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  1. CRISPR: A New Principle of Genome Engineering Linked to Conceptual Shifts in Evolutionary Biology.Eugene V. Koonin - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):9.
    The CRISPR-Cas systems of bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity have become a household name among biologists and even the general public thanks to the unprecedented success of the new generation of genome editing tools utilizing Cas proteins. However, the fundamental biological features of CRISPR-Cas are of no lesser interest and have major impacts on our understanding of the evolution of antivirus defense, host-parasite coevolution, self versus non-self discrimination and mechanisms of adaptation. CRISPR-Cas systems present the best known case in point (...)
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  2. The LKB1‐AMPK and mTORC1 Metabolic Signaling Networks in Schwann Cells Control Axon Integrity and Myelination.Bogdan Beirowski - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800075.
    The Liver kinase B1 with its downstream target AMP activated protein kinase (LKB1‐AMPK), and the key nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) form two signaling systems that coordinate metabolic and cellular activity with changes in the environment in order to preserve homeostasis. For example, nutritional fluctuations rapidly feed back on these signaling systems and thereby affect cell‐specific functions. Recent studies have started to reveal important roles of these strategic metabolic regulators in Schwann cells for the trophic support (...)
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  3. HIV Disease Progression: Overexpression of the Ectoenzyme CD38 as a Contributory Factor?Juan C. Rodríguez‐Alba, Amayrani Abrego‐Peredo, Carlos Gallardo‐Hernández, Jocelyn Pérez‐Lara, Wendolaine Santiago‐Cruz, Wei Jiang & Enrique Espinosa - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1).
    Despite abundant evidence associating CD38 overexpression and CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection, no causal relation has been investigated. To address this issue, a series of mechanisms are proposed, supported by evidence from different fields, by which CD38 overexpression can facilitate CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection. According to this model, increased catalytic activity of CD38 may reduce CD4 T cells’ cytoplasmic nicotin‐amide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), leading to a chronic Warburg effect. This will reduce mitochondrial function. Simultaneously, CD38's (...)
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  4. Chromatin Stability as a Target for Cancer Treatment.Katerina V. Gurova - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800141.
    In this essay, I propose that DNA‐binding anti‐cancer drugs work more via chromatin disruption than DNA damage. Success of long‐awaited drugs targeting cancer‐specific drivers is limited by the heterogeneity of tumors. Therefore, chemotherapy acting via universal targets (e.g., DNA) is still the mainstream treatment for cancer. Nevertheless, the problem with targeting DNA is insufficient efficacy due to high toxicity. I propose that this problem stems from the presumption that DNA damage is critical for the anti‐cancer activity of these drugs. DNA (...)
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  5. Can All Major Ros Forming Sites of the Respiratory Chain Be Activated by High FADH2/NADH Ratios?Peter Schönfeld - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800225.
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  6. Are SMC Complexes Loop Extruding Factors? Linking Theory With Fact.Jonathan Baxter, Antony W. Oliver & Stephanie A. Schalbetter - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800182.
    The extreme length of chromosomal DNA requires organizing mechanisms to both promote functional genetic interactions and ensure faithful chromosome segregation when cells divide. Microscopy and genome‐wide contact frequency analyses indicate that intra‐chromosomal looping of DNA is a primary pathway of chromosomal organization during all stages of the cell cycle. DNA loop extrusion has emerged as a unifying model for how chromosome loops are formed in cis in different genomic contexts and cell cycle stages. The highly conserved family of SMC complexes (...)
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  7. Cura“X”Ing Cancer and Beyond.Vassilis G. Gorgoulis & Athanassios Kotsinas - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800223.
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  8. Phase Separation and Transcription Regulation: Are Super‐Enhancers and Locus Control Regions Primary Sites of Transcription Complex Assembly?Aishwarya Gurumurthy, Yong Shen, Eliot M. Gunn & Jörg Bungert - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800164.
    It is proposed that the multiple enhancer elements associated with locus control regions and super‐enhancers recruit RNA polymerase II and efficiently assemble elongation competent transcription complexes that are transferred to target genes by transcription termination and transient looping mechanisms. It is well established that transcription complexes are recruited not only to promoters but also to enhancers, where they generate enhancer RNAs. Transcription at enhancers is unstable and frequently aborted. Furthermore, the Integrator and WD‐domain containing protein 82 mediate transcription termination at (...)
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  9. A Perspective on the Potential Utility of a Viscosupplement Multifunctional Biotherapeutic.James Melrose - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800215.
  10. Proteoglycan 4: From Mere Lubricant to Regulator of Tissue Homeostasis and Inflammation.Nabangshu Das, Tannin A. Schmidt, Roman J. Krawetz & Antoine Dufour - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800166.
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  11. Multidrug Therapy for HIV Infection: Dynamics of Immune System.Deepmala Kamboj & M. D. Sharma - forthcoming - Acta Biotheoretica.
    A mathematical model of the dynamics of the immune system is considered to illustrate the effect of its response to HIV infection, i.e. on viral growth and on T-cell dynamics. The specific immune response is measured by the levels of cytotoxic lymphocytes in a human body. The existence and stability analyses are performed for infected steady state and uninfected steady state. In order to keep infection under control, roles of drug therapies are analyzed in the presence of efficient immune response. (...)
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  12. Code Biology, Peircean Biosemiotics, and Rosen’s Relational Biology.Marcello Barbieri - forthcoming - Biological Theory:1-9.
    The classical theories of the genetic code claimed that its coding rules were determined by chemistry—either by stereochemical affinities or by metabolic reactions—but the experimental evidence has revealed a totally different reality: it has shown that any codon can be associated with any amino acid, thus proving that there is no necessary link between them. The rules of the genetic code, in other words, obey the laws of physics and chemistry but are not determined by them. They are arbitrary, or (...)
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  13. Whose Turn? Chromosome Research and the Study of the Human Genome.Soraya de Chadarevian - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (4):631-655.
    A common account sees the human genome sequencing project of the 1990s as a “natural outgrowth” of the deciphering of the double helical structure of DNA in the 1950s. The essay aims to complicate this neat narrative by putting the spotlight on the field of human chromosome research that flourished at the same time as molecular biology. It suggests that we need to consider both endeavors – the human cytogeneticists who collected samples and looked down the microscope and the molecular (...)
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  14. Stephen Hilgartner, Reordering Life: Knowledge and Control in the Genomics Revolution , 368 pp., $35.00 Hardcover ISBN: 9780262035866. [REVIEW]Robin Wolfe Scheffler - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (4):879-881.
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  15. Evolution of Antigenic Variation in African Trypanosomes: Variant Surface Glycoprotein Expression, Structure, and Function.James D. Bangs - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (12):1800181.
    The process of antigenic variation in parasitic African trypanosomes is a remarkable mechanism for outwitting the immune system of the mammalian host, but it requires a delicate balancing act for the monoallelic expression, folding and transport of a single variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Only one of hundreds of VSG genes is expressed at time, and this from just one of ≈15 dedicated expression sites. By switching expression of VSGs the parasite presents a continuously shifting antigenic facade leading to prolonged chronic (...)
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  16. RNAs, Phase Separation, and Membrane‐Less Organelles: Are Post‐Transcriptional Modifications Modulating Organelle Dynamics?Aleksej Drino & Matthias R. Schaefer - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (12):1800085.
    Membranous organelles allow sub‐compartmentalization of biological processes. However, additional subcellular structures create dynamic reaction spaces without the need for membranes. Such membrane‐less organelles (MLOs) are physiologically relevant and impact development, gene expression regulation, and cellular stress responses. The phenomenon resulting in the formation of MLOs is called liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS), and is primarily governed by the interactions of multi‐domain proteins or proteins harboring intrinsically disordered regions as well as RNA‐binding domains. Although the presence of RNAs affects the formation and (...)
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  17. The Abc of Phosphonate Breakdown: A Mechanism for Bacterial Survival.M. Cemre Manav, Nicholas Sofos, Bjarne Hove-Jensen & Ditlev E. Brodersen - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800091.
    Bacteria have evolved advanced strategies for surviving during nutritional stress, including expression of specialized enzyme systems that allow them to grow on unusual nutrient sources. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is limiting in most ecosystems, hence organisms have developed a sophisticated, enzymatic machinery known as carbon‐phosphorus (C‐P) lyase, allowing them to extract phosphate from a wide range of phosphonate compounds. These are characterized by a stable covalent bond between carbon and phosphorus making them very hard to break down. Despite the challenges involved (...)
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  18. Structural Biology of the HEAT‐Like Repeat Family of DNA Glycosylases.Rongxin Shi, Xing‐Xing Shen, Antonis Rokas & Brandt F. Eichman - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800133.
    DNA glycosylases remove aberrant DNA nucleobases as the first enzymatic step of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The alkyl‐DNA glycosylases AlkC and AlkD adopt a unique structure based on α‐helical HEAT repeats. Both enzymes identify and excise their substrates without a base‐flipping mechanism used by other glycosylases and nucleic acid processing proteins to access nucleobases that are otherwise stacked inside the double‐helix. Consequently, these glycosylases act on a variety of cationic nucleobase modifications, including bulky adducts, not previously associated with (...)
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  19. Endocrine Regulation of Energy Balance by Drosophila TGF‐Β/Activins.Wei Song, Arpan C. Ghosh, Daojun Cheng & Norbert Perrimon - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800044.
    The Transforming growth factor beta (TGF‐β) family of secreted proteins regulates a variety of key events in normal development and physiology. In mammals, this family, represented by 33 ligands, including TGF‐β, activins, nodal, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), regulate biological processes as diverse as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine functions. In Drosophila, only 7 members of this family are present, with 4 TGF‐β/BMP and 3 TGF‐β/activin ligands. Studies in (...)
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  20. Phenotypic Plasticity in Animals Exposed to Osmotic Stress – Is It Always Adaptive?Jan‐Peter Hildebrandt, Amanda A. Wiesenthal & Christian Müller - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800069.
    Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are elements of phenotypic plasticity adjusting organ size and function. Because they are costly, we assume that they are beneficial. In this review, the authors discuss examples of tissue and organ systems that respond with plastic changes to osmotic stress to raise awareness that we do not always have sufficient experimental evidence to conclude that such processes provide fitness advantages. Changes in hydranth architecture in the hydroid Cordylophora caspia or variations in size in the anal papillae of (...)
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  21. The Abc of Phosphonate Breakdown: A Mechanism for Bacterial Survival.M. Cemre Manav, Nicholas Sofos, Bjarne Hove‐Jensen & Ditlev E. Brodersen - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11).
    Bacteria have evolved advanced strategies for surviving during nutritional stress, including expression of specialized enzyme systems that allow them to grow on unusual nutrient sources. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is limiting in most ecosystems, hence organisms have developed a sophisticated, enzymatic machinery known as carbon‐phosphorus (C‐P) lyase, allowing them to extract phosphate from a wide range of phosphonate compounds. These are characterized by a stable covalent bond between carbon and phosphorus making them very hard to break down. Despite the challenges involved (...)
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  22. It is Neither Frankenstein Nor a Submarine Alkaline Vent, It is Just the Second Law.David S. Ross - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800149.
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  23. Holoimmunity Revisited.Bartlomiej Swiatczak & Alfred I. Tauber - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):1800117.
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  24. Addressing Cancer Chemotherapeutic Toxicity, Resistance, and Heterogeneity: Novel Theranostic Use of DNA‐Encoded Small Molecule Libraries.Gerald Kolodny, Xiaoyu Li & Steven Balk - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800057.
    Major problems in cancer chemotherapy are toxicity, resistance, and cancer heterogeneity. A new theranostic paradigm has been proposed by the authors. Many million small molecules (SM) are bound to the proteins extracted from a patient's cancer. SM that also bind proteins extracted from normal human tissues are subtracted from the cancer protein bound SM leaving a large array of SM targeting many sites on each of the cancer biomarkers. Targeting many more than the conventional 1 – 4 cancer biomarkers will (...)
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  25. How Acts of Infidelity Promote DNA Break Repair: Collision and Collusion Between DNA Repair and Transcription.Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Alasdair J. E. Gordon, Jennifer A. Halliday & Christophe Herman - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800045.
    Transcription is a fundamental cellular process and the first step in gene regulation. Although RNA polymerase (RNAP) is highly processive, in growing cells the progression of transcription can be hindered by obstacles on the DNA template, such as damaged DNA. The authors recent findings highlight a trade‐off between transcription fidelity and DNA break repair. While a lot of work has focused on the interaction between transcription and nucleotide excision repair, less is known about how transcription influences the repair of DNA (...)
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  26. Histone Lysine and Genomic Targets of Histone Acetyltransferases in Mammals.Anne K. Voss & Tim Thomas - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800078.
    Histone acetylation has been recognized as an important post‐translational modification of core nucleosomal histones that changes access to the chromatin to allow gene transcription, DNA replication, and repair. Histone acetyltransferases were initially identified as co‐activators that link DNA‐binding transcription factors to the general transcriptional machinery. Over the years, more chromatin‐binding modes have been discovered suggesting direct interaction of histone acetyltransferases and their protein complex partners with histone proteins. While much progress has been made in characterizing histone acetyltransferase complexes biochemically, cell‐free (...)
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  27. Cancer Care Using an Array of Radiolabelled Small Molecules.Madhava B. Mallia & Maroor Raghavan Ambikalamajan Pillai - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800131.
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  28. Replisome‐Cohesin Interfacing: A Molecular Perspective.Sara Villa‐Hernández & Rodrigo Bermejo - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800109.
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  29. “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy.Joeri Witteveen - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:20-33.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay, I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting (...)
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  30. Known Unknowns of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance.Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki, Josefin M. E. Forslund, Steffi Goffart, Rubén Torregrosa-Muñumer & Sjoerd Wanrooij - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800102.
    Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and repair have been studied intensively for the last 50 years. Although recently advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA maintenance and the proteins involved in these have been made, there are disturbing gaps between the existing theoretical models and experimental observations. Conflicting data and hypotheses exist about the role of RNA and ribonucleotides in mtDNA replication, but also about the priming of replication and the formation of pathological rearrangements. In the presented review, we (...)
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  31. An Herbiary of Plant Individuality.Sophie Gerber - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10.
    Questioning the nature of individuality has a long and a rich history, both in philosophy and in biology. Because they differ in several features from the pervasive vertebrate-human model, plants have been considered as complicating the question. Here, the various plant species on which authors—whether biologists or philosophers—rely to build the picture of plant individuality are examined and tracked for their peculiarities, thus constituting an “herbiary” of plant individuality. The herbiary of plant individuality has as its members species exhibiting a (...)
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  32. Making Sense of Genes. [REVIEW]Charalambos P. Kyriacou - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (2).
    What are genes? What do genes do? These seemingly simple questions are in fact challenging to answer accurately. As a result, there are widespread misunderstandings and over-simplistic answers, which lead to common conceptions widely portrayed in the media, such as the existence of a gene 'for' a particular characteristic or disease. In reality, the DNA we inherit interacts continuously with the environment and functions differently as we age. What our parents hand down to us is just the beginning of our (...)
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  33. Known Unknowns of Mammalian Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance.Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki, Josefin M. E. Forslund, Steffi Goffart, Rubén Torregrosa‐Muñumer & Sjoerd Wanrooij - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9).
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  34. Understanding Animal Evolution: The Added Value of Sponge Transcriptomics and Genomics.Emmanuelle Renard, Sally P. Leys, Gert Wörheide & Carole Borchiellini - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1700237.
    Sponges are important but often‐neglected organisms. The absence of classical animal traits (nerves, digestive tract, and muscles) makes sponges challenging for non‐specialists to work with and has delayed getting high quality genomic data compared to other invertebrates. Yet analyses of sponge genomes and transcriptomes currently available have radically changed our understanding of animal evolution. Sponges are of prime evolutionary importance as one of the best candidates to form the sister group of all other animals, and genomic data are essential to (...)
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  35. When Does the Epigenome Become “Sexy”?Anna K. Naumova - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800120.
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  36. Correction To: Graphical Representation and Similarity Analysis of DNA Sequences Based on Trigonometric Functions.Guo-Sen Xie, Xiao-Bo Jin, Chunlei Yang, Jiexin Pu & Zhongxi Mo - 2018 - Acta Biotheoretica 66 (3):251-253.
  37. Proteolytic Processing of the P75 Neurotrophin Receptor: A Prerequisite for Signalling?S. Skeldal, D. Matusica, A. Nykjaer & E. J. Coulson - 2012 - Bioessays 34 (6):521-521.
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  38. An Embryonic Story: Analysis of the Gene Regulative Network Controlling Xist Expression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.Pablo Navarro & Philip Avner - 2010 - Bioessays 32 (7):641-641.
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  39. Functional Diversity of FGF-2 Isoforms by Intracellular Sorting.Vigdis Sørensen, Trine Nilsen & Antoni Wi??dłocha - 2006 - Bioessays 28 (5):504-514.
    Regulation of the subcellular localization of certain proteins is a mechanism for the regulation of their biological activities. FGF‐2 can be produced as distinct isoforms by alternative initiation of translation on a single mRNA and the isoforms are differently sorted in cells. High molecular weight FGF‐2 isoforms are not secreted from the cell, but are transported to the nucleus where they regulate cell growth or behavior in an intracrine fashion. 18 kDa FGF‐2 can be secreted to the extracellular medium where (...)
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  40. To B or Not to B: A Pheromone-Binding Protein Regulates Colony Social Organization in Fire Ants.Michael J. B. Krieger - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (1):91-99.
    A major distinction in the social organization of ant societies is the number of reproductive queens that reside in a single colony. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta exists in two distinct social forms, one with colonies headed by a single reproductive queen and the other containing several to hundreds of egg‐laying queens. This variation in social organization has been shown to be associated with genotypes at the gene Gp‐9. Specifically, single‐queen colonies have only the B allelic variant of this gene, (...)
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  41. Silent Chromatin in Yeast: An Orchestrated Medley Featuring Sir3p.Elisa M. Stone & Lorraine Pillus - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (1):30-40.
    Extensive regions of chromosomes can be transcriptionally repressed through silencing mechanisms mediated by complex chromatin structures. One of the most refined molecular portraits of silenced chromatin comes from studies of the silent mating‐type loci and telomeres of S. cerevisiae. In this budding yeast, the Sir3p silent information regulator emerges as a critically important silencing component that interacts with nucleosomes and other silencing proteins. Not only is it essential for silencing, but Sir3p is also capable of spreading silenced chromatin when its (...)
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  42. Asymmetric Segregation of Aged Spindle Pole Bodies During Cell Division: Mechanisms and Relevance Beyond Budding Yeast?Jette Lengefeld & Yves Barral - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800038.
    Asymmetric cell division generates cell diversity and contributes to cellular aging and rejuvenation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms enabling budding yeast to recognize spindle pole bodies (SPB, centrosome equivalent) based on their age, and guide their non‐random mitotic segregation: SPB inheritance requires the distinction of old from new SPBs and is regulated by the SPB‐inheritance network (SPIN) and the mitotic exit network (MEN). The SPIN marks the pre‐existing SPB as old and the MEN recognizes these marks translating them into (...)
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  43. May the Fittest Protein Evolve: Favoring the Plant‐Specific Origin and Expansion of NAC Transcription Factors.Iny Elizebeth Mathew & Pinky Agarwal - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800018.
    Plant‐specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) evolve during the transition from aquatic to terrestrial plant life and are amplified to become one of the biggest TF families. This is because they regulate genes involved in water conductance and cell support. They also control flower and fruit formation. The review presented here focuses on various properties, regulatory intricacies, and developmental roles of NAC family members. Processes controlled by NACs depend majorly on their transcriptional properties. NACs can function as both activators and/or repressors. (...)
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  44. Hunger and Satiety Signaling: Modeling Two Hypothalamomedullary Pathways for Energy Homeostasis.Kazuhiro Nakamura & Yoshiko Nakamura - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1700252.
    The recent discovery of the medullary circuit driving “hunger responses” – reduced thermogenesis and promoted feeding – has greatly expanded our knowledge on the central neural networks for energy homeostasis. However, how hypothalamic hunger and satiety signals generated under fasted and fed conditions, respectively, control the medullary autonomic and somatic motor mechanisms remains unknown. Here, in reviewing this field, we propose two hypothalamomedullary neural pathways for hunger and satiety signaling. To trigger hunger signaling, neuropeptide Y activates a group of neurons (...)
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  45. Synthetic Versus Analytic Approaches to Protein and DNA Structure Determination.Agnes Bolinska - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):26.
    The structures of protein and DNA were discovered primarily by means of synthesizing component-level information about bond types, lengths, and angles, rather than analyzing X-ray diffraction photographs of these molecules. In this paper, I consider the synthetic and analytic approaches to exemplify alternative heuristics for approaching mid-twentieth-century macromolecular structure determination. I argue that the former was, all else being equal, likeliest to generate the correct structure in the shortest period of time. I begin by characterizing problem solving in these cases (...)
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  46. Frankenstein or a Submarine Alkaline Vent: Who Is Responsible for Abiogenesis?Elbert Branscomb & Michael J. Russell - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1700179.
  47. Temperature‐Controlled Rhythmic Gene Expression in Endothermic Mammals: All Diurnal Rhythms Are Equal, but Some Are Circadian.Marco Preußner & Florian Heyd - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1700216.
    The circadian clock is a cell autonomous oscillator that controls many aspects of physiology through generating rhythmic gene expression in a time of day dependent manner. In addition, in endothermic mammals body temperature cycles contribute to rhythmic gene expression. These body temperature‐controlled rhythms are hard to distinguish from classic circadian rhythms if analyzed in vivo in endothermic organisms. However, they do not fulfill all criteria of being circadian if analyzed in cell culture or in conditions where body temperature of an (...)
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  48. Agent‐Based Modeling in Molecular Systems Biology.Mohammad Soheilypour & Mohammad R. K. Mofrad - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1800020.
    Molecular systems orchestrating the biology of the cell typically involve a complex web of interactions among various components and span a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. Computational methods have advanced our understanding of the behavior of molecular systems by enabling us to test assumptions and hypotheses, explore the effect of different parameters on the outcome, and eventually guide experiments. While several different mathematical and computational methods are developed to study molecular systems at different spatiotemporal scales, there is still (...)
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  49. Dietary Micronutrients Promote Neuronal Differentiation by Modulating the Mitochondrial‐Nuclear Dialogue.Kui Xie & Allan Sheppard - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1800051.
    The metabolic requirements of differentiated neurons are significantly different from that of neuronal precursor and neural stem cells. While a re‐programming of metabolism is tightly coupled to the neuronal differentiation process, whether shifts in mitochondrial mass, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation are required (or merely consequential) in differentiation is not yet certain. In addition to providing more energy, enhanced metabolism facilitates differentiation by supporting increased neurotransmitter signaling and underpinning epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Both epidemiological and animal studies demonstrate that micronutrients (...)
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  50. Energy From ATP‐Hydrolysis Does Not Drive Biological Reactions ….Andrew Moore - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (7):1800105.
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