Para elaborar sua filosofia civil, Thomas Hobbes preliminarmente se dedicou ao exame daquilo que constitui a república: o homem. Em sua análise da dinâmica afetivo-cognitiva humana, tecida a partir dos conceitos de sensação, imagem, linguagem e paixão, o conceito de imaginação é apresentado como um resíduo da experiência sensível no corpo. Como tal, uma imagem estará sujeita a se eclipsar sob a luz de imagens mais fortes ou mais recentes, que podem apagá-la da mente tomando o seu lugar. O ato (...) ou faculdade de imaginar, a _imaginação_ — para Hobbes “sensação em declínio” —, é memória, que exprime no presente a sensação passada. Lançada ao futuro, a imagem mantém-se na expressão do medo ou da esperança, paixões que impelem aos homens serem credores de certo esquema de poder. A imaginação dá a forma da expectativa, que projeta passado e presente ao futuro, como uma profecia autorrealizável, garantido a estabilidade do poder e da riqueza. (shrink)
Ethical veganism is the view that raising animals for food is an immoral practice that must be stopped because of the harm it causes to the animals, the environment, and our health. Carlo Alvaro argues the only way to stop that harm is to acquire the virtues that enable us to act justly and benevolently toward animals.
Many moral philosophers have criticized intensive animal farming because it can be harmful to the environment, it causes pain and misery to a large number of animals, and furthermore eating meat and animal-based products can be unhealthful. The issue of industrially farmed animals has become one of the most pressing ethical questions of our time. On the one hand, utilitarians have argued that we should become vegetarians or vegans because the practices of raising animals for food are immoral since they (...) minimize the overall happiness. Deontologists, on the other hand, have argued that the practices of raising animals for food are immoral because animals have certain rights and we have duties toward them. Some virtue ethicists remain unconvinced of deontic and consequentialist arguments against the exploitation of animals and suggest that a virtue-based approach is better equipped to show what is immoral about raising and using animals for food, and what is virtuous about ethical veganism. (shrink)
The project of growing meat artificially represents for some the next best thing to humanity. If successful, it could be the solution to several problems, such as feed- ing a growing global population while reducing the environmental impact of raising animals for food and, of course, reducing the amount and degree of animal cruelty and suffering that is involved in animal farming. In this paper, I argue that the issue of the morality of such a project has been framed only (...) in terms of the best conse- quences for the environment, animals, and humans, or in terms of deontic princi- ples. I argue that to appreciate how deep and difficult this issue is, it is necessary to consider it in terms of a virtue-oriented approach. Such an approach will reveal aspects that are not apparent, not contemplated by typical approaches, but are essen- tial to our understanding of the morality of lab-grown meat. As I argue, evaluating the issue from a virtue-oriented perspective suggests that the project of in vitro meat should not be supported because it stems from unvirtuous motivations. (shrink)
The debate over ape personhood is of great social and moral importance. For more than twenty-five years, attorney Steven Wise has been arguing that animals who have cognitive complexities similar to humans should be legally granted basic rights of au- tonomy. In my view, granting personhood status and other rights to great apes are at- tainable goals. But how should we go about it?
With millions of animals brought into existence and raised for food every year, their negative impact upon the environment and the staggering growth in the number of chronic diseases caused by meat and dairy diets make a global move toward ethical veganism imperative. Typi-cally, utilitarians and deontologists have led this discussion. The purpose of this paper is to pro-pose a virtuous approach to ethical veganism. Virtue ethics can be used to construct a defense of ethical veganism by relying on the (...) virtues of compassion and fairness. Exercising these values in our relations with animals involves acknowledging their moral value, thus seeing that they are not our property or our food. It is important to emphasize that this argument applies only to well-developed societies that need not rely upon animals as sources of food, clothing, and various by-products. (shrink)
The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyse nurses’ professional dignity in their everyday working lives. We explored the factors that affect nursing professional dignity in practice that emerge in relationships with health professionals, among clinical nurses working in hospitals and in community settings in central Italy. The main themes identified were: nursing professional dignity perceived as an achievement; recognition of dignity beyond professional roles. These two concepts are interconnected. This study provides insights into professional dignity in nursing being (...) perceived as an achievement linked to the intrinsic dignity of every human being. The ‘nursing professional dignity perceived as an achievement’ was perceived as having declined in different social factors. Some factors of nursing professional dignity perceived as an achievement were attained more easily in community settings. ‘Recognition of dignity beyond professional roles’ underpins the intrinsic dignity as an expression of humanity, embedded in persons regardless of any profession, and values, such as: respect, moral integrity, humility, working conscientiously and kindness. (shrink)
The purpose of this qualitative study was to analyse nurses’ professional dignity in their everyday working lives. We explored the factors that affect nursing professional dignity in practice that emerge in relationships with health professionals, among clinical nurses working in hospitals and in community settings in central Italy. The main themes identified were: (i) nursing professional dignity perceived as an achievement; (ii) recognition of dignity beyond professional roles. These two concepts are interconnected. This study provides insights into professional dignity in (...) nursing being perceived as an achievement linked to the intrinsic dignity of every human being. The ‘nursing professional dignity perceived as an achievement’ was perceived as having declined in different social factors. Some factors of nursing professional dignity perceived as an achievement were attained more easily in community settings. ‘Recognition of dignity beyond professional roles’ underpins the intrinsic dignity as an expression of humanity, embedded in persons regardless of any profession, and values, such as: respect, moral integrity, humility, working conscientiously and kindness. (shrink)
In this paper I respond to Marcus William Hunt’s argument that vegan parents have pro tanto reasons for not raising their children on a vegan diet because such a diet is potentially harmful to children’s physical and social well-being. In my rebuttal, first I show that in practice all vegan diets, with the exception of wacky diets, are beneficial to children’s well-being ; and that all animal-based diets are potentially unhealthful. Second, I show that vegan children are no more socially (...) outcast than any other group. In other words, veganism does not harm the lives of children. Having considered several studies, I show that the moral reasons that vegan parents may have for raising their children on a vegan diet significantly outweigh the reasons for raising their children on an animal-based diet. Thus, I conclude that parents have a moral obligation to raise their children on a vegan diet. (shrink)
The animal liberation movement, among other goals, seeks an end to the use of animals for food. The philosophers who started the movement agree on the goal but differ in their approach: deontologists argue that rearing animals for food infringes animals’ inherent right to life. Utilitarians claim that ending the use of animals for food will result in the maximization of utility. Virtue-oriented theorists argue that using animals for food is callus, self-indulgent, and unjust, in short, it’s an unvirtuous practice. (...) Despite their different approaches, arguments for vegetarianism or veganism have a common step. They move from the notion of suffering to the conclusion of vegetarianism or veganism. In this paper I suggest that the notion of animal suffering is not necessary in order to condemn the practice of animal farming. I propose the possibility of defending vegetarianism or veganism on the basis of arguments that do not rest on the notion of animal suffering, but rather rely on aesthetic principles, the avoidance of violence, and preservation of the environment, and health. (shrink)
Resumen Este trabajo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre la tensión individuo-sociedad en la Crítica de la Razón dialéctica, última gran obra filosófica de Jean-Paul Sartre donde el autor intenta articular su perspectiva existencialista con la teoría marxista. Nuestro análisis empieza por reconstruir el contexto en el que esta obra vio la luz, para luego abordar la cuestión de la "socialidad", entre otras nociones clave vinculadas a la teoría sartreana de los conjuntos prácticos. Finalmente, de este análisis extraemos algunas conclusiones para (...) evaluar los alcances y limitaciones de la ontología social esbozada en la Crítica de la Razón dialéctica. ABSTRACT This work has the objective to reflect on the individual-society tension present in Critique of Dialectical Reason, Jean-Paul Sartre's last great philosophical work, where the author tries to articulate its existentialist perspective with Marxist theory. Our analysis begins by reconstructing the context in which this work saw the light and then addresses the question of "sociality", among other key notions linked to the Sartrean theory of practical ensembles. Finally, from this analysis we draw some conclusions in order to evaluate the reaches and limitations of the social ontology sketched in Critique of Dialectical Reason. (shrink)
The project of growing meat artificially represents for some the next best thing to humanity. If successful, it could be the solution to several problems, such as feeding a growing global population while reducing the environmental impact of raising animals for food and, of course, reducing the amount and degree of animal cruelty and suffering that is involved in animal farming. In this paper, I argue that the issue of the morality of such a project has been framed only in (...) terms of the best consequences for the environment, animals, and humans, or in terms of deontic principles. I argue that to appreciate how deep and difficult this issue is, it is necessary to consider it in terms of a virtue-oriented approach. Such an approach will reveal aspects that are not apparent, not contemplated by typical approaches, but are essential to our understanding of the morality of lab-grown meat. As I argue, evaluating the issue from a virtue-oriented perspective suggests that the project of in vitro meat should not be supported because it stems from unvirtuous motivations. (shrink)
RESUMEN: El presente artículo trata de lo transindividual, un concepto fundamental en la teoría de la individuación elaborada por Gilbert Simondon, y de su vinculación con ciertas proposiciones de Karl Marx que tratan del individuo y la sociedad. Entre ambos autores existe una relación directa, evidenciada en cada uno de los textos donde Simondon hace mención a Marx y al marxismo en general. Pero también existe una relación indirecta, para nada evidente, que surge menos de lo que Simondon dice acerca (...) de Marx que de lo que ciertos pensadores contemporáneos dicen sobre uno y otro. Aquí intento dar cuenta de ambos tipos de relaciones. Asimismo, me propongo introducir y comentar algunos pasajes de Marx que compiten en radicalidad y audacia con los que escribiera Simondon un siglo más tarde, y en los cuales quiero apoyar mi hipótesis de lectura, a saber, que Marx es un pensador de lo transindividual avant la lettre. ABSTRACT: The present article is about the transindividual, a fundamental concept in the theory of the individuation produced by Gilbert Simondon, and about its entailment with certain propositions of Karl Marx, that deal with the individual and the society. Between both authors there is a direct relationship, evidenced in each of the texts where Simondon makes mention to Marx and the Marxism in general. But it also exists an indirect relationship, at all evident, that arises less from what Simondon says about Marx than from what certain contemporary thinkers claim about one and the other. Here I attempt to give account of both types of relationships. In addition, I propose to introduce and comment some passages of the work of Marx, which compete in both radicalness and audacity with those that Simondon wrote a century after. And in which I want to sustain my reading hypothesis, namely, that Marx is a thinker of the transindividual avant la lettre. (shrink)
Através da análise da trajetória do aquitano Bernardo de Agen, bispo e senhor de Sigüenza entre os anos de 1124 a 1151, discutiremos neste artigo como o processo de reconquista territorial empreendida durante a Idade Média Central foi um dos fundamentos para o exercício da dominação eclesiástica na região de Castela, na Península Ibérica. Munido de um poder específico o qual chamamos de poder senhorial-episcopal, o bispo seguntino despontou como um dos principais nomes inseridos na política castelhano-leonesa, encabeçada por uma (...) gama de interdependências entre a monarquia e os episcopados. (shrink)
Human beings are getting fatter and sicker. As we question what we eat and why we eat it, this book argues that living well involves consuming a raw vegan diet. -/- With eating healthfully and eating ethically being simpler said than done, this book argues that the best solution to health, environmental, and ethical problems concerning animals is raw veganism―the human diet. The human diet is what humans are naturally designed to eat, and that is, a raw vegan diet of (...) fruit, tender leafy greens, and occasionally nuts and seeds. While veganism raises challenging questions over the ethics of consuming animal products, while also considering the environmental impact of the agriculture industry, raw veganism goes a step further and argues that consuming cooked food is also detrimental to our health and the environment. Cooking foods allows us to eat food that is not otherwise fit for human consumption and in an age that promotes eating foods in ‘moderation’ and having ‘balanced’ diets, this raises the question of why we are eating foods that should only be consumed in moderation at all, as moderation clearly implies they aren’t good for us. In addition, from an environmental perspective, the use of stoves, ovens and microwaves for cooking contributes significantly to energy consumption and cooking in general generates excessive waste of food and resources. Thus, this book maintains that living well and living a noble life, that is, good physical and moral health, requires consuming a raw vegan diet. -/- Exploring the scientific and philosophical aspects of raw veganism, this novel book is essential reading for all interested in promoting ethical, healthful, and sustainable diets. (shrink)
Em boa parte do Artigo 68 do Livro Primeiro de seu Estado e Pranto da Igreja, Álvaro Pais, O. Min. (c. 1270-1349) refuta 5 proposições com implicações políticas atribuídas a Marsílio de Pádua (1280-1342). Neste artigo, analisamos a refutação dessas proposições feitas pelo Menorita galego, comparando-as, de um lado, com os textos, efetivamente escritos pelo Médico paduano, que se encontram em sua obra Defensor da Paz (1324) e, de outro, cotejando-o com uma Epistula ad quosdam cardinales, de autoria do (...) mencionado Frade, escrita pelo menos dois anos antes. Desse estudo resultaram as seguintes conclusões: 1 – Frei Álvaro, sem fazer nenhuma alusão, apoiou-se basicamente na mencionada Epistula. 2 – Sob o aspecto doutrinal, essencialmente, não há diferença entre ambos os textos alvarinos. 3 – Nos dois textos, o Franciscano galego não compulsou o Defensor da Paz, tendo utilizado as teses que os censores dessa obra imputaram ao seu autor; em 1327, quando o Papa João XXII condenou-a como herética. PALAVRAS-CHAVE – Álvaro Pais. Marsílio de Pádua. Plenitude do poder. Filosofia política. ABSTRACT In a large part of the Article 68 of the Book one of his Status et Planctus Ecclesiae, Alvarus Pelagius O. Min. (c. 1270-1349) refutes five propositions, having political implications, attributed to Marsilius Patavinus (1280-1342). In this study, we analyze the refutation of these propositions made by Alvarus, comparing, on the one hand, with the texts, really, written by Marsilius, which are in his book entitled Defensor pacis (1324), and on the other hand, quoting Alvarus’ text with the Epistula ad quosdam cardinales, also written by the mentioned Franciscan friar two years before. From this study, resulted the following conclusions: 1 – Without to do any mention in the Article 68, the principal Alvarus’ source was the referred Epistula. 2 – Considering the two texts written by Fr. Alvarus, according the doctrinal aspect, they are essentially equal. 3 – In both texts we could see that Alvarus not had in his hands the Defensor Pacis, having used the thesis which the censors of this book imputed to Marsilius in 1327, when this book was condemned as heretic by the Pope John XXII. KEY WORDS – Alvarus Pelagius. Marsilius of Padua. Plentitude of power. Political philosophy. (shrink)
Em sua obra principal, o bispo franciscano Álvaro Pais elenca as principais heresias contra a fé cristã. Reserva uma parte significativa a combater três “erros” de Marsílio de Pádua: as afirnações de que o papa pode ser julgado pelo imperador, que o poder do papa não é superior ao de qualquer presbitero e que, morto o papa, o poder retorna ao imperador. Estuda-se a maneira como tais afirmações são refutadas e conclui-se que Álvaro não dispunha do texto marsiliano, (...) e sim de reportação do mesmo e que repete nessa obra o que já escrevera em outra. (shrink)
D. Álvaro Pelayo, nombrado obispo de Silves, hoy diócesis de Faro, Algarve, en el año 1334, entró en conflicto con el rey de Portugal, Alfonso IV (1325-57). Le escribió dos cartas en las que se puede observar que también tuvo que defender la autonomía jurisdiccional del poder espiritual, con vistas a la política centralizadora a la que el rey, siguiendo los pasos de su padre. D. Dinis (1279-1325), daba continuidad, con el propósito de restringir el espacio político del alto (...) clero lusitano. Unos pocos años después (1347), por la misma razón, el conflicto de las relaciones de poder entre las dos autoridades volvió a recrudecerse. Nuestro propósito aquí es doble: analizar los hechos históricos relacionados con los dos mencionados conflictos, por una parte, y los aspectos doctrinales contenidos en las dos referidas cartas, por otra, con vistas a mostrar la coherencia de pensamiento y actitud de D. Álvaro Pelayo. (shrink)
Resenha a partir de: VIEIRA, José Álvaro Campos. Aurora de uma espiritualidade sem religião: análise dos sem religião a partir da concepção de espiritualidade não religiosa de Marià Corbi. 2014. Dissertação , Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
Neste estudo, com base nos principais escritos políticos de D. Frei Álvaro Pais O. Min. (c. 1270- c.1350) analisamos sua concepção a respeito da origem ou causa eficiente do poder espiritual e, igualmente, seu pensamento no tocante à finalidade ou causa final do referido poder. Quanto ao primeiro tópico, o Bispo de Silves quer principalmente refutar algumas das teses de Marsílio de Pádua contidas na 2ª Parte do seu Defensor da Paz, completamente opostas à teologia do sacerdócio católico e (...) seus graus hierárquicos e à do Primado Petrino. Para tanto, quase literalmente, haure-se, entre outras fontes, particularmente no De regimine christiano (1301) de Tiago de Viterbo OSA. Com respeito à finalidade do poder sacerdotal, de um lado, Álvaro sustenta a doutrina tradicional da Igreja a seu respeito e, de outro, em conseqüência, como partidário da hierocracia, defende a tese de que na, Societas Christiana, os detentores do poder espiritual, particularmente o Sumo Pontífice, ocupam uma posição mais eminente em relação aos governantes seculares. (shrink)
Dividido em cinco partes, o presente artigo procura esboçar uma interpretação sistemática do pensamento filosófico criacionista do portuense Álvaro Ribeiro (1905-1981), um dos discípulos de Leonardo Coimbra que maior influência vem exercendo na filosofia portuguesa da segunda metade do século. Após apresentar os traços essenciais da vida e da obra do pensador, o artigo detém-se na exposição do modo como Álvaro Ribeiro concebia a Filosofia, como arte da palavra ou arte de filosofar, e como entendia as diversas disciplinas (...) filosóficas. Passando, depois, a considerar a doutrina do homem como Razão animada, aborda, sucessivamente, os problemas relativos à origem do homem, aos elementos do composto humano -corpo, alma e espírito - à 1 iberdade, que, no seu pensamento, depende da verdade e não da vontade, ao amor, à morte e à imortalidade. No domínio cosmológico, a que o filósofo dedicou menor atenção do que às questões antropológicas, o seu pensamento apresenta-se radicalmente pluralista, admitindo diversas regiões da realidade, e dinamista, pois entendia que, à excepção de Deus, tudo no mundo se encontra em movimento, para atingir o seu fim próprio. Quanto à teologia filosófica, considera o artigo a posição do filósofo sobre a essência, a existência e os atributos de Deus e os problemas do mal e do milagre, concluindo por analisar a posição de Álvaro Ribeiro perante o cristianismo e a divindade de Jesus. /// Divisé en cinq parties, le présent article cherche à tracer une interprétation systématique de la pensée philosophique créationniste de Âlvaro Ribeiro (1905-1981), originaire de la ville de Porto et un des disciples de Leonardo Coimbra qui ait le plus marqué la philosophie portugaise de la seconde moitié du siècle. Après avoir présenté les principaux traits de la vie et de l'oeuvre du penseur, l'article s'arrête sur la façon dont Alvaro Ribeiro concevait aussi bien la philosophie, comme art de la parole ou art de philosopher, que les diverses disciplines philosophiques. On en vient par après à considérer la doctrine de l'homme comme Raison animée, et l'on aborde successivement les problèmes concernant l'origine de l'homme, les éléments du composé humain (corps, âme, esprit), la liberté, laquelle, en sa pensée, dépend de la vérité et non de la volonté, l'amour, la mort, l'immortalité. Au plan cosmologique, auquel le philosophe prêta moins d'attention qu'aux questions anthropoplogiques, sa pensée se présente comme radicalement pluraliste, admettant diverses régions de la réalité et dynamique, car il entendait qu'à l'exception de Dieu, tout dans le monde se trouve en mouvement, en vue d'atteindre sa fin propre. Quant à la théologie philosophique, l'article considère la position du philosophe sur l'essence, l'existence et les attributs de Dieu, et les problèmes du mal et du miracle, et termine par l'analyse de la position de Âlvaro Ribeiro sur le christianisme et la divinité de Jésus. /// This paper is divided into five parts, and is an attempt to sketch a systematic interpretation on the creationist philosophical thought of Alvaro Ribeiro (1905-1981), from Oporto, one of the disciples of Leonardo Coimbra that has had a greater influence upon the Portuguese philosophy during the second half of the XXth century. After the presentation of the main elements of his life and work, the paper explains Alvaro Ribeiro's concept of philosophy - as a word art or an art of philosophizing -, and how he conceived the main philosophical disciplines. Next, after the consideration of his doctrine of man as animated Reason, the main problems are analyzed as to the origin of man, the elements of the human compound - body, soul and spirit - freedom, which according to him depends on truth and not on will, love, death and immortality. Within the cosmological domain, to which the author dedicated less attention than to the anthropological questions, his views are radically both pluralistic, as he admited several areas of reality, and dynamist, as he believed that everything in the world but God has been set in motion in order to reach its own end. As to his philosophical theology, this paper considers the author's position as to the essence, the existence and the attributes of God, and also to the questions of evil and miracle, concluding with an analysis of Álvaro Ribeiro's views on both Christianity and the divinity of Jesus. (shrink)
The essay review summarizes the intention as well as some of the major topics from the book of A. Moreno and M. Mossio and discusses them against the background of recent considerations on the general understanding of organisms. The authors see themselves in the organicist tradition in biology and propose that a new understanding of living beings can be developed around the notion of organismic autonomy, which enables biological systems to maintain themselves in an environment through directed behavior.
In this study, based in the main political works of D. Fr. Alvarus Pelagius O. Min. (c. 1270- c.1350) we analyze his conception on the origin or efficient cause of the spiritual power and, also, his thought about the finality or final cause of the mentioned power. Referring to the first topic, the Bishop of Silves wants principally refutes some Marsilius of Padua’s thesis contained in the Second Dictio of his Defensor Pacis, completely different of the theology of the catholic (...) priesthood and their hierarchic degrees and the Peter’s Primacy. With this purpose, ad litteram, he bases, between other sources, specially, in James’ of Viterbo OSA De regimine christiano (1301). Concerning the finality of the spiritual power, on the one hand, Alvarus supports the Church’s traditional thought about this matter and, the other hand, by consequence, as member and defender of the hierocratic thought, he defends the thesis according which, in the Societas Christiana, the priests, the bishops and, principally, the Roman Pontiff hold the most important position concerning the secular rulers. (shrink)