Taxa and homologues can in our view be construed both as kinds and as individuals. However, the conceptualization of taxa as natural kinds in the sense of homeostatic property cluster kinds has been criticized by some systematists, as it seems that even such kinds cannot evolve due to their being homeostatic. We reply by arguing that the treatment of transformational and taxic homologies, respectively, as dynamic and static aspects of the same homeostatic property cluster kind represents a good perspective for (...) supporting the conceptualization of taxa as kinds. The focus on a phenomenon of homology based on causal processes (e.g., connectivity, activity-function, genetics, inheritance, and modularity) and implying relationship with modification yields a notion of natural kinds conforming to the phylogenetic-evolutionary framework. Nevertheless, homeostatic property cluster kinds in taxonomic and evolutionary practice must be rooted in the primacy of epistemological classification (homology as observational properties) over metaphysical generalization (series of transformation and common ancestry as unobservational processes). The perspective of individuating characters exclusively by historical-transformational independence instead of their developmental, structural, and functional independence fails to yield a sufficient practical interplay between theory and observation. Purely ontological and ostensional perspectives in evolution and phylogeny (e.g., an ideographic character concept and PhyloCode’s ‘individualism’ of clades) may be pragmatically contested in the case of urgent issues in biodiversity research, conservation, and systematics. (shrink)
We present Helmholtz's argument against Weber's electrodynamics. It is related with a fixed charged nonconducting spherical shell and a charged particle moving inside it. Then we utilize Weber's electrodynamics plus Schrödinger's expression for gravitational interactions in order to obtain the equation of motion and to study this situation. We show that this approach avoids the problems pointed out by Helmholtz. Moreover, it indicates that the effective inertial mass of the charged particle will depend not only on the electrostatic potential of (...) the shell but also on its velocity. This is a relevant aspect of Weber's theory. (shrink)
This paper reviews the origin of inertia according to Mach's principle and Weber's law of gravitation. The resulting theory is based on simultaneous nonlocal gravitational interactions between particles in the solar system and others in the remote universe beyond the Milky Way galaxy. It explains the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. A most important implication of the Mach-Weber theory of the force of inertia is the necessity for a large amount of uniformly distributed matter in the galactic universe. This (...) matter could be the source of the cosmic background radiation. Nonlocal inertia forces are compatible with a static universe and also with an expanding universe but the latter would demand slow changes in the mass of particles and the gravitational constant. (shrink)
We present the opinion of some authors who believe there is no force between a stationary charge and a stationary resistive wire carrying a constant current. We show that this force is different from zero and present its main components: the force due to the charges induced in the wire by the test charge and a force proportional to the current in the resistive wire. We also discuss briefly a component of the force proportional to the square of the current (...) which should exist according to some models and another component due to the acceleration of the conduction electrons in a curved wire carrying a dc current (centripetal acceleration). Finally, we analyze experiments showing the existence of the electric field proportional to the current in resistive wires. (shrink)
We derive the equation describing the flow of a variable current in straight wires and in coaxial cables from Newton's second law of motion plus Weber's electrodynamics. We show that in both cases the signal propagates at light velocity.
In this work we analyze the case of resistive conductor plates carrying constant currents, utilizing surface charge distributions. We obtain the electric potential in the plates and in the space surrounding them. We obtain a non-vanishing electric field outside the conductors. We compare the theoretical results with experimental data present in the literature.
Cognition or higher brain activity is sometimes seen as a phenomenon greater than the sum of its parts. This viewpoint however is largely dependent on the state of the art of experimental techniques that endeavor to characterize morphology and its association to function. Retinal ganglion cells are readily accessible for this work and we discuss recent advances in computational techniques in identifying novel parameters that describe structural attributes possibly associated with specific function. These parameters are based on calculating wavelet gradients (...) from cell images followed by the extraction of meaningful measures including 2nd wavelet moment, entropy of orientation, and curvature. For the three cell types analyzed, the mean 2nd wavelet moment, which relates to the field of influence of the dendritic-tree segments was significantly different. cells had the highest mean 2nd wavelet moment, followed by the and cells (134 ± 22, 93 ± 19 and 63 ± 12, respectively). There was no significant difference between cells for entropy of orientation, indicating no class with a preferential orientation of their dendritic tree. Curvature provided similar results to the 2nd wavelet moment with cells having the highest curvature followed by and the cells (mean ± SD: 161 ± 15; 134 ± 22; 121 ± 15). Our feature space analysis also indicated a difference between these cell types. No difference was found between the and cell types and their physiological counterparts the Y and X cells based on wavelet analysis. Both the X and Y cells can be divided into two subtypes, the ON- and OFF-center cells based on the stratification level of the dendritic tree within the retina. Using 2nd wavelet moment, a difference in their morphological attributes, not reported previously, was noted for these subtypes. The 2nd wavelet moment and curvature are further discussed with respect to explaining regularity of spacing and coverage associated with retinal ganglion cell mosaics. (shrink)
Cicero once stressed as the first law of history that “the historian must not dare to tell any falsehood.” This precept entails a minimal ethical requirement that remains unscathed by the whirlpools of epistemic relativism that have called many other aspects of professional historians’ practice into question in the last century or so. No commendable scholar seems willing to invalidate Cicero’s first law, and dependable scholarship—whether relying on objectivity-friendly or objectivity-hostile theoretical assumptions—follows shared standards of integrity and accuracy with which (...) someone from Cicero’s time, for instance, would never be able to comply. In this essay, I suggest that those two circumstances should dispose us more favorably toward a refreshed notion of historical objectivity pointing not only to epistemology but also to professional ethics. I address the condemnation of lying and, more generally, historians’ commitment to sincerity as a way to highlight the ethical dimension of history writing. By focusing on the deep but underexplored moral roots of objectivity, I argue that this concept is still very useful as both an analytical tool and a normative ideal. Objectivity, in the sense I underline here, does not stand in opposition to subjectivity—on the contrary, it is actually tied up with subjective dispositions, virtues, and skills that help shape responsible historiography. (shrink)
A pauta musical foi o primeiro gráfico da Europa”, afirma o autor à página 144 de seu “A Medida da Realidade. Essa é, de fato, a primeira afirmação pretensamente original do livro, já passados quase dois terço da leitura.
Este artigo trata das mudanças ocorridas no universo religioso católico da Diocese de Nova Iguaçu, localizada na Baixada Fluminense, região metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, conhecida pela situação de pobreza e pela violência, em especial por ação de grupos de extermínio. O evento que serve de base para investigamos tais mudanças ficou sendo denominado de Chacina da Baixada, que deixou 29 pessoas mortas e uma ferida no bairro da Posse em Nova Iguaçu. A diocese prontamente se mostrou solidária (...) com as famílias das vítimas, cobrando desde o primeiro momento providências das autoridades locais. Entretanto, as visões sobre o envolvimento eclesial se dividem conforme a proximidade dos agentes religiosos, em especial os leigos, da área física dos assassinatos. Assim, os que residem e trabalham pastoralmente mais próximo à localidade apresentam reticências, silêncios e receios não apresentados por leigos entrevistados de outras localidades. Percebemos que, embora haja consenso quanto à necessidade de mobilização da Diocese quanto ao caso, as percepções são abaladas pelo medo que constantemente rege as experiências cotidianas dos moradores daquela região. (shrink)
Apresentamos os conceitos de inércia, espaço e tempo na mecânica newtoniana. Analisamos o princípio de Mach, segundo o qual a inércia de qualquer corpo é devida a sua interação com os corpos distantes do universo. Em seguida explicamos porque, em geral, a teoria da gravitação de Einstein não implementa este princípio. Discutimos então o trabalho de Erwin Schrödinger que apresenta uma formulação alternativa para a mecânica baseada numa lei de Weber para a gravitação e que é compatível com as idéias (...) de Mach. (shrink)
_ Source: _Page Count 23 Cicero once stressed as the first law of history that “the historian must not dare to tell any falsehood.” This precept entails a minimal ethical requirement that remains unscathed by the whirlpools of epistemic relativism that have called many other aspects of professional historians’ practice into question in the last century or so. No commendable scholar seems willing to invalidate Cicero’s first law, and dependable scholarship—whether relying on objectivity-friendly or objectivity-hostile theoretical assumptions—follows shared standards of (...) integrity and accuracy with which someone from Cicero’s time, for instance, would never be able to comply. In this essay, I suggest that those two circumstances should dispose us more favorably toward a refreshed notion of historical objectivity pointing not only to epistemology but also to professional ethics. I address the condemnation of lying and, more generally, historians’ commitment to sincerity as a way to highlight the ethical dimension of history writing. By focusing on the deep but underexplored moral roots of objectivity, I argue that this concept is still very useful as both an analytical tool and a normative ideal. Objectivity, in the sense I underline here, does not stand in opposition to subjectivity—on the contrary, it is actually tied up with subjective dispositions, virtues, and skills that help shape responsible historiography. (shrink)
A questão da magia sempre despertou a atenção das pessoas pela suposta possibilidade que teria de interferir no seu “destino”. Na literatura, muitos autores já trouxeram para o debate reflexões acerca da possibilidade do acesso dos seres humanos às chamadas “forças ocultas”. Horácio e Machado de Assis são dois desses importantes autores. Alguns de seus textos, principalmente aqueles de conteúdo satírico, suscitam interpretações críticas sobre a forma como se tem tentado manipular, de diversas maneiras, para proveito pessoal, o campo (...) metafísico. Busca-se, nesse artigo, pôr em diálogo o Epodo V, de Horácio, e o conto A cartomante, de Machado de Assis, para refletir acerca da problemática da magia, com seus mistérios e/ou engodos e as diferenças inerentes ao tratamento literário dado à sátira por parte de Horácio e Machado de Assis. (shrink)
O presente estudo busca compreender a aderência de jovens a um instituto católico – Toca de Assis – que se caracteriza por adotar um estilo de vida configurado por radical pobreza, renúncia a bens e estudos formais, e dependência exclusiva da providência divina, além de desenvolvimento de trabalho com pessoas em situação de rua. Busca entender a opção juvenil por um estilo de vida religiosa rigoroso a partir de propostas de vida contrastivas com a sociedade contemporânea e, de certo (...) modo, com a própria Igreja, visando identidades alternativas e fortes. Assim, o artigo desenvolve o tema Juventude; Toca de Assis, renúncia, pobreza; tem como objetivo verificar as relações entre juventude, comportamento e adesão a estilos de vida radicais; usa, principalmente, da metodologia das ciências sociais; tem por conclusão provisória a compreensão de que os jovens que aderem à Toca de Assis, ao renunciar a bens materiais, estudo, e ao assumirem uma vida de pobreza e solidariedade com os pobres, estão em um movimento de contrastividade e contestação social motivadas por uma identificação com o Cristo sofredor. Palavras-chave : Toca de Assis. Renúncia. Pobreza. Jovens.: The present study aims to understand the adherence of youth people to a Catholic institute called Toca de Assis. This group adopts a lifestyle of radical poverty, wich calls for renunciation of material goods and also to formal studies. Participants in this group also claim rely solely on state of divine providence for their material survival. Young people in this group perform a work of assistance to people marginalized by society and to those who live at risk on the streets. The article seeks to understand the reasons for the choice of young people for a religious lifestyle so strict that contrasts with the lifestyle of contemporary society and in a sense, the Church itself, aiming at the formation of alternate identities. Thus, the article develops the theme “youth”, “Toca de Assis”, “resignation”, and “poverty”. The study aims, in short, to examine relationships between youth behavior and adherence to radical lifestyles; For this purpose, a methodology of social science is used. As in interim conclusion, this discussion indicates the following: youth people who adhere to Toca de Assis, renouncing material possessions, study, and assuming a life of poverty and solidarity with the poor, are in a movement of social protest and are motivated by an identification with the suffering Christ. Keywords : Toca de Assis. Renunciation. Poverty. Youth. (shrink)
The objective of the present article is to support the idea that Machado de Assis’ work conforms well to what may be called a non-religious spirituality. For that, the article’s main focus is the analysis of the short story “O Segredo do Bonzo: Capítulo Inédito de Fernão Mendes Pinto”, published in 1882’s collection titled Papéis Avulsos , where the main principles of that spirituality, which is spread all over his work, are given in a nutshell. In a first moment, (...) we analise the intertextuality between Machado’s short story “O Segredo do Bonzo” and Portuguese Renaissance writer’s travelogue Peregrinação and the Machado’s nineteen century critique of the west’s main universalizing proposals: Christianity, scientificity and Enlightenment. In a second moment, we analise the philosophical implications of the primacy given to ‘opinion’ as an existential foundation and as a constitutive element of reality, in a context of close proximity with the soteriological traditions of ancient Greek skepticism, on the one hand, and Buddhism, on the other. A critic of religion, specially of Christian religion, Machado’s ‘accidental’ association with Buddhism is symptomatic of a very peculiar form of non-religious spirituality. (shrink)
Os textos de crítica literária de Machado de Assis mostram a preocupação do autor com o leitor; mas será em Memórias Póstumas de Brás Cubas que o leitor terá uma participação decisiva na estrutura do romance.Les textes de critique littéraire de Machado de Assis montrent la préoccupation de l'auteur avec le lecteur; mais c'est dans l'oeuvre Memorias Postumas de Brás Cubas que le lecteur aura une participation décisive dans la structure du roman.
Na primeira parte deste trabalho -"Grotesco, literatura, leitor" - discutiu-se o conceito de grotesco, configurado em termos literários, nas suas articulações com a ficcionalidade e a recepção. Na segunda parte - "O leitor e o grotesco em A CAUSA SECRETA" - procedeu-se à leitura do conto machadiano na perspectiva de um texto onde o grotesco, resultado da estruturação do conto, encontra-se configurado em termos ficcionais.A la première partie de ce travail -"Grotesque, littérature, lecteur" - on a discuté le concept de (...) grotesque, configuré en termes littéraires, de pins ses articulations avec la fictionalité et la réception. A la seconde partie - "Le lecteur et le grotesque dans I' "A causa secreta" - on a fait la lecture du comte Machadien au point de une d'un texte ou le grotesque, moyen de la structuration du comte, se trouve configuré en termes fictionels. (shrink)
Este trabalho pretende verificar como a questão do duplo expressa já no mito de Narciso é revisitada e reelaborada no conto machadiano O espelho – esboço de uma nova teoria da alma humana, e a partir desta, o conceito de identidade é discutido.
RESUMEN Se analiza si la versión de la justicia como equidad, presentada en El liberalismo político, es genuinamente una concepción política. Se examina el problema de la razonabilidad de las doctrinas comprehensivas, y se indaga luego si el argumento en dos etapas afecta la integridad estructural del liberalismo político. Se concluye que J. Rawls fracasa en su intento de justificar un liberalismo independiente de una doctrina comprehensiva de carácter liberal. ABSTRACT The article analyzes whether the conception of justice as fairness, (...) set forth by Rawls in Political Liberalism, is a genuine political conception. It first examines the issue of reasonableness of comprehensive doctrines and then goes on to inquire whether the two-step argument affects the structural integrity of political liberalism. The paper concludes that J. Rawls fails in his attempt to justify liberalism independently of a comprehensive liberal doctrine. (shrink)