In a recent issue of this journal, Berit Brogaard and Joe Salerno presented a counterfactual theory of essence, designed to get around Kit Fine’s influential objections to the standard modal account of essence. I argue that Brogaard and Salerno’s theory does not avoid Fine’s objections. Then I propose a sequence of variations on their theory, and argue that none of them succeed either.
The ji 己self is a site, storehouse, or depot of individuated allotment associated with the possession of things and qualities: wholesome and unwholesome desires (yu 欲) and aversions, emotions such as anxiety, and positive values such as humaneness and reverence. Each person's allotment is unique, and its "contents" are collected, measured, reflected on, and then distributed to others. The Analects, Mencius, Xunzi, Daodejing, and Zhuangzi each have their own vision for negotiating the space between self and other. Works as seemingly (...) dissimilar as the Analects and Daodejing both agree that positive qualities located within the self should be shared with others, and that the self can be optimized rather than maximized through sharing, emptying, or clearing. Sommer compares the ji self with other terms for body and person current in classical times. This self is strongly individuated, but it exists primarily in relation to other human beings (ren 人 ). These "others" are almost never one's own kind and are usually people who fall outside one's ascribed familial and social relationships. Negotiations between self and other often reflect apprehension regarding degrees of distance, intimacy, worth, recognition, or understanding (zhi 知) between people. (shrink)
This study explores the relationship between language and thought in similarity judgments by testing how monolingual children who speak languages with partial typological differences in motion description respond to visual motion event stimuli. Participants were either Chinese- or English-speaking, 3-year-olds, 8-year-olds and adults who judged the similarity between caused motion scenes in a match-to-sample task. The results suggest, first of all, that the two younger groups of 3-year-olds are predominantly path-oriented, irrespective of language, as evidenced by their significantly longer fixation (...) on path-match videos rather than manner-match videos in a preferential looking scheme. Using categorical measurement of overt choices, older children and adults also showed a shared tendency of being more path-oriented. However, the analysis using continuous measurement of reaction time revealed significant variations in spatial cognition that can be related to linguistic differences: English speakers tended to be more manner-oriented while Chinese speakers were equally manner- and path-oriented. On the whole, our findings indicate a likelihood that children’s non-linguistic thought is similar prior to internalising the lexicalisation pattern of motion events in their native languages, but shows divergences after such habitual use, thus suggesting that the pattern of non-linguistic thought may be linked, among other things, to linguistic structure. (shrink)
This article studies the effects of social institutions on organizational corruption at the societal level by focusing on the possible interactions between the institutional pillars that have been identified in past research. Based on these three institutional aspects or pillars, this article tests the interactive effects of social institutions among societies throughout the world. The results suggest that the three institutional pillars have significant interactive effects on organizational corruption at the societal level. A discussion of the implications of the research (...) findings for researchers and practitioners is given. (shrink)
The antifloating property of underground structures in areas with high underground water levels is a key design aspect. Evaluating the buoyancy forces acting on underground structures is complicated, particularly in the presence of confined water beneath the structures. Herein, the effects of the permeability coefficient of layered soil, hydraulic gradient, and embedment depth of the aquiclude on the buoyancy force acting on underground structures are investigated through three model tests: calibration of the test system, buoyancy force acting on a structure (...) located in homogeneous soil considering vertical direction seepage, and buoyancy force acting on a structure located in layered soil considering vertical seepage of confined water. The results show that the pore pressure along the structure and the buoyancy force acting on the underground structure considering seepage are greater than those obtained under hydrostatic conditions. The raising ratios of the pore pressure and buoyancy force are equal to the vertical hydraulic gradient when seepage occurs in homogeneous soil. In the presence of confined water, the raising ratio is significantly greater than the hydraulic gradient. In the cases studied herein, the raising ratio is approximately twice the hydraulic gradient. Simplified equations are proposed to calculate the buoyancy force acting on underground structures considering the vertical seepage of confined water. Finally, a finite element analysis is carried out to verify the conclusions obtained from the model test and the rationality of the proposed equations. (shrink)
The Foot-mounted Inertial Pedestrian-Positioning System based on the Micro-Inertial Measurement Unit is a good choice for the forest fire fighters when the Global Navigation Satellite System is unavailable. Zero Velocity Update provides a solution for reducing cumulative positioning errors caused by the integral calculation of the inertial navigation. However, the performance of ZUPT is highly affected by the low accuracy and high noise of the MIMU. The accuracy of conventional ZUPT for attitude alignment is reduced by the zero offset of (...) acceleration and the drift of a gyroscope during the standing phase. An initial alignment algorithm based on Adaptive Gradient Descent Algorithm is proposed. In the stepping phase, the extended Kalman filter is often used to correct attitude and position in track estimation. However, the measurement noise of the EKF is influenced by the high-frequency acceleration and angular velocity. Thus, the accuracy of the attitude and position will decrease. A double-constrained extended Kalman filtering is proposed. An adaptive parameter positively correlated with the acceleration and angular velocity is set, and the measurement noise in the DEKF is adaptively adjusted. The performance of the proposed method is verified by implementing the pedestrian test trajectory using MPU-9150 MIMU manufactured by InvenSense. The results show that the attitude error of the AGDA is 33.82% less than that of the conventional GDA. The attitude error of DEKF is 21.70% less than that of the conventional EKF. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. (shrink)
IN "THE FUNCTION OF CONSCIOUSNESS ON MATTER", "CHINESE STUDIES IN PHILOSOPHY" 12 (1981) PAGES 38-54, YU CLAIMS THAT IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND HOW CONSCIOUSNESS CAN AFFECT THE PHYSICAL WORLD, TWO CATEGORIES OF MATTER MUST BE DISTINGUISHED. I ARGUE THAT YU'S DISTINCTION HAS NO EXPLANATORY FORCE AND, MOREOVER, IS AT ODDS WITH HIS MATERIALIST ASSUMPTIONS. I THEN SUGGEST OTHER STRATEGIES.
: The Confucian relational concept of the person has been proposed as an epistemically more cogent and ethically more attractive alternative to that of liberal individualism. Two arguments are raised against this proposal without defending liberal individualism. Ethically, Confucianism is vitiated by certain unattractive features that cannot be removed without reducing the Confucian relational concept of the person to an abstract and not very helpful notion of human relatedness. Epistemically, Confucianism commits the essentialist fallacy of treating its own concept of (...) human relations as reflecting the nature of things. In view of these limitations, the Confucian relational concept of the person does not provide a viable framework for dealing with social issues including bioethics. (shrink)
As an imitation of the biological nervous systems, neural networks, which have been characterized as powerful learning tools, are employed in a wide range of applications, such as control of complex nonlinear systems, optimization, system identification, and patterns recognition. This article aims to bring a brief review of the state-of-the-art NNs for the complex nonlinear systems by summarizing recent progress of NNs in both theory and practical applications. Specifically, this survey also reviews a number of NN based robot control algorithms, (...) including NN based manipulator control, NN based human-robot interaction, and NN based cognitive control. (shrink)