Is John Stuart Mill’s On liberty the source of present-day boundless self-tolerance and vacuous spontaneity and eccentricity? Professor Pedro Schwartz, in his work En busca de Montesquieu (2007), claims so. This article friendly discusses (o rather disputes) Schwartz’s views.
This paper deals with the role played by the imagination in the Transcendental Deduction argument from Kant’s Kritik der reinen Vernunft, and it is focused specially on the differences between the 1781 edition and the 1787 edition. My aim is to put into question the starting point of Heidegger’s interpretation as he presented in Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik. In contrast I will provide a construal of both editions, according to which it is actually in the second edition where (...) Kant reached a proper understanding of the autonomy of imagination in the argument. If the first edition bestowed such an important role on this faculty, it is because Kant had not still distinguished sharply between the subjective and the objective dimensions of its activity in the process of knowledge, as it is remarkably revealed if one pays a close attention to 1780s Kant’s “aesthetic project”. Whereas in the 1787 edition Kant is only centred on the determining activity of imagination qua transcendental, as long as the Deduction is to prove merely the objective validity of knowledge. Against Heidegger, I claim that such exclusion of the subjective and sensible dimension of imagination in the Kritik der reinen Vernunft is due to the fact that in 1787 Kant had found a new place to tackle this question within the general framework of the critical foundation of metaphysics, namely, the Kritik der Urteilskraft. (shrink)
Resumen Para Freud la relación entre violencia y ley parece indisociable, en tanto la instauración de esta última depende de una violencia inaugural, la que en lugar de quedar limitada a este momento inicial continúa activa a través de los propios mecanismos psíquicos que encarnan la función de la ley, de manera tal que la ley se encuentra coludida permanentemente con la misma violencia que intenta regular. Pensamos que este dilema es equivalente al delimitado por Benjamin en Para una crítica (...) de la violencia, ensayo en el que este propone, por medio de la figura de la violencia divina o pura, una vía para interrumpir el papel fundante y conservador de la ley que le cabría a la violencia mítica. Se propone que la interpretación de Lacan sobre el acto de Antígona como trasgresión de la Átē, resulta afín a la idea de Benjamin sobre la superación del compromiso entre violencia mítica y ley que adjudica al acontecimiento de la violencia pura, replicando una crítica a la violencia, esta vez dentro de los márgenes teóricos del psicoanálisis. En ambos casos resulta posible situar un más allá del compromiso entre violencia y ley, el cual permite pensar una refundación de los límites simbólicos que dan soporte a la vida en comunidad.For Freud, the relationship between violence and law seems inseparable, in that the establishment of the law depends on an inaugural violence. However, instead of being limited to this initial moment, this inaugural violence continues active through the psychic mechanisms which embody the function of the law, so that the law is constantly in collusion with the same violence that it tries to regulate. We think that this dilemma is equivalent to that defined by Benjamin in his Critique of Violence, an essay in which he proposes, through the figure of divine or pure violence, a way to interrupt the founding and conservative role of law attributed to mythical violence. It is proposed that Lacan’s interpretation of the act of Antigone as a transgression of Átē is akin to Benjamin’s idea of overcoming the compromise between mythic violence and the law that adjudicates the occurrence of pure violence. Lacan thus provides a critique of violence, this time within the theoretical margins of psychoanalysis. In both cases it is possible consider something beyond the compromise between violence and law, allowing one to think of a refoundation of the symbolic limits that support the law and regulate the bonds of community life. (shrink)
El presente trabajo analiza la reciente publicación de D. Sánchez Meca El itinerario intelectual de Nietzsche en la editorial Tecnos. Se trata, por tanto, de dilucidar cuáles son las aportaciones de esta obra al campo de los estudios nietzscheanos y también de ponerla en relación, estableciendo vínculos y conexiones, por una parte, con el proyecto de edición completa en castellano de las Obras completas y los Fragmentos póstumos de F. Nietzsche, así como con obras anteriores del autor, como Conceptos (...) en imágenes o Nietzsche: la experiencia dionisíaca del mundo. (shrink)
This essay proposes a reductive account of robust macro-regularities. On the view proposed, regularities can earn their elite scientific status by featuring in good summaries of restricted regions in the space of physical possibilities: our “modal neighborhoods.” I argue that this view vindicates “nomic foundationalism”, while doing justice to the practice of invoking physically contingent generalizations in higher-level explanations. Moreover, the view suggests an explanation for the particular significance of robust macro-regularities: we rely on summaries of our modal neighborhoods when (...) reasoning hypothetically about “agentially accessible” possibilities. (shrink)
Pedro Sanchez de Acre, born at the beginning of the 16th century, was a prebendary of the cathedral of Toledo. He wrote three books about moral philosophy: Tree of Consultation and Varied Teaching in 1584, Moral and Philosophical Histor y in 1590 and Triangle of the Three Theological Virtues in 1595. These three books, representative of Miscellany, one of the most editorially successful literary genres of the 16th century, have become completely unknown with the passing of time. Besides the rare (...) quotation, used mostly in writings of a bibliographic nature, the presence of these books in Spanish philosophy is almost nonexistent. (shrink)
In recent years, character traits in general and virtue-related concepts in particular have been of considerable interest to philosophers, psychological researchers, and practitioners in the business ethics field. Three approaches to character traits can be used to incorporate ethics into organizations: virtues, character strengths, and competencies. The aim of this article is to clarify the concept of character traits, or virtues, and provide a unified operational version of it for incorporation into management. To this end, we first discuss the analogy (...) among virtues, character strengths, and competencies. Then, we propose a list of moral competencies that can be implemented in competency-based human resource management. (shrink)
Current frameworks on ethical decision-making process have some limitations. This paper argues that the consideration of moral competencies, understood as moral virtues in the workplace, can enhance our understanding of why moral character contributes to ethical decision-making. After discussing the universal nature of four moral competencies (prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance), we analyse their influence on the various stages of the ethical decision-making process. We conclude by considering the managerial implications of our findings and proposing further research.
This paper proposes a reassessment of Hegel’s critical reading of Spinoza and of the charge of acosmism, for which this reading is known. We argue that this charge is actually the consequence of a more fundamental criticism, namely Spinoza’s presumable inability to conceive the unity of the finite and the infinite. According to Hegel, the infinite and the finite remain two poles apart in Spinoza’s metaphysics, which thus fails to be a true monism, insofar as it contains an irreducible duality. (...) Against this reading, we argue that Spinoza’s conception of the causal co-determination of finite modes entails the acknowledgment of their essentially infinite nature. The study of this particular instance of coincidentia oppositorum enables to counter some of Hegel’s criticisms as well as to illuminate a fairly unexplored aspect of Spinoza’s substance monism. (shrink)
Business ethics is one of the most significant demands made by institutional and individual investors, who usually require the participation of the board of directors in the planning and implementation of ethical behaviour in corporations. This is done by drawing up an ethics code and then monitoring its fulfilment. This study has a dual objective: first, to analyse the role played by the composition of the board of directors, and by that we mean its independence and the diversity of its (...) members, on the implementation and scope of an EC, and, second, to detect whether the corporate governance system moderates the level of involvement of the board in ethical issues. The findings obtained from a data panel sample made up of 760 listed companies from 12 countries for the years 2003–2009 show that the largest companies with large-sized and diverse boards implement the most developed ECs. Nevertheless, the extent of involvement of the independent directors is conditioned by the level of shareholder orientation characteristic of the system of CG in the corporation’s country of origin. (shrink)
Understanding the origins of consciousness and human experience, the relation between phylogenetic development and the development of “soul”; these are two issues that could be addressed by means of phenomenological method, through which one might reach the founding elements concerning the creation of meaning of the world, of oneself and of alterity. Traditionally, it has been regarded that in order to understand the life of consciousness in its volitive, cognitive, aesthetic and practical aspects; one should approach adult life. The article (...) aims to go beyond this mistake by considering that human life finds its foundations during the parallel development of organic and psychological phylogenies, which have as stage childhood: from embryo stage up to eight years. (shrink)
BackgroundInformed consent is a key element of ethical clinical research. Addicted population may be at risk for impaired consent capacity. However, very little research has focused on their comprehension of consent forms. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity of addicted individuals to provide consent to research.Methods53 subjects with DSM-5 diagnoses of a Substance Use Disorder and 50 non psychiatric comparison subjects participated in the survey from December 2014 to March 2015. This cross-sectional study was carried out (...) at a community-based Outpatient Treatment Center and at an urban-located Health Centre in Spain. A binary judgment of capacity/incapacity was made guided by the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research and a clinical interview. Demographics and clinical characteristics were assessed by cases notes and the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Global Assessment Functional Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale.ResultsNPCs performed the best on the MacCAT–CR, and patients with SUD had the worst performance, particularly on the Understanding and Appreciation subscales. 32.7 % SUD people lacked research-related decisional capacity. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of capacity to consent to research.ConclusionsThe findings of our study provide evidence that a large proportion of individuals with SUD had decisional capacity for consent to research. It is therefore inappropriate to draw conclusions about capacity to make research decisions on the basis of a SUD diagnosis. In the absence of advanced cognitive impairment, acute withdrawal or intoxication, we should assume that addicted persons possess decision-making capacity. Thus, the view that people with SUD would ipso facto lose decision-making power for research consent is flawed and stigmatizing. (shrink)
The concept of corporate social responsibility is becoming integral to effective corporate brand management. This study adopts a multidimensional and cross-country perspective of the concept and analyses consumer perceptions of behaviour of four leading consumer products manufacturers. Data was collected from consumers in two countries – Spain and the UK. The study analyses consumers’ degree of interest in corporate responsibility and its impact on their perception about the company. The findings here suggest a weak impact of company-specific communication on consumers’ (...) perception. The implications of this study are relevant to companies for strengthening their social responsibility associations with the consumers. (shrink)
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to lay out an approach to addressing the problem of privacy protection in the global digital environment based on the importance that information has to improve users’ informational self-determination. Following this reasoning, this paper focuses on the suitable way to provide user with the correct amount of information they may need to maintain a desirable grade of autonomy as far as their privacy protection is concerned and decide whether or not to put their (...) personal data on the internet. Design/methodology/approach The authors arrive at this point in their analysis by qualitative discourse analysis of the most relevant scientific papers and dossiers relating to privacy protection. Findings The goal of this paper is twofold. The first is to illustrate the importance of privacy by default and informed consent working together to protect information and communication technology users’ privacy. The second goal is to develop a suitable way to administrate the mentioned “informed consent” to users. Originality/value To fulfil this purpose, the authors present a new concept of informed consent: active “informed consent” or “Opt-in” model by layers. “Opt-in” regimens have already been used with cookies but never with 2.0 applications, as, for instance, social network sites. (shrink)
La Modernidad ha sido el escenario de su propia crisis ¿Acaso estaba ésta abocada a su quiebra? ¿Son la razón instrumental, el nazismo, el nihilismo o el capitalismo los hijos monstruosos de una Ilustración realizada? ¿Y el patriarcado?¿No ha sido también la razón una proclama masculina? Pretendemos defender que tanto la lucha feminista como el marxismo necesitan en el siglo XXI recuperar una Ilustración que no se ha realizado en la técnica, en los campos de concentración o en la nada (...) social que produce el capitalismo, sino en los resquicios rebeldes de una historia de vencedores y perdedores. La breve historia de la tradición republicana es la historia de una derrota política que la izquierda no debería olvidar. Se quiere, por tanto, defender a la Ilustración de ese olvido y, para ello, explicar qué sería una Ilustración republicana y en qué sentido es imprescindible —tanto para el feminismo como para el marxismo— en tiempos tan críticos. (shrink)
Many psychologists studying lay belief attribution and behavior explanation cite Donald Davidson in support of their assumption that people construe beliefs as inner causes. But Davidson’s influential argument is unsound; there are no objective grounds for the intuition that the folk construe beliefs as inner causes that produce behavior. Indeed, recent experimental work by Ian Apperly, Bertram Malle, Henry Wellman, and Tania Lombrozo provides an empirical framework that accords well with Gilbert Ryle’s alternative thesis that the folk construe beliefs as (...) patterns of living that contextualize behavior. (shrink)
This article reconsiders the relationship between interpretivism about belief and normative standards. Interpretivists have traditionally taken beliefs to be fixed in relation to norms of interpretation. However, recent work by philosophers and psychologists reveals that human belief attribution practices are governed by a rich diversity of normative standards. Interpretivists thus face a dilemma: either give up on the idea that belief is constitutively normative or countenance a context-sensitive disjunction of norms that constitute belief. Either way, interpretivists should embrace the intersubjective (...) indeterminacy of belief. (shrink)
A pluralistic approach to folk psychology must countenance the evaluative, regulatory, predictive, and explanatory roles played by attributions of intelligence in social practices across cultures. Building off of the work of the psychologist Robert Sternberg and the philosophers Gilbert Ryle and Daniel Dennett, I argue that a relativistic interpretivism best accounts for the many varieties of intelligence that emerge from folk discourse. To be intelligent (in the sense invoked in folk psychological practices) is to be comparatively good at solving intellectual (...) problems that an interpreter deems worth solving. (shrink)
The expansion of research on deep brain stimulation and adaptive DBS raises important neuroethics and policy questions related to data sharing. However, there has been little empirical research on the perspectives of experts developing these technologies. We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with aDBS researchers regarding their data sharing practices and their perspectives on ethical and policy issues related to sharing. Researchers expressed support for and a commitment to sharing, with most saying that they were either sharing their data or would (...) share in the future and that doing so was important for advancing the field. However, those who are sharing reported a variety of sharing partners, suggesting heterogeneity in sharing practices and lack of the broad sharing that would reflect principles of open science. Researchers described several concerns and barriers related to sharing, including privacy and confidentiality, the usability of shared data by others, ownership and control of data, and limited resources for sharing. They also suggested potential solutions to these challenges, including additional safeguards to address privacy issues, standardization and transparency in analysis to address issues of data usability, professional norms and heightened cooperation to address issues of ownership and control, and streamlining of data transmission to address resource limitations. Researchers also offered a range of views on the sensitivity of neural activity data and data related to mental health in the context of sharing. These findings are an important input to deliberations by researchers, policymakers, neuroethicists, and other stakeholders as they navigate ethics and policy questions related to aDBS research. (shrink)
On a Dreyfusian account performers choke when they reflect upon and interfere with established routines of purely embodied expertise. This basic explanation of choking remains popular even today and apparently enjoys empirical support. Its driving insight can be understood through the lens of diverse philosophical visions of the embodied basis of expertise. These range from accounts of embodied cognition that are ultra conservative with respect to representational theories of cognition to those that are more radically embodied. This paper provides an (...) account of the acquisition of embodied expertise, and explanation of the choking effect, from the most radically enactive, embodied perspective, spelling out some of its practical implications and addressing some possible philosophical challenges. Specifically, we propose: an explanation of how skills can be acquired on the basis of ecological dynamics; and a non-linear pedagogy that takes into account how contentful representations might scaffold skill acquisition from a radically enactive perspective. (shrink)
Este artigo estabelece a relação entre apercepção transcendental e identidade, existência e percepção, e procura com isso mostrar que, embora esteja na base da estrutura cognitiva humana, a autoconsciência não elabora conhecimento.
This essay assesses the value of social constructivist theories of science to the history of medicine. It highlights particularly the ways in which feminist theorists have turned their attention to gender as a category of analysis in scientific thinking, producing an approach to modern science that asks how it became identified with "male" objectivity, reason, and mind, set in opposition to "female" subjectivity, feeling, and nature.In the history of medicine this new work has allowed a group of scholars to better (...) explain not only how women were marginalized in the profession but also the manner in which politics, male anxiety about shifts in power relations between the sexes, social and political upheaval, professional concerns, and changes in the family all had an impact on the production of knowledge regarding the female body, including the "discovery," definition, and treatment of a wide range of female ailments, from anorexia nervosa to fibroid tumors.Building on the work in the history of medicine already accomplished, the essay offers a critical rereading of the writings of Elizabeth Blackwell, a pioneer nineteenth-century woman physician and leader of the woman's medical movement. It contends that Blackwell, who lived through a revolutionary change in medical thinking brought on by discoveries in immunology and bacteriology, remained critical of "objectivity" as the "best" form of knowing and suspicious of the laboratory medicine that promoted it so enthusiastically. Moreover, her critiques of radical objectivity and scientific reductionism deserve to be recognized as foreshadowing the maternalist strain of thinking among contemporary feminist philosophers and thinkers such as Sara Ruddick and others. (shrink)
O presente artigo tem como objetivo mostrar que a teoria kantiana da possibilidade de juízos a priori, o conteúdo essencial da sua crítica da razão pura, foi elaborada no intuito de garantir a solubilidade dos problemas necessários da razão pura e que essa teoria pode ser interpretada como uma semântica transcendental (a priori). The problems of pure reason and the transcendental semanticsThis article aims at showing that Kant´s theory of possibility of a priori judgments, which is the essential (...) content of his critique of pure reason, was elaborated in order to guarantee the solubility of necessary problems of pure reason and that this theory can be interpreted as atranscendental semantics. (shrink)
En este escrito me propongo mantener un diálogo con María Julia Bertomeu a propósito de la lectura sobre la hibridación de liberalismo y republicanismo contenida en una contribución de A. Pinzani y N. Sánchez Madrid y publicada en el volumen Kant and Social Policies. Mi intención principal es esclarecer lo que Kant parece entender en la Doctrina del Derecho como la protección jurídica que el Estado debe conceder a los ciudadanos en su totalidad y señalar la dualidad de perspectivas (...) que este pensador abre para resolver problemas de enorme incidencia social y política como es la pobreza, como un ejemplo de su planteamiento de la injusticia social. Finalmente, se recogen algunas conclusiones sobre la disparidad de ópticas que Kant y nuestro presente adoptan acerca del sufrimiento social y la noción de responsabilidad jurídica y política. (shrink)