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  1. Eukaryotes First: How Could That Be? [REVIEW]Carlos Mariscal & W. Ford Doolittle - 2015 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370:1-10.
    In the half century since the formulation of the prokaryote : eukaryote dichotomy, many authors have proposed that the former evolved from something resembling the latter, in defiance of common (and possibly common sense) views. In such ‘eukaryotes first’ (EF) scenarios, the last universal common ancestor is imagined to have possessed significantly many of the complex characteristics of contemporary eukaryotes, as relics of an earlier ‘progenotic’ period or RNAworld. Bacteria and Archaea thus must have lost these complex features secondarily, through (...)
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  2. Germs, Genes, and Memes: Functional and Fitness Dynamics on Information Networks.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Christopher Reade & Stephen Fisher - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82:219-243.
    It is widely accepted that the way information transfers across networks depends importantly on the structure of the network. Here, we show that the mechanism of information transfer is crucial: in many respects the effect of the specific transfer mechanism swamps network effects. Results are demonstrated in terms of three different types of transfer mechanism: germs, genes, and memes. With an emphasis on the specific case of transfer between sub-networks, we explore both the dynamics of each of these across networks (...)
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  3. Het laatste woord is niet gezegd: de moderne synthese voorbij.Nathalie Gontier - 2005 - In I. Tallon (ed.), Evolutie vandaag: hoe de dingen ontstaan en waarom ze veranderen. pp. 57-84.
  4. Historical and Epistemological Perspectives on What Lateral Gene Transfer Mechanisms Contribute to Our Understanding of Evolution.Nathalie Gontier - 2015 - In Reticulate Evolution: Symbiogenesis, Lateral Gene Transfer, Hybridization and Infectious Heredity. pp. 121-178.
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  5. Reticulate Evolution Everywhere.Nathalie Gontier - 2015 - In Reticulate Evolution: Symbiogenesis, Lateral Gene Transfer, Hybridization and Infectious Heredity. pp. 1-40.
  6. Uniting Micro- with Macroevolution Into an Extended Synthesis: Reintegrating Life’s Natural History Into Evolution Studies.Nathalie Gontier - 2015 - In Nathalie Gontier & Emanuele Serrelli (eds.), Macroevolution: Explanation, interpretation and Evidence. pp. 227-278.
  7. Symbiogenesis, History Of.Nathalie Gontier - 2016 - In R. Kliman (ed.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology. pp. 261-271.
  8. Genes, Brains, and Language: Would Someone Please Pull the Brakes?Nathalie Gontier - 2008 - Review of General Psychology 2 (12):170-180.
  9. Big data in the experimental life sciences: Bruno J. Strasser: Collecting experiments: Making big data biology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2019, 392 pp, $45.00. [REVIEW]Emanuele Ratti - 2020 - Metascience 29 (3):403-408.
  10. Epigenetics, Responsiveness and Embodiment.Maria Kronfeldner - forthcoming - In Dana Mahr & Martina von Arx (eds.), De-Sequencing: Identity Work With Genes.
    This short paper comments on the connections between epigenetics, responsiveness and embodiment. Epigenetics has solidified a new conception of DNA as “responsive,” and rightfully so. Yet, the discussion too easily falls back to metaphors of agency and can show a tendency to see responsiveness and embodiment as based on epigenetics, which is shown to be wrong.
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  11. From Obesity to Energy Metabolism: Ontological Perspectives on the Metrics of Human Bodies.Davide Serpico & Andrea Borghini - 2020 - Topoi:1-10.
    In this paper, we aim at rethinking the concept of obesity in a way that better captures the connection between underlying medical aspects, on the one hand, and an individual’s developmental history, on the other. Our proposal rests on the idea that obesity is not to be understood as a phenotypic trait or character; rather, obesity represents one of the many possible states of a more complex phenotypic trait that we call ‘energy metabolism.’ We argue that this apparently simple conceptual (...)
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  12. Calculus CL - From Baroque Logic to Artificial Intelligence.Jens Lemanski - 2020 - Logique Et Analyse 249:111-129.
    In the year 1714, Johann Christian Lange published a baroque textbook about a logic machine, supposed to simulate human cognitive abilities such as perception, judgement, and reasoning. From today’s perspective, it can be argued that this blueprint is based on an inference engine applied to a strict ontology which serves as a knowledge base. In this paper, I will first introduce Lange’s approach in the period of baroque logic and then present a diagrammatic modernization of Lange’s principles, entitled Calculus CL. (...)
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  13. You: A Natural History, by William B Irvine. [REVIEW]Ross Pain - 2020 - Quarterly Review of Biology 95 (3):250-251.
  14. The Biosemiotic Implications of 'Bacterial Wisdom'.Felipe-Andres Piedra & Donald R. Frohlich - manuscript
    Eshel Ben-Jacob’s manuscript entitled ‘Bacterial wisdom, Gödel’s theorem and creative genomic webs’ summarizes decades of work demonstrating adaptive mutagenesis in bacterial genomes. Bacterial genomes, each an essential part of a Kantian whole that is a single bacterium, are thus not independent of the environment as sensed; and a single bacterium is therefore a semiotic entity. Ben-Jacob suggests this but errs in 1) assigning autonomy to the genome, and 2) analogizing through computation without making clear whether he is doing so for (...)
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  15. On Being the Right Size, Revisited: The Problem with Engineering Metaphors in Molecular Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2020 - In Sune Hannibal Holm & Maria Serban (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on the Engineering Approach in Biology: Living Machines? London, UK: pp. 40-68.
    In 1926, Haldane published an essay titled 'On Being the Right Size' in which he argued that the structure, function, and behavior of an organism are strongly conditioned by the physical forces that exert the greatest impact at the scale at which it exists. This chapter puts Haldane’s insight to work in the context of contemporary cell and molecular biology. Owing to their minuscule size, cells and molecules are subject to very different forces than macroscopic organisms. In a sense, macroscopic (...)
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  16. When Bioscience Meets Philosophy: Major Issues in the Philosophy of Biology.Sun Kyeong Yu - 2011 - Philosophy and Reality 91:99-110.
    CONTENT 1. Misconceptions of Darwin's Theory of Evolution 2. Darwinism against Essentialism and the Concept of Species 3. Function and Biological Explanation 4. The Gene 목차 1. 다윈의 진화론에 대한 오해들 2. 본질주의에 대한 진화론의 반대와 종(Species)의 개념 3. 기능(function)과 생명과학적 설명 4. 유전자 맺음말.
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  17. The Buddhist idea of Transmigration from the Bioscientific Perspective.Sun Kyeong Yu - 2020 - In Buddhism and Culture (Buddhist magazine in Korea). Seoul, South Korea: pp. The March Issue, 2020.
    죽고 다시 태어나는 반복의 과정을 논하는 불교의 윤회설은 끊임없이 변화하는 생명현상의 본래 모습을 그대로 보여준다. 어느 생명체도 변하지 않고 영구한 것은 없다. 오래된 개체의 삶이 끝나고 새로운 삶이 시작되는 반복의 자연현상이 윤회이다. 본고는 윤회를 생명과학적으로 해석하며 삼라만상에서 일어나는 윤회란 개체들뿐만 아니라 세포와 분자선상에서도 일어나는 자연스런 생명현상임을 밝히겠다.
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  18. Reducing Biology.Sun Kyeong Yu - 2008 - Dissertation,
    This dissertation proposes a new working model of reductionism for biology and a new concept of the gene based on the new reduction model. My project aims to help biologists and philosophers understand what reductionism in biology really is, or, should be. Historical debates about reductionism testify us that the classical reduction model, i.e., Ernest Nagel's bridge-law model, offers us neither an appropriate ontological reductionism nor a reductive explanation about biological phenomena. Casting doubts on the received view of the layered (...)
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  19. A Theory of Conceptual Advance: Explaining Conceptual Change in Evolutionary, Molecular, and Evolutionary Developmental Biology.Ingo Brigandt - 2006 - Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    The theory of concepts advanced in the dissertation aims at accounting for a) how a concept makes successful practice possible, and b) how a scientific concept can be subject to rational change in the course of history. Traditional accounts in the philosophy of science have usually studied concepts in terms only of their reference; their concern is to establish a stability of reference in order to address the incommensurability problem. My discussion, in contrast, suggests that each scientific concept consists of (...)
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  20. What is a Hologenomic Adaptation? Emergent Individuality and Inter-Identity in Multispecies Systems.Javier Suárez & Vanessa Triviño - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 187 (11).
    Contemporary biological research has suggested that some host–microbiome multispecies systems (referred to as “holobionts”) can in certain circumstances evolve as unique biological individual, thus being a unit of selection in evolution. If this is so, then it is arguably the case that some biological adaptations have evolved at the level of the multispecies system, what we call hologenomic adaptations. However, no research has yet been devoted to investigating their nature, or how these adaptations can be distinguished from adaptations at the (...)
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  21. Behaving: What’s Genetic, What’s Not, and Why Should We Care? [REVIEW]Polaris Koi - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (1):151-154.
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  22. Levels of Organization in the Biological Sciences.Daniel Stephen Brooks, James DiFrisco & William C. Wimsatt (eds.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
    The subject of this edited volume is the idea of levels of organization: roughly, the idea that the natural world is segregated into part-whole relationships of increasing spatiotemporal scale and complexity. The book comprises a collection of essays that raise the idea of levels into its own topic of analysis. Owing to the wide prominence of the idea of levels, the scope of the volume is aimed at theoreticians, philosophers, and practicing researchers of all stripes in the life sciences. The (...)
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  23. Macroevolution: Explanation, Interpretation and Evidence.Emanuelle Serrelli & Nathalie Gontier (eds.) - 2015 - Springer.
    This book is divided in two parts, the first of which shows how, beyond paleontology and systematics, macroevolutionary theories apply key insights from ecology and biogeography, developmental biology, biophysics, molecular phylogenetics, and even the sociocultural sciences to explain evolution in deep time. In the second part, the phenomenon of macroevolution is examined with the help of real life-history case studies on the evolution of eukaryotic sex, the formation of anatomical form and body-plans, extinction and speciation events of marine invertebrates, hominin (...)
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  24. Are Synthetic Genomes Parts of a Genetic Lineage?Gunnar Babcock - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:000-000.
    Biologists are nearing the creation of the first fully synthetic eukaryotic genome. Does this mean that we still soon be able to create genomes that are parts of an existing genetic lineage? If so, it might be possible to bring back extinct species. But do genomes that are synthetically assembled, no matter how similar they are to native genomes, really belong to the genetic lineage on which they were modelled? This article will argue that they are situated within the same (...)
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  25. Ca2+ -Dependent Hyperpolarization Pathways in Sleep Homeostasis and Mental Disorders.Shoi Shi & Hiroki R. Ueda - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (1):1700105.
    Although we are beginning to understand the neuronal and biochemical nature of sleep regulation, questions remain about how sleep is homeostatically regulated. Beyond its importance in basic physiology, understanding sleep may also shed light on psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent genetic studies in mammals revealed several non-secretory proteins that determine sleep duration. Interestingly, genes identified in these studies are closely related to psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, suggesting that the sleep-wake cycle shares some common mechanisms with these disorders. Here we review (...)
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  26. A Link Between Alzheimer's and Type II Diabetes Mellitus? Ca+2 -Mediated Signal Control and Protein Localization.Yuko Tsutsui & Franklin A. Hays - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (6):1700219.
  27. Hunger and Satiety Signaling: Modeling Two Hypothalamomedullary Pathways for Energy Homeostasis.Kazuhiro Nakamura & Yoshiko Nakamura - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1700252.
    The recent discovery of the medullary circuit driving “hunger responses” – reduced thermogenesis and promoted feeding – has greatly expanded our knowledge on the central neural networks for energy homeostasis. However, how hypothalamic hunger and satiety signals generated under fasted and fed conditions, respectively, control the medullary autonomic and somatic motor mechanisms remains unknown. Here, in reviewing this field, we propose two hypothalamomedullary neural pathways for hunger and satiety signaling. To trigger hunger signaling, neuropeptide Y activates a group of neurons (...)
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  28. How Polycomb‐Mediated Cell Memory Deals With a Changing Environment.Federica Marasca, Beatrice Bodega & Valerio Orlando - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (4):1700137.
    Cells and tissues are continuously exposed to a changing microenvironment, hence the necessity of a flexible modulation of gene expression that in complex organism have been achieved through specialized chromatin mechanisms. Chromatin-based cell memory enables cells to maintain their identity by fixing lineage specific transcriptional programs, ensuring their faithful transmission through cell division; in particular PcG-based memory system evolved to maintain the silenced state of developmental and cell cycle genes. In evolution the complexity of this system have increased, particularly in (...)
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  29. mRNA Traffic Control Reviewed: N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) Takes the Driver's Seat.Abhirami Visvanathan & Kumaravel Somasundaram - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (1):1700093.
    Messenger RNA is a flexible tool box that plays a key role in the dynamic regulation of gene expression. RNA modifications variegate the message conveyed by the mRNA. Similar to DNA and histone modifications, mRNA modifications are reversible and play a key role in the regulation of molecular events. Our understanding about the landscape of RNA modifications is still rudimentary in contrast to DNA and histone modifications. The major obstacle has been the lack of sensitive detection methods since they are (...)
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  30. Data Science and Molecular Biology: Prediction and Mechanistic Explanation.Ezequiel López-Rubio & Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - Synthese (4):1-26.
    In the last few years, biologists and computer scientists have claimed that the introduction of data science techniques in molecular biology has changed the characteristics and the aims of typical outputs (i.e. models) of such a discipline. In this paper we will critically examine this claim. First, we identify the received view on models and their aims in molecular biology. Models in molecular biology are mechanistic and explanatory. Next, we identify the scope and aims of data science (machine learning in (...)
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  31. Das ELSI-Programm des U.S.-Amerikanischen Humangenomprojekts – Neue Perspektiven Für Die Medizinethik?The ELSI Program of the US-American Human Genome Project – New Perspectives for Medical Ethics?Nikola Biller-Andorno - 2001 - Ethik in der Medizin 13 (4):243-252.
    Definition of the problem: The ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) program of the Human Genome Project is the biggest bioethical research project to date. However, it has met with fairly critical reception. Arguments: ELSI is nevertheless an important element in current bioethics. We can learn not just from the results and methodology of the numerous studies that received ELSI funding, but also by looking at the pros and cons of its close institutional integration into the Human Genome Project. Finally, (...)
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  32. On the Origins of Symmetry and Modularity in the Proteasome Family.Adrian C. D. Fuchs & Marcus D. Hartmann - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1800237.
    The proteasome family of proteases comprises oligomeric assemblies of very different symmetry. In different sizes, it features ring‐like oligomers with dihedral symmetry that allow the stacking of further rings of regulatory subunits as observed in the modular proteasome system, but also less symmetric helical assemblies. Comprehensive sequence and structural analyses of proteasome homologs reveal a parsimonious scenario of how symmetry may have emerged from a monomeric ancestral precursor and how it may have evolved throughout the proteasome family. The four characterized (...)
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  33. BioEssays 4∕2019.Ayelet Arbel‐Eden & Giora Simchen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1970041.
    In sexual organisms, haploid gametes are produced from diploid germ cells through meiosis. Chromosome reassortment and recombination generate ample genetic variation, augmented by newly arising mutations. Meiotic mutations are associated with recombination, initiated by DNA breakage, and may lead to faster evolution and sequence heterogeneity around recombination hotspots. More details can be found in the Review article 1800235 by Ayelet Arbel‐Eden and Giora Simchen, Elevated Mutagenicity in Meiosis and Its Mechanism, DOI: 10.1002/bies.201970041.
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  34. Elevated Mutagenicity in Meiosis and Its Mechanism.Ayelet Arbel‐Eden & Giora Simchen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800235.
    Diploid germ cells produce haploid gametes through meiosis, a unique type of cell division. Independent reassortment of parental chromosomes and their recombination leads to ample genetic variability among the gametes. Importantly, new mutations also occur during meiosis, at frequencies much higher than during the mitotic cell cycles. These meiotic mutations are associated with genetic recombination and depend on double‐strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate crossing over. Indeed, sequence variation among related strains is greater around recombination hotspots than elsewhere in the genome, (...)
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  35. Impact of RNA–Protein Interaction Modes on Translation Control: The Versatile Multidomain Protein Gemin5.Rosario Francisco‐Velilla, Embarc‐Buh Azman & Encarnacion Martinez‐Salas - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800241.
    The fate of cellular RNAs is largely dependent on their structural conformation, which determines the assembly of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Consequently, RNA‐binding proteins (RBPs) play a pivotal role in the lifespan of RNAs. The advent of highly sensitive in cellulo approaches for studying RNPs reveals the presence of unprecedented RNA‐binding domains (RBDs). Likewise, the diversity of the RNA targets associated with a given RBP increases the code of RNA–protein interactions. Increasing evidence highlights the biological relevance of RNA conformation for recognition (...)
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  36. Too Many False Targets for MicroRNAs: Challenges and Pitfalls in Prediction of miRNA Targets and Their Gene Ontology in Model and Non‐Model Organisms.Arie Fridrich, Yael Hazan & Yehu Moran - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800169.
    Short (“seed”) or extended base pairing between microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target RNAs enables post‐transcriptional silencing in many organisms. These interactions allow the computational prediction of potential targets. In model organisms, predicted targets are frequently validated experimentally; hence meaningful miRNA‐regulated processes are reported. However, in non‐models, these reports mostly rely on computational prediction alone. Many times, further bioinformatic analyses such as Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment are based on these in silico projections. Here such approaches are reviewed, their caveats are highlighted (...)
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  37. Extracellular Vesicles From Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exert Pleiotropic Effects on Amyloid‐Β, Inflammation, and Regeneration: A Spark of Hope for Alzheimer's Disease From Tiny Structures?Chiara A. Elia, Morris Losurdo, Maria L. Malosio & Silvia Coco - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800199.
    No cure yet exists for devastating Alzheimer's disease (AD), despite many years and humongous efforts to find efficacious pharmacological treatments. So far, neither designing drugs to disaggregate amyloid plaques nor tackling solely inflammation turned out to be decisive. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and, in particular, extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from them could be proposed as an alternative, strategic approach to attack the pathology. Indeed, MSC‐EVs—owing to their ability to deliver lipids/proteins/enzymes/microRNAs endowed with anti‐inflammatory, amyloid‐β degrading, and neurotrophic activities—may be exploited (...)
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  38. Nucleotide Excision Repair and Transcription‐Associated Genome Instability.Zivkos Apostolou, Georgia Chatzinikolaou, Kalliopi Stratigi & George A. Garinis - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (4):1800201.
    Transcription is a potential threat to genome integrity, and transcription‐associated DNA damage must be repaired for proper messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis and for cells to transmit their genome intact into progeny. For a wide range of structurally diverse DNA lesions, cells employ the highly conserved nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway to restore their genome back to its native form. Recent evidence suggests that NER factors function, in addition to the canonical DNA repair mechanism, in processes that facilitate mRNA synthesis or (...)
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  39. Code Biology, Peircean Biosemiotics, and Rosen’s Relational Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):21-29.
    The classical theories of the genetic code claimed that its coding rules were determined by chemistry—either by stereochemical affinities or by metabolic reactions—but the experimental evidence has revealed a totally different reality: it has shown that any codon can be associated with any amino acid, thus proving that there is no necessary link between them. The rules of the genetic code, in other words, obey the laws of physics and chemistry but are not determined by them. They are arbitrary, or (...)
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  40. Isolability as the Unifying Feature of Modularity.Lucas Matthews - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):20.
    Although the concept of modularity is pervasive across fields and disciplines, philosophers and scientists use the term in a variety of different ways. This paper identifies two distinct ways of thinking about modularity, and considers what makes them similar and different. For philosophers of mind and cognitive science, cognitive modularity helps explain the capacities of brains to process sundry and distinct kinds of informational input. For philosophy of biology and evolutionary science, biological modularity helps explain the capacity of random evolutionary (...)
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  41. Ribosomal Proteins Control Tumor Suppressor Pathways in Response to Nucleolar Stress.Frédéric Lessard, Léa Brakier-Gingras & Gerardo Ferbeyre - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800183.
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  42. Coordination of Timers and Sensors in Cell Signaling.Junbin Qian, Lendert Gelens & Mathieu Bollen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800217.
    Timers and sensors are common devices that make our daily life safer, more convenient, and more efficient. In a cellular context, they arguably play an even more crucial role as they ensure the survival of cells in the presence of various extrinsic and intrinsic stresses. Biological timers and sensors generate distinct signaling profiles, enabling them to produce different types of cellular responses. Recent data suggest that they can work together to guarantee correct timing and responsiveness. By exploring examples of cellular (...)
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  43. Back From the Brink: Retrieval of Membrane Proteins From Terminal Compartments.Matthew N. J. Seaman - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800146.
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  44. Microtubule Plus End Dynamics − Do We Know How Microtubules Grow?Jeffrey van Haren & Torsten Wittmann - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800194.
    Microtubules form a highly dynamic filament network in all eukaryotic cells. Individual microtubules grow by tubulin dimer subunit addition and frequently switch between phases of growth and shortening. These unique dynamics are powered by GTP hydrolysis and drive microtubule network remodeling, which is central to eukaryotic cell biology and morphogenesis. Yet, our knowledge of the molecular events at growing microtubule ends remains incomplete. Here, recent ultrastructural, biochemical and cell biological data are integrated to develop a realistic model of growing microtubule (...)
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  45. Recurrent Noncoding Mutations in Skin Cancers: UV Damage Susceptibility or Repair Inhibition as Primary Driver?Steven A. Roberts, Alexander J. Brown & John J. Wyrick - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800152.
    Somatic mutations arising in human skin cancers are heterogeneously distributed across the genome, meaning that certain genomic regions (e.g., heterochromatin or transcription factor binding sites) have much higher mutation densities than others. Regional variations in mutation rates are typically not a consequence of selection, as the vast majority of somatic mutations in skin cancers are passenger mutations that do not promote cell growth or transformation. Instead, variations in DNA repair activity, due to chromatin organization and transcription factor binding, have been (...)
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  46. Targeted Proteomics Comes to the Benchside and the Bedside: Is It Ready for Us?Anjali Arora & Kumaravel Somasundaram - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800042.
    While mass spectrometry (MS)‐based quantification of small molecules has been successfully used for decades, targeted MS has only recently been used by the proteomics community to investigate clinical questions such as biomarker verification and validation. Targeted MS holds the promise of a paradigm shift in the quantitative determination of proteins. Nevertheless, targeted quantitative proteomics requires improvisation in making sample processing, instruments, and data analysis more accessible. In the backdrop of the genomic era reaching its zenith, certain questions arise: is the (...)
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  47. Natural History Collections as Inspiration for Technology.David W. Green, Jolanta A. Watson, Han‐Sung Jung & Gregory S. Watson - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1700238.
    Living organisms are the ultimate survivalists, having evolved phenotypes with unprecedented adaptability, ingenuity, resourcefulness, and versatility compared to human technology. To harness these properties, functional descriptions and design principles from all sources of biodiversity information must be collated − including the hundreds of thousands of possible survival features manifest in natural history museum collections, which represent 12% of total global biodiversity. This requires a consortium of expert biologists from a range of disciplines to convert the observations, data, and hypotheses into (...)
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  48. RNA Binding Proteins as Regulators of Retrotransposon‐Induced Exonization.John LaCava - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800263.
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  49. Genomic Accumulation of Retrotransposons Was Facilitated by Repressive RNA‐Binding Proteins: A Hypothesis.Jan Attig & Jernej Ule - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800132.
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  50. Moving Past the Levels of Selection Debates: Samir Okasha, Evolution and the Levels of Selection, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006.Stephen M. Downes - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):703-709.
1 — 50 / 3408