Being.Lawrence Nolan - 2015 - In Patricia Easton & Kurt Smith (eds.), The Battle of the Gods and Giants Redux. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. pp. 137-74.
  47. ImmPort, Toward Repurposing of Open Access Immunological Assay Data for Translational and Clinical Research.Sanchita Bhattacharya, Patrick Dunn, Cristel Thomas, Barry Smith, Henry Schaefer, Jieming Chen, Zicheng Hu, Kelly Zalocusky, Ravi Shankar & Shai Shen-Orr - 2018 - Scientific Data 5:180015.
    Immunology researchers are beginning to explore the possibilities of reproducibility, reuse and secondary analyses of immunology data. Open-access datasets are being applied in the validation of the methods used in the original studies, leveraging studies for meta-analysis, or generating new hypotheses. To promote these goals, the ImmPort data repository was created for the broader research community to explore the wide spectrum of clinical and basic research data and associated findings. The ImmPort ecosystem consists of four components–Private Data, Shared Data, Data (...)
  48. The Sophisticated Kind Theory.Matt Teichman - 2016 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-47.
    Generic sentences are commonsense statements of the form ‘Fs are G,’ like ‘Bears have fur’ or ‘Rattlesnakes are poisonous.’ Kind theories hold that rather than being general statements about individual objects, they are particular statements about kinds. This paper examines the standard objections against the kind theory and argues that they only apply to the most simplified version of the theory. The more sophisticated version, which has received little discussion in the literature in spite of having been formulated concurrently with (...)
  49. The Interplay Between Models and Observations.Claudio Masolo, Alessander Botti Benevides & Daniele Porello - 2018 - Applied Ontology 13 (1):41-71.
    We propose a formal framework to examine the relationship between models and observations. To make our analysis precise,models are reduced to first-order theories that represent both terminological knowledge – e.g., the laws that are supposed to regulate the domain under analysis and that allow for explanations, predictions, and simulations – and assertional knowledge – e.g., information about specific entities in the domain of interest. Observations are introduced into the domain of quantification of a distinct first-order theory that describes their nature (...)
  50. De-Briefing Aime Project : A Participant Perspective.Terence Blake - 2016 - In Bruno Latour (ed.), reset MODERNITY! London, ENGLAND: The MIT Press. pp. 468-474.
    This paper attempts to evaluate the AIME project immanently, from the perspective of a participant, in terms of five criteria: digitality, diplomacy, religiosity, testability, and democracy. A sixth criterion runs through the other five: pluralism. I distinguish between AIME as project, as process, and as party line.
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