Linguistics is important. An understanding of linguistic principles is as essential to the layperson as it is to the language scholar. Using concrete examples from politics, law, and education, this book shows how people misconceive language every day and what the consequences of misconceptions can be. Since the meanings of words are often fuzzy at best, this volume argues for a flexible approach to meaning and definitions, and demonstrates how this approach can help us understand many conflicts. It is an (...) alternative way of viewing and doing sociolinguistics. Language Misconceived: Arguing for Applied Cognitive Sociolinguistics offers many specific suggestions and guidelines for approaching a linguistic project. The ideas expressed in this book have been class tested for several years. Students enthusiastically appreciate the connections drawn between linguistics and real-life problems. The goal is to help students of sociolinguistics avoid pitfalls that may inhibit research. Language Misconceived: Arguing for Applied Cognitive Sociolinguistics is intended primarily for graduate and Ph.D. students of linguistics, especially those interested in applying linguistics to fields like politics, law, and education. It may also be recommended to seasoned linguists as well as researchers in communication, sociology, psychology, and education. (shrink)
A cornerstone of economic theory is that rational agents are self-interested, yet a decade of research in experimental economics has shown that economic decisions are frequently driven by concerns for fairness, equity, and reciprocity. One aspect of other-regarding behavior that has garnered attention is noblesse oblige, a social norm that obligates those of higher status to be generous in their dealings with those of lower status. The results of a cross-cultural study are reported in which marked noblesse oblige was observed (...) on a reciprocal-contract decision-making task. Participants from seven countries that vary along hierarchical and individualist/collectivist social dimensions were more tolerant of non-reciprocation when they adopted a high-ranking perspective compared with a low-ranking perspective. (shrink)
Number 1 of Fides et ratio contains a phrase crucial for the dialogue between science and philosophy. Its meaning is clear in the Latin, polish, English, German, French and Portuguese versions, but it loses its strength in the Italian and Spanish texts.
The golden rule, the ethical principle that we should do to others what we want others to do to us, is known also in Christian tradition as the rule of love of neighbor. The aim of this paper is to inquire the relationship between two levels of meaning of the golden rule according to Karol Wojtyla’s philosophical investigations, prior to his pontificate. One strand of the actual debate on the golden rule concerns its anthropological roots and ethical meaning. (...) class='Hi'>Karol Wojtyla’s philosophical approach to the golden rule involves both the investigation of its anthropological roots and its ethical requirements. Indeed, there is a pre-ethical sense of the golden rule in Karol Wojtyla, which is linked to his phenomenological approach to human person and life in community. At this level, the golden rule is described from the perspective of the self-fulfillment logic, which manifests the personalist value of human action. On the other hand, there is also a second sense, properly ethical, of the golden rule, thanks to which developed his perspective of self-donation as a condition for self-fulfillment. In this wojtylian perspective, what makes golden a moral rule is its ability to integrate and complement the search for self-realization with the fulfillment of another through the gift of oneself. (shrink)
Purpose. The article is aimed to introduce Karol Wojtyła’s anthropological teaching into the philosophical discourse through the systematization of anthropological issues in his philosophical and theological works. Provision of insight into the peculiar features of his adequate anthropology implies the fulfillment of the following tasks: first, identification of the methodology and the meaning of the principal concepts; secondly, study of the thinker’s key ideas; thirdly, presentation of the periodization of his anthropological doctrine development. Theoretical basis comprises of Karol (...) Wojtyła’s works written before and during the pontificate, excluding his poetic writing. The fulfillment of tasks involves processing the substantial database of academic research devoted to Karol Wojtyła’s views. It will help identify less-explored issues in Karol Wojtyła’s legacy, as well as contradictory aspects in the interpretation of the thinker’s ideas. In view of the growing interest of philosophical anthropology to everyday life, this aspect of Karol Wojtyła’s teaching is an important point in the analysis of his philosophical and anthropological considerations. Therefore, general research methods and approaches will help study Karol Wojtyła’s views on the nature of a human being, as well as individual and social dimensions of a person’s life. Originality lies in systematizing Karol Wojtyła’s anthropological ideas. The disclosure of the methodology, the key concepts and their interpretations, and the periodization of the development of Karol Wojtyła’s anthropological views can reveal his connection with the philosophical trends and define his place in modern philosophy. Conclusions. Wojtyła justifies the need for a new anthropological doctrine with an inappropriate place of a human being in the value system of the modern world, as he or she has evolved from the aim of everything ever created to the means. The basis of the new doctrine of a human being, namely adequate anthropology, is, according to him, human identity, dignity and "moral greatness". Karol Wojtyła’s "new human being" is the result of an integrated approach to studying the anthropological issues of the present and the response to "cultural impoverishment" and "the decline of mankind". (shrink)
An important milestone of 20th Century philosophy was the rise of personalism. After the crimes and atrocities against millions of human beings in two World Wars, especially the Second, some philosophers and other thinkers began to seek arguments showing the value of each human being, to expose and denounce the folly of political structures that violate the inalienable rights of the individual person. -/- Karol Wojtyla appeals to the ancient concept of 'person' to emphasize the particular value of each (...) human being. The person is unique because of their subjectivity by which they possesses an unrepeatable interior world in the history of humanity. Their rational nature grants them a special character among living beings, among which is the transcendence to the infinite. Wojtyla magisterially shows how each human being's personhood is rooted in a conscious and free subjectivity, which is marked also by personal and social responsibility. Wojtyla's original philosophical analysis takes for its starting point the human act, in which consciousness and experience consolidate voluntary choices, which are objectively efficacious. By their acts, the person determines their own personhood. This self-dominion manifests the person and enables them to live together in a community in which one's neighbor can be a companion on the voyage of life. -/- This work provides a clear guide to Karol Wojtyla's principal philosophical work, Person and Act, rigorously analyzing the meaning that the author intended in his exposition. An important feature of the work is that the authors rely on the original Polish text, Osoba i czyn, as well as the best translations into Italian and Spanish, rather than on a flawed and sometimes misleading English edition of the work. -/- Besides the analysis of Wojtyla's masterwork, this volume offers three chapters examining the impact of Wojtyla's anthropology on the relationship between faith and reason. (shrink)
The lack of consensus in American society regarding the permissibility of assisted suicide and euthanasia is due in large part to a failure to address the nature of the human person involved in the ethical act itself. For Karol Wojtyla, philosopher and Pope, ethical action finds meaning only in an authentic understanding of the person; but it is through acting (actus humanus) alone that the human person reveals himself. Knowing what the person ought to be cannot be divorced from (...) what he ought to do; forWojtyla, the structure of the ethical “do” – the act itself – comes first. The current paper will focus on four arguments used to justify assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) the argument from autonomy, (2) the argument from compassion, (3) the argument from the evil of suffering, and (4) the argument from the loss of dignity. It will seek to answer each claim from the perspective of Karol Wojtyla's philosophical anthropology. Much of this will come from his defining work in pure philosophy, The Acting Person (1969). The final part of the paper will suggest some positive solutions to the stalemate over the euthanasia debate, again drawn from Wojtyla's idea of human fulfillment through participation with the other, and with the community itself. (shrink)
This paper examines the meaning of what Karol Wojtyła/John Paul II calls “The Law of the Gift,” namely, “Man, who is the only creature on earth which God willed for itself, can fully find himself only through a sincere gift of himself.” After explaining what it means to be “willed for itself,” I consider how “finding oneself only through a gift of self ” is justified. I then argue that in his theory of self-gift,Wojtyła/John Paul II espouses an “embodied” (...) altruism. Two objections to Wojtyła/John Paul II’s account are also addressed: (1) the idea that finding fulfillment (moral goodness) through self-giving is incompatible with altruism and (2) that reciprocal self-giving is incompatible with altruism. I defend Wojtyła/John Paul II’s notion of self-giving against these objections in several ways, but focus on evidence for the compatibility of subjective enrichment and altruism. (shrink)
As the notion of artificial moral agency gains popularity among ethicists, it threatens the unique status of the human person as a responsible moral agent. The philosophy of ontocentrism, popularized by Luciano Floridi, argues that biocentrism is too restrictive and must yield to a new philosophical vision that endows all beings with some intrinsic value. Floridi’s macroethics also regards more sophisticated digital entities such as robots as accountable moral agents. To refute these principles, this paper turns to the thought of (...)Karol Wojtyla, who argued cogently for an intimate correlation between personal action and moral agency. By examining the distinguishing characteristics of personal action, we can ascertain the necessary conditions of moral agency and demonstrate why artificial entities do not meet those conditions. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 11.3 : 479–501. (shrink)
In this brief paper I attempt to focus our attention on some of the main thematic lines concerning Karol Wojtyła’s meditation both on man’s personhood and man’s life. I especially wish to investigate the meaning of the term «life», such as it is used in the thought and the teachings of the man who became John Paul II.
I use concepts of Karol Wojtyla’s personalism, especially the concept of subjectivity, to explain Newman’s personalism. There is a “turn to the subject” in Wojtyla, and there is a similar “turn to the subject” in Newman; and they explain each other. Thus Newman’s distinction between the theological intellect and the religious imagination, and his particular concern with the latter, is shown to be an expression of his personalism. I try not only to throw new light on Newman’s personalism, but (...) also to explain why his personalism, as Wojtyla’s, has been mistaken for subjectivism. I show that there is in Newman, as in Wojtyla, a unity of subjectivity and objectivity that secures his thought against subjectivism. (shrink)
This work is a revised presentation of Kupczak’s dissertation, The Human Person as an Efficient Cause in the Christian Anthropology of Karol Wojtyla. It is introduced by Michael Novak’s article, “The Christian Philosophy of John Paul II”, which serves as an excellent entrée to Kupczak’s analysis of Wojtyla’s system.
This work is largely based on Reimers’s doctoral dissertation, written under Rocco Buttiglione, an Italian philosopher and close collaborator of Wojtyla. In essence, however, it is less a focussed study of the thought of Karol Wojtyla than an attempt to insert that thought into a different conceptual context and to illuminate it by way of comparison and synthesis. The analogue to Wojtyla’s thought, in this case, is that of C. S. Peirce. Peirce’s analysis of habit, as a kind of (...) major premise or a sign of the meaning of an action, is compared to Wojtyla’s more dynamic approach to the relationship between act and meaning, in Reimers’s characterization, “as the moment of experience of choice”. (shrink)
El incesante retorno de Karol Wojtyla al estudio del hombre y la defensa de la dignidad de la persona no son hechos producto del azar o del mero interés del pensador, sino que son resultado de la experiencia del fenómeno del totalitarismo durante el transcurso de la Segunda Guerra Mundial; además, sufrió todo el desprecio de la barbarie nazi y la posterior llegada del comunismo a su nación; estas “ideologías del mal” como él las llamó, dan cuenta de la (...) naturaleza verdadera y radical del mal, del olvido del otro y de la desestimación sistemática por la vida humana. Este artículo es una descripción del ejercicio de poder y dominación ejecutados concretamente por Adolf Hitler a Polonia durante el paso de la guerra por ese país, tierra natal del Papa. El objeto de estudio es la comprensión, en términos de causalidad, del pensamiento de Wojtyla: personalismo y humanismo cristiano; los términos “totalitarismo”, “geopolíica”, “personalismo” y la figura de Hitler son esenciales. Los pensadores no se hacen solos, su temperamento es fruto del contexto en el que vivieron. En este análisis, para hacer más fina esa comprensión pretendida, son citados otros autores que han ampliado el horizonte de comprensión sobre el fenómeno citado, por ejemplo Hannah Arendt y Joan Carles Mélich. (shrink)
In this paper, I explain and defend Karol Wojtyła’s claim that “if we wish to speak rationally about good and evil, we have to return to the philosophyof being. If we do not set out from such ‘realist’ presuppositions, we end up in a vacuum.” I begin by outlining Wojtyła’s existential understanding of the good,according to which the good for x is found in those ends that complete the being that is lacking in x, or that enhance its existence (...) in keeping with its nature. Then I explain how Wojtyła moves from an existentialunderstanding of the good to the thesis that “exemplarism is the very heart of the normative order.” Finally, using representative thinkers from both the Continentaland Analytic traditions, I defend Wojtyła’s claim that when we divorce goodness from being we end up in a moral vacuum, in a kind of nihilism wherethe good signifies nothing other than the rationalized articulation of one’s subjective needs, desires, or wishes. In such a state, the only means for resolving moraldisagreements is through the consensus of the majority or the forceful rule of the strongest will. (shrink)
Sex reassignment surgery raises a number of ethical questions. This article examines a few of these questions through the lens of Karol Wojtyla’s philosophical anthropology. The author maintains that the operation is based on a dualistic view of the person and a distorted understanding of the human capacity for self-determination. In his work, Wojtyla emphasizes the inseparable connection between freedom and truth, and he argues that the person is a unity of body and spirit, so that the body cannot (...) be reduced to mere matter. Therefore, the author concludes that sex reassignment surgery must be seen as morally illicitin light of Wojtyla’s anthropology. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 9.4 : 711–723. (shrink)
The »dynamic personalism« developed by Karol Wojtyla as a philosophical basis for Catholic sexual ethics attempts to integrate the experiential perspective of modern phenomenology and the traditional concept of nature. The article points out that the use of phenomenology in the service of a preconceived ontology neglects the epistemological problern and reduces human action to a process in which nature appears as a quasi causal agent. In a second step it focusses on the concept of person in the ecumenical (...) discussion of bioethics. (shrink)
O artigo visa apresentar a estrutura da crítica de Karol Wojtyla ao Utilitarismo na sua obra “Amor e responsabilidade”. Identificando no Utilitarismo não apenas uma corrente ética formulada filosoficamente na modernidade, mas também um modo de pensar que caracteriza aos homens e mulheres do nosso tempo, Wojtyla contrasta a chamada norma utilitarista com uma ética centrada no valor da pessoa humana. Além de não fazer justiça à estrutura do próprio prazer, o Utilitarismo também falsifica a própria natureza do agir (...) moral. Tal falsificação tem as suas raízes numa antropologia simplista, que reduz o homem a um indivíduo dotado de razão e sensibilidade, estando a primeira totalmente subordinada à segunda. O artigo busca evidenciar, por meio de exemplos e citações de outros personalistas e utilitaristas, a suficiência da argumentação de Wojtyla, que o leva a desqualificar o Utilitarismo como sistema ético capaz de fundamentar a comunhão entre as pessoas. (shrink)
This short essay by Karol Kuzmány (1806–1866), a founding father of Slovak aesthetic thinking, was written in Czech and published in 1836 in Hronka, a periodical edited by the author. In the essay, Kuzmány follows on from the thinking of his teacher at Jena, Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773–1843), particularly Fries’s theory of Ahn(d)ung (intuitive awareness). In the introduction, Kuzmány emphasizes that his concern is to bridge the gap between the theory of imitation and the theory of art based on (...) imagination. In the first part of the essay, concerning general aesthetics, Kuzmány presents his theory of beauty – the feeling of the essence of things through perception by the mind (Anschauung or intuitus mentis); the basic idea – truth, the moral good, and beauty – according to Kuzmány, comprises the idea of religion in the broader sense – Humanität, humanitas. Rather than the opposite of beauty, the sublime constitutes beauty’s being raised to a qualitatively higher level: it is based on a contemplated intuitive awareness, which is itself felt. The second part of the essay consists of Kuzmány’s attempt to define art and to categorize kinds of art and genres of poetry. He distinguishes between unmediated art, which represents beauty to the external senses, and mediated art, which is aimed at inner feeling. The latter category includes poetry, which is, according to him, the supreme art, for it can, with the help of language, represent all forms of unmediated art as well. Kuzmány also devotes himself to a speculative justification of its genres, poetic style, and verse. (shrink)
Moving from an historical analysis of the Catholic Church's gradual endorsement of liberal democracy to an explication of the ethical and political thought of Karol Wojtyla/John Paul II, Persons and Liberal Democracy concisely explains the relatively recent shift in the Church's political theory and, in the process, defends what could be deemed a non-statist form of welfare liberalism. This book offers a systematic account of John Paul's philosophical and theological ethics and their relationship to the key elements of his (...) political thought and then brings this thought into conversation with some important strands of Christian and secular political theory deliberating the nature and legitimacy of liberalism. (shrink)
John Corrigan unveils a new reading of Karol Wojtyła/Pope John Paul II as a disruptive agency in the history of philosophical thought, resulting in a reconsideration of the anthropological foundations of our idea of culture.