Biofuels have lately been indicated as a promising source of cheap and sustainable energy. In this paper we argue that some important ethical and environmental issues have also to be addressed: (1) the conflict between biofuels production and global food security, particularly in developing countries, and (2) the limits of the Human Appropriation of ecosystem services and Net Primary Productivity. We warn that large scale conversion of crops, grasslands, natural and semi-natural ecosystem, (such as the conversion of grasslands to cellulosic (...) ethanol production, or plantation of sugar cane and palm oil), may have detrimental social and ecological consequences. Social effects may concern: (1) food security, especially in developing countries, leading to an increase of the price of staple food, (2) transnational corporations and big landowners establishing larger and larger landholdings in conflict with indigenous areas and the subsistence of small farmers. Ecological effects may concern: (1) competition with grazing wild and domesticated animals (e.g., millions of grazing livestock in USA prairies), (2) an excessive appropriation of Net Primary Production from ecosystems, (3) threatening biodiversity preservation and soil fertility. We claim that is it well known how ecological and social issues are strictly interwoven and that large scale biofuels production, by putting high pressure on both fronts, may trigger dangerous feedbacks, also considering the critical fact that 9 billion people are expected to inhabit the planet by 2050. There is a need to conduct serious and deep analysis on the environmental and social impact of large scale biofuels production before important energy policies are launched at global level. Biofuels will not represent an energetic panacea and their role in the overall energy consumption will remain marginal in our present highly energivorous society, while their effect on food security and environment preservation may have detrimental results. We should also have the courage to face two key issues: (1) we cannot keep increasing resources consumption at present pace, and have to change our life style accordingly, and (2) we have to deal with population growth; we cannot expect to have 9–10 billions people inhabiting the earth by 2050, without this representing a major impact on its support system. (shrink)
Alfred Marshall's ethics, critically examined by Parsons in the 1930s and often the target of unfair remarks in the past, has become the object of more sympathetic and detailed studies in recent years. These studies have tried to redress the balance that had been upset by routine criticisms, and to prove that Marshall's interest in ethics was neither lip-service to conventional morality nor uncritical acceptance thereof. Moreover, they have vindicated Marshall's claim that his economics, though unconnected to any ethical philosophy, (...) was still one of the moral sciences, inseparable from ethical considerations. (shrink)
Nella prima parte del saggio l'A. si interroga sull'esistenza di una traduzione latina delle Vite dei filosofi di Diogene e sulla possibilità di identificarne il traduttore in Enrico Aristippo. Successivamente, valuta l'uso dell'ipotizzata versio Aristippi nello pseudo-Burleo, autore del Liber de vita et moribus philosophorum e nel Compendium di Geremia da Montagnone . Nella sezione successiva si pone il problema della paternità del Liber, il cui autore sembra in stretto rapporto con l'ambiente universitario bolognese e parigino. Dopo aver elencato i (...) passi desunti da Diogene, l'A. si sofferma, nella quarta parte, sull'estensione della versio Aristippi, a suo avviso una scelta di excerpta limitata ai primi due libri delle Vitae laerziane. La quinta sezione verte sul modello greco della versio, probabilmente il ms napoletano borbonico greco III B 29. In chiusura, l'A. si sofferma sul contributo delle Vitae per la ricostituzione della versio latina e delle opere latine esaminate, e viceversa. (shrink)
Modern scholars have always associated the Minervium of Varro with the parva delubra mentioned by Ovid, which is related to the cult of Minerva Capta: in fact, these two different names identify the same temple, located on the Cealius hill. Therefore, this work examines the etymological, linguistic and historical context of both names of Minerva’s shrine, by pointing out any religious and cultual implications concerning such expressions: the Minervium, connected to the archaic list of sacella Argeorum; the epithet Capta, whose (...) meaning is fundamental to the comprehension of a cult connected with post-pubertal transition rites. In conclusion, both expressions must be linked to the archaic period of the Roman religion and so demonstrate the antiquity of Minerva’s cult, as it regards the Celius hill but also the history of the whole Roman community. (shrink)
’χεδημα ἢ νν ’ακαδημα καλομνη. Latte's obelization is unnecessary. The form finds confirmation in a text from which I this one may itself derive, a fragment of Dicaearchus' βος ϳελλδος preserved by Plutarch: δ Δικααχος ’μοε φησ κα ναρθο σστρατεσντων ττε τς τνδαρδαις ξ ’ αρκαδας, φ’ ο μν ’χεδημαν προσαγορεθναι τν νν ’ακαδμειαν, φ’ ο δ ναραθνα τν Δμομ, πιδιδντοντος πιδιδντν κτσως κατ τι λγιον σφαγιον σφαγισασθαι πρ τς παατξως.
This edition presents a radically improved text of Diogenes Laertius' Lives of Eminent Philosophers. The text is accompanied by a full critical apparatus on three levels. A lengthy introduction lists all the manuscripts of the Lives and discusses its transmission in late antiquity, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. There is also an index of personal names, a bibliography and notes covering several features of the text and its interpretation. Professor Dorandi has used the Nachlaß of Peter Von der Mühll, (...) for the first time in its entirety, to verify and consolidate material that he had previously gathered. This is by far the most detailed and elaborate edition which Diogenes' Lives - a unique work which has had a profound influence on European literature and philosophy - has ever received. (shrink)
A new inspection of the B manuscript of Diogenes Laertius’ Lives of Eminent Philosophers allows to restore the text of the beginning of Parmenides’ Life in a way that corresponds with Diogenes’ usage, and also to eliminate an obvious syntactic difficulty.
This article presents the editio princeps of a Life of Plato modelled on Diogenes Laertius' third book which can be found in two fifteenth-century manuscripts. It consists of a presentation of the two manuscripts ; a discussion of their relationship ; a discussion of the author of the Life, which I argue was Georges Scholarios ; a presentation of the text, with a short critical apparatus, and a series of notes largely focused on indicating the parallels between Scholarios' Life of (...) Plato and Diogenes' version. (shrink)