The purpose of this paper is to present some of the findings (which were reported on more extensively in earlier work) regarding the visibility of gender issues in the literature on selected information and communication technologies (ICTs) with a view to make predictions about potential ethical issues that the application of these ICTs may bring about in the future. On the basis of the analysis of around 100 published sources, which dealt with various aspects of selected ICTs, conclusions have been (...) drawn regarding gender issues and concerns that the applications of these ICTs may cause. The authors' analysis is theoretically informed by critical discourse analysis (CDA) which assumes that texts, both written and spoken, as well as other forms of symbolic representations, are indicative of social practices. Of particular methodological relevance was the survey of methods of text and discourse analysis presented in Titscher et al and especially the application of keyword search as a way to measure the prominence of each investigated method. This approach to literature surveying proved very useful in selecting analytic material: only those published sources on the selected four ICTs have been included in the survey, for which the analysis of keywords, abstracts and indexes of terms indicated authors' interest in gender issues. Findings - First, ICTs such as affective computing, ambient intelligence, and artificial intelligence, have been found to have the potential of positively affecting gender power relations and thus positively affecting gender balance in the areas of labour market related to ICT across EU countries and worldwide. Second, more research on the relationship between gender and ICT design, application and representation is needed, so as to enhance a better understanding of ethical issues resulting from unequal participation of women and men in all aspects of ICT production and implementation, which in itself is an ethical dilemma with which both the ICT business and legislators have to grapple. The paper offers insight into the relationship between the level of attention devoted to particular ICTs by ICT researchers, as evidenced in the reviewed literature, and the likelihood of the application of a particular ICT in the future, which is looked at and assessed from a gender perspective. (shrink)
First, we prove that the lattice of all structural strengthenings of a given strongly finite consequence operation is both atomic and coatomic, it has finitely many atoms and coatoms, each coatom is strongly finite but atoms are not of this kind — we settle this by constructing a suitable counterexample. Second, we deal with the notions of hereditary: algebraicness, strong finitisticity and finite approximability of a strongly finite consequence operation. Third, we formulate some conditions which tell us when the lattice (...) of all structural strengthenings of a given strongly finite consequence operation is finite, and subsequently we give some applications of them. (shrink)
This paper presents an analysis of learning effectiveness for the courses “Selected issues in visual rehabilitation” and “Ophthalmology and ophthalmic nursing” taught in the years 2009-2011 at the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. We compared the effectiveness of traditional and distance learning methods; an e-learning platform was implemented experimentally for the purpose of this study. We assessed the usefulness of online learning in terms of organization, knowledge gained and students’ satisfaction with the course. The study was conducted among 75 second (...) year master degree students in the nursing field in the academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The students were divided into two groups. For the study group of 39 persons, lectures and seminars took place on an e-learning platform, while 36 persons in the control group attended traditional classes. 80% of students in the e-learning group and 89% of students in the traditional group assessed the organization of both forms of courses positively. The fact that the majority of students in both the e-learning and traditional classes gave positive feedback indicates that for both forms there was a high level of content and technical preparedness. The mean scores of the final exam for both courses were 82% in the e-learning group and 79% in the traditional group in the years 2009- 2011. The above results show that both forms of learning are equally effective. (shrink)
Argues that the key distinction between human and nonhuman social cognition consists in our complex, diverse and flexible capacities to shape each other's minds in ways that make them easier to interpret.
We present some equivalent conditions for a quasivariety K of structures to be generated by a single structure. The first such condition, called the embedding property was found by A. I. Mal'tsev in . It says that if A, B Є K are nontrivial, then there exists C Є X such that A and B are embeddable into C. One of our equivalent conditions states that the set of quasi-identities valid in X is closed under a certain Gentzen type rule (...) which is due to J. Lo#x015B; and R. Suszko . (shrink)
This article shows the organization of distance learning, particularly the idea of b-learning, combining the accomplishment of classes carried on in the traditional way and via computers. The authors present learning activities related to complementary education herein. Some of these course types may be successfully adapted to an e-learning background. The models and structure of the university virtual environment for distance learning are described. These illustrate a new approach to creating a virtual space for medical and technical studies where e-learning (...) courses are created to be used for distance education, which allows students to be taught more effectively. The projected virtual courses for different groups of students ensure individualization of students’ work, which could be a relevant element for creating the shortest path of development of professional competencies. This paper further includes a brief overview of technologies used to build interactive elements into learning mate- rials. The authors present the use of interactive elements in medical education based on examples of certain selected games and animations. (shrink)
Recent accounts of mindreading—i.e., the human capacity to attribute mental states to interpret, explain, and predict behavior—have suggested that it has evolved through cultural rather than biological evolution. Although these accounts describe the role of culture in the ontogenetic development of mindreading, they neglect the question of the cultural origins of mindreading in human prehistory. We discuss four possible models of this, distinguished by the role they posit for culture: the standard evolutionary psychology model, the individualist empiricist model, the cultural (...) empiricist model, and the radical socio-cultural constructivist model, which we favor. We motivate model by arguing that many forms of mental state ascription do not serve the function of simply describing inner states causally responsible for the behavior of a cognitive agent; rather, they relate the agent to her environment by characterizing her practical commitments. Making these practical commitments explicit has an important regulatory function in that it supports action coordination and alignment on joint goals. We propose a model of how the ascription of mental states may have evolved as a linguistic device to perform exactly this function of making agents’ practical commitments explicit. (shrink)
In this article I demonstrate that philosophy illuminated by the Linguistic Turn is no better suited to solve the epistemological problem of realism than was transcendental epistemology. The bulk of this paper concerns a polemic with Hintikka's vision of the relation between model-theoretic semantics and the epistemological problem of realism. In this polemic I argue for three points: (1) Hintikka's assumption that there is a fundamental opposition between two visions of language, the view of language as a medium of communication (...) and the view of it as a calculus, is mistaken. I demonstrate that the latter vision of language presupposes the former one, (2) Hintikka's argument for the thesis that the view of language as a medium of communication constitutes the common source of the troublesome thesis of ineffability of semantics and semantic universalism is faulty. I demonstrate that the source of both beliefs lies in the unwarranted assumption that logical semantics against Hintikka is that logical semantics should not be interpreted as a new tool for solving the old epistemological problem. (shrink)
The purpose of this article is to distinguish the position which I call „arealism” from both semantic realism and semantic anti-realism. Arealism is based on the deflationary critique of the logico-semantic debate on realism, i.e., on the argument which undermines the foundationist presuppositions of this debate. I attempt to draw carefully the distinction between arealist, deflationist approach to the problem of realism and the position of semantic anti-realism, which is usually framed in terms of the assertability-conditions semantics. Moreover, I argue (...) that linguistic antirealism faces problems similar to those which haunted transcendental idealism. In the second part of the paper I demonstrate in a dialectical manner that arealism (1) is holistic in a particular Wittgensteinian sense, (2) does not support nor assume linguistic relativism, (3) should not be confused with meta-theoretical thesis of inexhaustibility of semantics, (4) involves a particular strategy of deflationary criticism, and (5) does not lead to semantic nihilism or eliminationism. (shrink)
I would like to identify a certain weakness which is characteristic, in my view, of the ‘critique of the model of representation’ or of the project of ‘overturning the hegemony of representation’, popular in philosophical circles inspired by Heidegger’s writings. According to Heidegger’s influential interpretation of modernity — which, by the way, is indebted to Hegelian philosophy of history — the logic of the development of modern thought is entirely subordinated to one idea: the idea of absolute domination of the (...) subject as the power of discursive representation. This interpretation provides a unified vision of the history of modernity as the history of increasing relativization of all aspects of reality to the subject and its capacity to represent and to form judgements. This unified picture of modernity constitutes the common point of reference and inspiration for many intellectual enterprises under the banner of deconstruction, hermeneutics, philosophy of difference, and the critique of Enlightenment. The same interpretation is explicitly or tacitly assumed in postmodernist accounts of contemporary culture, according to which our task as post-modern thinkers is to abandon, overthrow, and shatter the model of representation. (shrink)
Professor Ryszard Wójcicki once asked whether the degree of maximality of the consequence operationC determined by the theorems of the intuitionistic propositional logic and the detachment rule for the implication connective is equal to ? The aim of the present paper is to give the affirmative answer to the question. More exactly, it is proved here that the degree of maximality ofC — the — fragment ofC, is equal to , for every such that.
We investigate the existence of perfect homogeneous sets for analytic colorings. An analytic coloring of X is an analytic subset of [X]N, where N>1 is a natural number. We define an absolute rank function on trees representing analytic colorings, which gives an upper bound for possible cardinalities of homogeneous sets and which decides whether there exists a perfect homogeneous set. We construct universal σ-compact colorings of any prescribed rank γ<ω1. These colorings consistently contain homogeneous sets of cardinality γ but they (...) do not contain perfect homogeneous sets. As an application, we discuss the so-called defectedness coloring of subsets of Polish linear spaces. (shrink)
The guarded fragment with transitive guards, [GF+TG], is an extension of the guarded fragment of first-order logic, GF, in which certain predicates are required to be transitive, transitive predicate letters appear only in guards of the quantifiers and the equality symbol may appear everywhere. We prove that the decision problem for [GF+TG] is decidable. Moreover, we show that the problem is in 2E. This result is optimal since the satisfiability problem for GF is 2E-complete 1719–1742). We also show that the (...) satisfiability problem for two-variable [GF+TG] is N-hard in contrast to GF with bounded number of variables for which the satisfiability problem is E-complete. (shrink)
I review recent evidence that very young, pre-verbal infants attribute belief-like states when anticipating the behavior of others. This evidence is drawn from infant performance on non-verbal false belief tasks. I argue that, contrary to typical interpretations, such evidence does not show that infants attribute belief-like states. Rather, it shows that infants apply an enhanced version of what Gergely ( 2011 ) calls the “teleological stance” to brief bouts of behavior. This requires them to parse behavioral sequences into goals and (...) rationally/informationally-constrained means of achieving them; however, it does not require the attribution of unobservable mental states, like beliefs, that are causally responsible for behavior. (shrink)
I argue that proponents of embodied social cognition (ESC) can usefully supplement their views if they enlist the help of an unlikely ally: Daniel Dennett. On Dennett’s view, human social cognition involves adopting the intentional stance (IS), i.e., assuming that an interpretive target’s behavior is an optimally rational attempt to fulfill some desire relative to her beliefs. Characterized this way, proponents of ESC would reject any alliance with Dennett. However, for Dennett, to attribute mental states from the intentional stance is (...) not to attribute concrete, unobservable mental causes of behavior. Once this is appreciated, the kinship between IS—understood as a model of our quotidian interpretive practices—and ESC is apparent: both assume that quotidian interpretation involves tracking abstract, observable, behavioral patterns, not attributing unobservable, concrete, mental causes, i.e., both assume social cognition is possible without metapsychology. I argue that this affinity constitutes an opportunity: proponents of ESC can use IS as a characterization of the subpersonal basis for social cognition. In the process, I make my interpretation of IS more precise and relate it to current empirical literature in developmental psychology. (shrink)
An interview with Wiesław Chrzanowski, a member of the Home Army’s “Gustaw” unit. Chrzanowski recounts the political situation in Europe at the time and the Soviet Union’s and Allies’ stance towards the Warsaw Uprising. He is also critical towards the uprising’s commanders, who launched it without adequate preparation.
Liking and respect are postulated as two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes. Liking-disliking is an idiosyncratic response which depends mostly on how target persons influence interests and well-being of the attitude holder and is accompanied by beliefs in their communal traits. Respect-disrespect is a socially shared response which depends mostly on the social status of target persons and is accompanied by beliefs in their agency. This Self-interest /status Model of differences between liking and respect was tested in two studies. It was (...) predicted and found that respect responses are socially shared to higher extent than liking responses. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to propose a criterion of finite detachment-substitutional formalization for normal modal systems. The criterion will comprise only those normal modal systems which are finitely axiomatizable by means of the substitution, detachment for material implication and Gödel rules.
We prove that each intermediate or normal modal logic is strongly complete with respect to a class of finite Kripke frames iff it is tabular, i.e. the respective variety of pseudo-Boolean or modal algebras, corresponding to it, is generated by a finite algebra.
Część II pracy objaśnia molekularne podłoże pamięci w oparciu o założenia Neuro-Elektro- Dynamiki postulowanej przez Aura i Yoga. Wskazano na biofizyczne mechanizmy generacji wspomnień, refleksji i odczuć dzięki efatycznym sprzężeniom synaptycznym, spełniającym wymagania indukowania impresjonów Vadakkana. Wykazano, że działanie mechanizmu selekcyjnego WTA może być dobrym modelem opisującym funkcję przełączania uwagi. Wskazano na relacje między pamięcią roboczą, krótkoterminową i trwałą i ich spójność z molekularnymi procesami zapamiętywania i rozpoznawania wzorców. Wskazano, że trwała pamięć epizodyczna wymaga konwersji sekwencji czasowych sygnałów bottom-up do (...) rozkładu przestrzennego tworzącego impresjony dynamiczne. Odwrotna transformacja tych impresjonów umożliwia przypominanie epizodów z przeszłości. Omówiono znaczenie wrodzonych struktur sieci neuronowych zapewniających dziedziczenie zachowań instynktownych. Struktury te nie wykluczają zachowania plastyczności umysłu umożliwiającej efektywne uczenie. (shrink)
Celem pracy jest wskazanie na podstawowe procesy neurologiczne i biofizyczne konstytuuj ące kompleksowy model umysłu świadomego. Przedstawiono zarówno model obliczeniowy działania neuronowych pól tworzących mentalne reprezentacje rzeczywistości, jak i biologiczne koncepcje realizacji tych funkcji mózgu. Wyjaśniono motywacje ludzkiego i zwierzęcego działania. Przedstawiono koncepcje, jak powstaje świadomość oraz jak rozpoznajemy, że jesteśmy świadomi, co objaśnia także problem samoświadomości. Wskazano, że zrozumienie fenomenu świadomości usuwa antynomię teleologicznego i przyczynowego charakteru natury ludzkiej, co niweluje dualizm cielesnego i duchowego charakteru substancji tworzącej nasze umysły. (...) W części pierwszej przedstawiono ograniczenia koncepcji obliczeniowego modelu rozpoznawania poprzez porównywanie i poszukiwanie podobieństw wzorców według Perlovsky’ego oraz wskazano na sposób rozwinięcia tej koncepcji poprzez uwzględnienie morfologii i biologicznych funkcji sieci neuronowej mózgów naturalnych. Pokazano, że neuronowe pola synaptyczne o strukturze hierarchicznej impresjonów w rozumieniu hipotezy Vadakkana mogą spełniać role neuronowych pól modelujących zaangażowanych w gówne procesy psychiczne. Zauważono, że rozszerzony w ten sposób poziom analizy funkcji mózgu w dalszym ciłgu nie pozwala na wyjaśnienie fenomenu świadomości i konieczne jest przeanalizowanie podłoża biochemicznego i molekularnego tych procesów, co zostanie przedstawione w następnych częściach pracy. (shrink)