Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Virginia Tech, Nazarbayev University)
About this topic
Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1953, the articles in Wasserman et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1991 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are VAN INWAGEN 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and ARMSTRONG 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1960, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1998 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2008, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
Related categories
Subcategories:
Events (231)
Existence (308)
Metaontology* (1,516 | 126)
Propositions* (1,035)
Objects* (6,313)
Properties* (3,004 | 120)
Substance (655)
Truthmakers (603)
See also:History/traditions: Ontology

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  1. Ontology and Cognitive Outcomes (Preprint).David Limbaugh, David Kasmier, Ronald Rudnicki, James Llinas & Barry Smith - 2020 - In arXiv.
    The intelligence community relies on human-machine-based analytic strategies that 1) access and integrate vast amounts of information from disparate sources, 2) continuously process this information, so that, 3) a maximally comprehensive understanding of world actors and their behaviors can be developed and updated. Herein we describe an approach to utilizing outcomes-based learning (OBL) to support these efforts that is based on an ontology of the cognitive processes performed by intelligence analysts.
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  2. L'épistémologie jungienne et le Livre Rouge.Donato Santarcangelo - manuscript
    “Vocatus atque non vocatus Deus aderit." (C.G. Jung) -/- Dans le Liber Novus, la résonance des champs archétypiques, qui se manifeste dans dans le primat de l'imago et de l'imaginal, explose dans toute sa « pathique » évidence. L'archétype jungien semble contenir en soi l'écho du telos omniprésent qui parcourt la coincidentia oppositorum. On est alors amené à penser à la conception de Nicola Cusano.
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  3. Right out of the box: how to situate metaphysics of science in relation to other metaphysical approaches.Alexandre Guay & Thomas Pradeu - 2020 - Synthese 197 (5):1847-1866.
    Several advocates of the lively field of “metaphysics of science” have recently argued that a naturalistic metaphysics should be based solely on current science, and that it should replace more traditional, intuition-based, forms of metaphysics. The aim of the present paper is to assess that claim by examining the relations between metaphysics of science and general metaphysics. We show that the current metaphysical battlefield is richer and more complex than a simple dichotomy between “metaphysics of science” and “traditional metaphysics”, and (...)
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  4. The Infectious Disease Ontology in the Age of COVID-19.Shane Babcock, Lindsay G. Cowell, John Beverley & Barry Smith - 2020 - In OSF Preprints. Center for Open Science.
    The Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO) is a suite of interoperable ontology modules that aims to provide coverage of all aspects of the infectious disease domain, including biomedical research, clinical care, and public health. IDO Core is designed to be a disease and pathogen neutral ontology, covering just those types of entities and relations that are relevant to infectious diseases generally. IDO Core is then extended by a collection of ontology modules focusing on specific diseases and pathogens. In this paper we (...)
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  5. An Overview of the BFO - Basic Formal Ontology - and Its Applicability for Satellite Systems.Adolfo Americano Brandão & Geilson Loureiro - 2020 - In Franciele Braga Machado Tullio & Lucio Mauro Braga Machado (eds.), Ampliação e Aprofundamento de Conhecimentos nas Áreas das Engenharias,. Ponta Grossa, Brazil: Atena Editora. pp. 30-38.
    This work aims to present an overview of the top-level ontology BFO - Basic Formal Ontology - and its applicability for Satellite Systems. As an upper level ontology, the BFO was designed to be extended, providing the basis for the specification of detailed representational artifacts about scientific information domains. These aspects and the challenges of satellite systems complexity and large size compose a suitable scenario for the creation of a specialized dialect to improve efficiency and accuracy when modeling such systems. (...)
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  6. Realitätsrepräsentation: Das Ziel der Ontologie.Barry Smith - 2008 - In Ludger Jansen & Barry Smith (eds.), Biomedizinische Ontologie. Philosophie – Lebenswissenschaften - Informationstechnik. Zurich: vdf (UTB Forum). pp. 31-46.
    The development of ontologies for the purposes of data curation is an important element in modern-day data and information sciences. Unfortunately, much of the work on these applied ontologies is associated with a relativist or conceptualist point of view, according to which ontologies represent (for example) the concepts in the minds of human beings. The paper describes a series of problems with such views, and defends an alternative realist interpretation.
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  7. Reasonable Inferences From Quantum Mechanics: A Response to “Quantum Misuse in Psychic Literature”.Bernardo Kastrup - 2019 - Journal of Near-Death Studies 37 (3):185-200.
    This invited article is a response to the paper “Quantum Misuse in Psychic Literature,” by Jack A. Mroczkowski and Alexis P. Malozemoff, published in this issue of the Journal of Near-Death Studies. Whereas I sympathize with Mroczkowski’s and Malozemoff’s cause and goals, and I recognize the problem they attempted to tackle, I argue that their criticisms often overshot the mark and end up adding to the confusion. I address nine specific technical points that Mroczkowski and Malozemoff accused popular writers in (...)
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  8. A Fractal Universe and the Identity of Indiscernibles.Matteo Casarosa - 2019 - Stance 12 (1):87-95.
    The principle of Identity of Indiscernibles has been challenged with various thought experiments involving symmetric universes. In this paper, I describe a fractal universe and argue that, while it is not a symmetric universe in the classical sense, under the assumption of a relational theory of space it nonetheless contains a set of objects indiscernible by pure properties alone. I then argue that the argument against the principle from this new thought experiment resists better than those from classical symmetric universes (...)
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  9. More Observations.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    Anthropic principle, Perspectival ontology, Hard problem, Why something rather than nothing, Life after death, Buddhism, God.
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  10. The Historical Ontology of Art.Rafael De Clercq - 2020 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (279).
    In this article, I argue that our ontology of art has undergone a major change in the course of modern history. While we currently think of artworks as parts arranged in a certain way, there was a time when artworks were thought of as metaphysically more akin to ordinary artefacts such as tables and chairs; that is, as wholes having replaceable parts. This change in our ontology of art is reflected in our approach to art restoration. But what explains the (...)
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  11. Το Αλλού και το Άλλοτε. Χρόνος και απουσία.Alexandros Schismenos - 2020 - Athens, Greece:
    Ποιο είναι το νόημα της απουσίας; Τι σημαίνει «αλλού και άλλοτε»; Ποιος είναι ο τρόπος ύπαρξης της απουσίας, του αλλού και άλλοτε, για εμάς τους παρόντες; Τι σημαίνει απουσία; Πώς μπορούμε να σκεφτούμε την απουσία; Πώς καθοδηγεί τους πόθους μας η απουσία; Η απουσία τυλίγει κάθε παρουσία όπως η σκοτεινή ύλη την ορατή ύλη. Οι σελίδες που ακολουθούν δεν περιέχουν κάποιες τελικές απαντήσεις αλλά μάλλον μία πορεία προσέγγισης τους ερωτήματος, μία πορεία πλάγια, μία απόπειρα πλαγιοκόπησης ενός θέματος που, κατά μέτωπον, (...)
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  12. Ontologies for Space and Ground Systems.Barry Smith - 2020 - In Ground System Architectures Workshop. Los Angeles, CA: GSAW. pp. 1-3.
    We will survey a range of ontologies relevant to space and ground system domains. The ontologies form part of the Common Core Ontology ecosystem (CCO) developed under the IARPA KDD initiative. We focus specifically on the Space Domain Ontologies, a suite of ontologies to support space situational awareness, including the Spacecraft Mission Ontology, Spacecraft Ontology, Space Event Ontology and Space Object Ontology.
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  13. Aristotle on Ontological Priority.Hikmet Unlu - 2020 - Acta Philosophica 1 (29):137-158.
    There are several passages in the Metaphysics where Aristotle explains ontological priority in terms of ontological dependence, but there are others where he seems to adopt a teleological conception of ontological priority. It is sometimes maintained that the latter priority too must be construed in terms of the former, or that the priorities in question are not both endorsed (or simultaneously endorsed) by Aristotle. The goal of this paper is to show otherwise; I argue that what is at issue are (...)
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  14. Review of D.M. Armstrong, Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Diego Morales - 2013 - Aporia 5:86-89.
    Book review of David Armstrong's "Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics", written in Spanish. || Reseña del libro "Sketch for a Sytematic Metaphysics", escrito por David Armstrong.
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  15. Review of Ted Sider & Earl Conee, The Riddles of Existence: A Guided Tour of Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Diego Morales - 2012 - Aporia 4:101-104.
    Book review of Earl Conee and Ted Sider's "Riddles of Existence: A Guided Tour of Metaphysics", written in Spanish. || Reseña del libro "Riddles of Existence: A Guided Tour of Metaphysics", escrito por Earl Conee y Ted Sider.
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  16. Prawa człowieka jako warunek możliwości wolności moralnej. Próba ontologicznej analizy wolności politycznej.Alicja Pietras - 2019 - Kultura I Wartości 28 (2019):131-164.
    The aim of the paper is an attempt at ontological analysis of the concept of political freedom (liberty) using the recognition and understanding of the concept of freedom (moral and political, negative and positive) in the history of philosophy. I refer, among others, to three known concepts: (1) Isaiah Berlin's distinction between positive and negative liberty, (2) Hannah Arendt historical analysis related to the distinction between political freedom and freedom of the will (moral freedom), and (3) Nicolai Hartmann's interpretation, criticism, (...)
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  17. Ontológia a metafyzika v poňatí Hartmanna a Heideggera.Alicja Pietras - 2018 - In Heidegger a metafyzika v 20. Storočí. Koszyce, Słowacja: pp. 489-513.
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  18. W stronę ontologii. Nicolaia Hartmanna i Martina Heideggera postneokantowskie projekty filozofii.Alicja Pietras - 2012 - Kraków, Polska: Towarzystwo Autorów i Wydawców Prac Naukowych UNIVERSITAS.
    The subject of the book is two twentieth-century ontological projects: the critical ontology of Nicolai Hartmann and the fundamental ontology of Martin Heidegger. The author presents their works as well in a historical as a systematical perspective. The book focuses on those contexts of their thoughts, which have been often overlooked. Hartmann and Heidegger’s ontology is presented first in their relation to Kant, secondly in reference to neo-Kantianism, and thirdly in relation to each other. One of the main thesis of (...)
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  19. The Deleuzian Revolution: Ten Innovations in Difference and Repetition.Daniel W. Smith - 2020 - Deleuze and Guatarri Studies 14 (1):34-49.
    Difference and Repetition might be said to have brought about a Deleuzian Revolution in philosophy comparable to Kant’s Copernican Revolution. Kant had denounced the three great terminal points of traditional metaphysics – self, world and God – as transcendent illusions, and Deleuze pushes Kant’s revolution to its limit by positing a transcendental field that excludes the coherence of the self, world and God in favour of an immanent and differential plane of impersonal individuations and pre-individual singularities. In the process, he (...)
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  20. Teleologia ed escatologia nei Beiträge zur Philosophie di Heidegger.Andrea Osti - 2019 - Annali di Ca’ Foscari. Serie Occidentale 53:309-318.
    This paper examines Heidegger’s Beiträge zur Philosophie with the aim of shedding light on its messianic-eschatological approach. Firstly, I take into account the formal structure of history through a reference to Aristotle’s grasp of κίνησις and its principles. I then try to connect this structure to the complex epochal movement of Universal History, as it emerges from Heidegger’s works in the ‘30s. Lastly, I deal with the concept of the last-God’s realm in order to stress the messianic dimension of Heidegger’s (...)
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  21. Зеркало Клио: Метафизическое Постижение Истории.Алексей Владиславович Халапсис - 2017 - Днипро, Днепропетровская область, Украина, 49000:
    В монографии представлены несколько смысловых блоков, связанных с восприятием и интерпретацией человеком исторического бытия. Ранние греческие мыслители пытались получить доступ к исходникам (началам) бытия, и эти интенции легли в основу научного знания, а также привели к появлению метафизики. В классической (и в неклассической) метафизике за основу была принята догма Пифагора и Платона о неизменности подлинной реальности, из чего следовало отрицание бытийного характера времени. Автор монографии отказывается от этой догмы и предлагает стратегию обновления метафизики и перехода ее к новому — постнеклассическому (...)
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  22. Дискутабельний підхід до глобального впливу на розвиток людських ресурсів.Sergii Sardak & С. Е Сардак - 2012 - In Е.М. Десяткіна (ed.), Збірник тез наукових робіт учасників міжнародної науково-практичної конференції : “Теорія і практика сучасної економіки” (Одеса, 20-21 липня 2012 р.). – Одеса : ГО «Центр економічних досліджень та розвитку», 2012. – 124 с. Одесса, Одесская область, Украина, 65000: pp. 14-16.
    Розглянуто науково-методичні підходи до глобального впливу на розвиток людських ресурсів.
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  23. A Temporalidade Em “L’Être Et le Néant”.Gustavo Fujiwara - 2019 - Kriterion: Journal of Philosophy 60 (144):563-585.
    RESUMO O presente artigo pretende restituir o exame ontofenomenológico da ipseidade e da temporalidade em “L’être et le néant” a partir de dois momentos, quais sejam: fenomenologia das três dimensões temporais e ontologia da temporalidade. Este duplo exame não poderá ser pensado sem uma definição prévia do para-si como ipse temporal que falta de... para..., isto é, como ser que, enquanto nada de ser, é uma falta de ser que busca, em vão, preenchê-la. A impossibilidade deste preenchimento, como buscaremos evidenciar, (...)
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  24. OHMI: The Ontology of Host-Microbiome Interactions.Yongqun He, Haihe Wang, Jie Zheng, Daniel P. Beiting, Anna Maria Masci, Hong Yu, Kaiyong Liu, Jianmin Wu, Jeffrey L. Curtis, Barry Smith, Alexander V. Alekseyenko & Jihad S. Obeid - 2019 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 10 (1):1-14.
    Host-microbiome interactions (HMIs) are critical for the modulation of biological processes and are associated with several diseases, and extensive HMI studies have generated large amounts of data. We propose that the logical representation of the knowledge derived from these data and the standardized representation of experimental variables and processes can foster integration of data and reproducibility of experiments and thereby further HMI knowledge discovery. A community-based Ontology of Host-Microbiome Interactions (OHMI) was developed following the OBO Foundry principles. OHMI leverages established (...)
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  25. Laws of Nature: a philosophical approach / Leis da Natureza: uma abordagem filosófica.Rodrigo Reis Lastra Cid - 2019 - Macapá, Brazil: Editora da Universidade Federal do Amapá.
    This book deals with an internal theme of metaphysics, which is the metaphysics of the laws of nature. The author presents traditional contemporary theories, as well as his own original theory, and evaluates each one at a time. He also addresses the problem of the modality of the laws of nature and makes some criticism of the standard view of necessity as truth in all possible worlds, and shows an application of his discussion to the metaphysics of physics. / Este (...)
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  26. Interdyscyplinarne perspektywy rozwoju, integracji i zastosowań ontologii poznawczych.Janna Hastings, Gwen Frishkoff, Barry Smith, Mark Jensen, Russell Poldrack, Jane Lomax, Anita Bandrowski, Fahim Imam, Jessica Turner, Maryann Martone & Przemysław Nowakowski - 2016 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 7 (3):101-117.
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  27. Oppositional Geometry in the Diagrammatic Calculus CL.Jens Lemanski - 2017 - South American Journal of Logic 3 (2):517-531.
    The paper presents the diagrammatic calculus CL, which combines features of tree, Euler-type, Venn-type diagrams and squares of opposition. In its basic form, `CL' (= Cubus Logicus) organizes terms in the form of a square or cube. By applying the arrows of the square of opposition to CL, judgments and inferences can be displayed. Thus CL offers on the one hand an intuitive method to display ontologies and on the other hand a diagrammatic tool to check inferences. The paper focuses (...)
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  28. Teoria degli Universali e Conoscenza della Realtà in Pietro Aureoli.Giacomo Fornasieri - 2019 - Dissertation, KU Leuven
  29. Towards a Conceptualization of Sociomaterial Entanglement.Daniele Porello & Roberta Ferrario - 2015 - In Henning Christiansen, Isidora Stojanovic & George A. Papadopoulos (eds.), Modeling and Using Context. 9th International and Interdisciplinary Conference, Context 2015. Springer. pp. 32--46.
    In knowledge representation, socio-technical systems can be modeled as multiagent systems in which the local knowledge of each individual agent can be seen as a context. In this paper we propose formal ontologies as a means to describe the assumptions driving the construction of contexts as local theories and to enable interoperability among them. In particular, we present two alternative conceptualizations of the notion of sociomateriality (and entanglement), which is central in the recent debates on socio-technical systems in the social (...)
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  30. Ontology as Product-Service System: Lessons Learned From GO, BFO and DOLCE.Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Buffalo, NY.
    This paper defends a view of the Gene Ontology (GO) and of Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as examples of what the manufacturing industry calls product-service systems. This means that they are products bundled with a range of ontology services such as updates, training, help desk, and permanent identifiers. The paper argues that GO and BFO are contrasted in this respect with DOLCE, which approximates more closely to a scientific theory or a scientific publication. The paper provides a detailed overview of (...)
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  31. Mental Capabilities.Eric Merrell, David Limbaugh, Alex Anderson & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), University at Buffalo, NY.
    We propose capability as a universal or type intermediate between function and disposition. A capability is, broadly speaking, a disposition that is of a type whose instances can be evaluated on the basis of how well they are realized. A function, on the view we are proposing, is a capability the possession of which is the rationale for the existence of its bearer. To say for example that a water pump has the function to pump water is to say that (...)
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  32. Foundation for a Realist Ontology of Cognitive Processes.David Kasmier, David Limbaugh & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), University at Buffalo, NY.
    What follows is a first step towards an ontology of conscious mental processes. We provide a theoretical foundation and characterization of conscious mental processes based on a realist theory of intentionality and using BFO as our top-level ontology. We distinguish three components of intentional mental process: character, directedness, and objective referent, and describe several features of the process character and directedness significant to defining and classifying mental processes. We arrive at the definition of representational mental process as a process that (...)
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  33. A First-Order Logic Formalization of the Industrial Ontology Foundry Signature Using Basic Formal Ontology.Barry Smith, Farhad Ameri, Hyunmin Cheong, Dimitris Kiritsis, Dusan Sormaz, Chris Will & J. Neil Otte - 2019 - In Proceedings of the Joint Ontology Workshops (JOWO), Graz.
    Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a top-level ontology used in hundreds of active projects in scientific and other domains. BFO has been selected to serve as top-level ontology in the Industrial Ontologies Foundry (IOF), an initiative to create a suite of ontologies to support digital manufacturing on the part of representatives from a number of branches of the advanced manufacturing industries. We here present a first draft set of axioms and definitions of an IOF upper ontology descending from BFO. The (...)
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  34. Toward an Ontology of Commercial Exchange.Jonathan Vajda, Eric Merrell & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the Joint Ontology Workshops (JOWO), Graz.
    In this paper we propose an Ontology of Commercial Exchange (OCE) based on Basic Formal Ontology. OCE is designed for re-use in the Industrial Ontologies Foundry (IOF) and in other ontologies addressing different aspects of human social behavior involving purchasing, selling, marketing, and so forth. We first evaluate some of the design patterns used in the Financial Industry Business Ontology (FIBO) and Product Types Ontology (PTO). We then propose terms and definitions that we believe will improve the representation of contractual (...)
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  35. The Ontology of Group Agency.Daniele Porello, Emanuele Bottazzi & Roberta Ferrario - 2014 - In Pawel Garbacz & Oliver Kutz (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems - Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, {FOIS} 2014, September, 22-25, 2014, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 183--196.
    We present an ontological analysis of the notion of group agency developed by Christian List and Philip Pettit. We focus on this notion as it allows us to neatly distinguish groups, organizations, corporations – to which we may ascribe agency – from mere aggregates of individuals. We develop a module for group agency within a foundational ontology and we apply it to organizations.
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  36. Logical Operators for Ontological Modeling.Stefano Borgo, Daniele Porello & Nicolas Troquard - 2014 - In Pawel Garbacz & Oliver Kutz (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems - Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, {FOIS} 2014, September, 22-25, 2014, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil}. pp. 23--36.
    We show that logic has more to offer to ontologists than standard first order and modal operators. We first describe some operators of linear logic which we believe are particularly suitable for ontological modeling, and suggest how to interpret them within an ontological framework. After showing how they can coexist with those of classical logic, we analyze three notions of artifact from the literature to conclude that these linear operators allow for reducing the ontological commitment needed for their formalization, and (...)
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  37. Towards an Ontological Modelling of Preference Relations.Daniele Porello & Giancarlo Guizzardi - 2018 - In C. Ghidini, B. Magnini, A. Passerini & P. Traverso (eds.), AI*IA 2018 - Advances in Artificial Intelligence - XVIIth International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence, Trento, Italy, November 20-23, 2018, Proceedings. pp. 152--165.
    Preference relations are intensively studied in Economics, but they are also approached in AI, Knowledge Representation, and Conceptual Modelling, as they provide a key concept in a variety of domains of application. In this paper, we propose an ontological foundation of preference relations to formalise their essential aspects across domains. Firstly, we shall discuss what is the ontological status of the relata of a preference relation. Secondly, we investigate the place of preference relations within a rich taxonomy of relations (e.g. (...)
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  38. Do Simple Infinitesimal Parts Solve Zeno’s Paradox of Measure?Lu Chen - forthcoming - Synthese:1-16.
    I develop an original view of the structure of space---called "infinitesimal atomism"---as a reply to Zeno's paradox of measure. According to this view, space is composed of ultimate parts with infinitesimal size, where infinitesimals are understood within the framework of Robinson's (1966) nonstandard analysis. Notably, this view satisfies a version of additivity: for every region that has a size, its size is the sum of the sizes of its disjoint parts. In particular, the size of a finite region is the (...)
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  39. Two Approaches to Ontology Aggregation Based on Axiom Weakening.Daniele Porello, Nicolaas Troquard, Oliver Kutz, Rafael Penaloza, Roberto Confalonieri & Pietro Galliani - 2018 - In Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, {IJCAI} 2018, July 13-19, 2018, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 1942--1948.
    Axiom weakening is a novel technique that allows for fine-grained repair of inconsistent ontologies. In a multi-agent setting, integrating ontologies corresponding to multiple agents may lead to inconsistencies. Such inconsistencies can be resolved after the integrated ontology has been built, or their generation can be prevented during ontology generation. We implement and compare these two approaches. First, we study how to repair an inconsistent ontology resulting from a voting-based aggregation of views of heterogeneous agents. Second, we prevent the generation of (...)
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  40. Repairing Ontologies Via Axiom Weakening.Daniele Porello & Oliver Kutz Nicolas Troquard, Roberto Confalonieri, Pietro Galliani, Rafael Peñaloza, Daniele Porello - 2018 - In Proceedings of the Thirty-Second {AAAI} Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (AAAI-18), the 30th innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (IAAI-18), and the 8th {AAAI} Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence (EAAI-18). pp. 1981--1988.
    Ontology engineering is a hard and error-prone task, in which small changes may lead to errors, or even produce an inconsistent ontology. As ontologies grow in size, the need for automated methods for repairing inconsistencies while preserving as much of the original knowledge as possible increases. Most previous approaches to this task are based on removing a few axioms from the ontology to regain consistency. We propose a new method based on weakening these axioms to make them less restrictive, employing (...)
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  41. Cryptographic Methods with a Pli Cachete: Towards the Computational Assurance of Integrity.Thatcher Collins - 2020 - In Gerhard R. Joubert Ian Foster (ed.), Advances in Parallel Computing. Amsterdam: IOS Press. pp. 10.
    Unreproducibility stemming from a loss of data integrity can be prevented with hash functions, secure sketches, and Benford's Law when combined with the historical practice of a Pli Cacheté where scientific discoveries were archived with a 3rd party to later prove the date of discovery. Including the distinct systems of preregistation and data provenance tracking becomes the starting point for the creation of a complete ontology of scientific documentation. The ultimate goals in such a system--ideally mandated--would rule out several forms (...)
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  42. Warranted Diagnosis.David Limbaugh, David Kasmier, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Buffalo, NY. Buffalo: pp. 1-10.
    A diagnostic process is an investigative process that takes a clinical picture as input and outputs a diagnosis. We propose a method for distinguishing diagnoses that are warranted from those that are not, based on the cognitive processes of which they are the outputs. Processes designed and vetted to reliably produce correct diagnoses will output what we shall call ‘warranted diagnoses’. The latter are diagnoses that should be trusted even if they later turn out to have been wrong. Our work (...)
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  43. Counterfactuals of Ontological Dependence.Sam Baron - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    A great deal has been written about 'would' counterfactuals of causal dependence. Comparatively little has been said regarding 'would' counterfactuals of ontological dependence. The standard Lewis-Stalnaker semantics is inadequate for handling such counterfactuals. That's because some of these counterfactuals are counterpossibles, and the standard Lewis-Stalnaker semantics trivializes for counterpossibles. Fortunately, there is a straightforward extension of the Lewis-Stalnaker semantics available that handles counterpossibles: simply take Lewis's closeness relation that orders possible worlds and unleash it across impossible worlds. To apply the (...)
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  44. Medical Acts and Conscientious Objection: What Can a Physician Be Compelled to Do?Nathan K. Gamble & Michal Pruski - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (3):262-282.
    A key question has been underexplored in the literature on conscientious objection: if a physician is required to perform ‘medical activities,’ what is a medical activity? This paper explores the question by employing a teleological evaluation of medicine and examining the analogy of military conscripts, commonly cited in the conscientious objection debate. It argues that physicians (and other healthcare professionals) can only be expected to perform and support medical acts – acts directed towards their patients’ health. That is, physicians cannot (...)
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  45. Towards an Aesthetic Epistemology: Transforming Thinking Through Cybernetic Epistemology and Anthroposophy.Seth Miller - 2014 - Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies
    The complexity, subtlety, interlinking, and scale of many problems faced individually and collectively in today's rapidly changing world requires an epistemology--a way of thinking about our knowing--capable of facilitating new kinds of responses that avoid recapitulation of old ways of thinking and living. Epistemology, which implicitly provides the basis for engagement with the world via the fundamental act of distinction, must therefore be included as a central facet of any practical attempts at self/world transformation. We need to change how we (...)
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  46. Lowe’s Eliminativism About Relations and the Analysis of Relational Inherence.Markku Keinänen - forthcoming - In Jonathan Lowe and Ontology.
    Contrary to widely shared opinion in analytic metaphysics, E.J. Lowe argues against the existence of relations in his posthumously published paper There are probably no relations (2016). In this article, I assess Lowe’s eliminativist strategy, which aims to show that all contingent “relational facts” have a monadic foundation in modes characterizing objects. Second, I present two difficult ontological problems supporting eliminativism about relations. Against eliminativism, metaphysicians of science have argued that relations might well be needed in the best a posteriori (...)
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  47. Metaphysics and Ontology.Daniel W. Smith - 2009 - In Beth Lord & John Mullarkey (eds.), Continuum Companion to Continental Philosophy. London: Continuum. pp. 55-68.
  48. Amie L. Thomasson: Ontology Made Easy. [REVIEW]Moritz Cordes - 2017 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 20:210-218.
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  49. Senza fondamento non c’è etica.Elisa Grimi - 2016 - In I. Poma (ed.), I fondamenti dell'etica. Brescia BS, Italia: pp. 365-372.
    --- abstract is not requested by the Editor.
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  50. The Theory of the Self in the Zhuangzi: A Strawsonian Interpretation.Jenny Hung - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 69 (2):376-394.
    This essay investigates the Zhuangzian theory of the self, which has long been the subject of a heated and controversial debate in Chinese intellectual history. According to an interpretation that has been quite prominent since the 1990s, the self in the Zhuangzi is a substantial, persisting self; it is a simple, basic object that is distinct from its properties. A substance, generally speaking, is an object or entity that has properties. Substance metaphysicians claim that substances, as primary units of reality, (...)
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