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  1. Origin of Life as a Probabilistic Event in the Universe.Dimitri Marques Abramov & Carlos Alberto Mourão-Junior - manuscript
    By means of a probabilistic mathematical model, we bring into discussion the origin of life as a stochastic process. We consider only the chance of information emergence in the proteome and genome under the ideal thermodynamic and chemical conditions. For a more realistic model, we used, as a parameter, the information amount in N. equitans genome, the simplest known nowadays, as the equivalent to the first living cell that could have emerged in primitive Earth. We estimated the probability of information (...)
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  2. Dark Origins: Departure from an Ex-Nihilo Big Bang.Onyemaechi Ahanotu - manuscript
    With the growing body of research on Black Holes, it is becoming increasingly apparent that these celestial objects may have a stronger part to play in the universe than previously thought, shaping galaxies and influencing star formation. In this manuscript, I take these findings a step further, proposing a new set of boundary conditions to both the early and late Universe, extrapolating from thermodynamics. I propose that the Universe will collapse into a massive black hole and that the Big Bang (...)
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  3. The Ontic Probability Interpretation of Quantum Theory - Part II: Einstein's Incompleteness/Nonlocality Dilemma (2nd edition).Felix Alba-Juez - manuscript
    After identifying in Part I [1] a conceptual confusion (TCC), a Reality preconception (TRP1), and a fallacious dichotomy (TFD), the famous EPR/EPRB [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] argument for correlated ‘particles’ is now studied in the light of the Ontic Probability Interpretation of Quantum Theory (QT/TOPI). Another Reality preconception (TRP2) is found, showing that EPR used and ignored QT predictions in a single paralogism. Employing TFD and TRP2, EPR unveiled a contradiction veiled in its premises. By removing nonlocality from QT’s (...)
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  4. Has the Copenhagen interpretation ever existed? (or, has physics community ever taken Bohr (and Heisenberg) seriously?).Mario B. Valente - manuscript
    It is well-known that, historically, there is no unique interpretation, which might be named the Copenhagen interpretation. At best, it seems to be the case that there is a plethora of related interpretations that, for simplicity, are named as such. Here, a more heterodox possibility is presented. Has this interpretation ever been used/taken into account by physicists? It is a fact that historians, philosophers of science, and a handful of physicists interested in the interpretation of quantum theory have considered, discussed, (...)
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  5. The Stochastic-Quantum Theorem.Jacob A. Barandes - manuscript
    This paper introduces several new classes of mathematical structures that have close connections with physics and with the theory of dynamical systems. The most general of these structures, called generalized stochastic systems, collectively encompass many important kinds of stochastic processes, including Markov chains and random dynamical systems. This paper then states and proves a new theorem that establishes a precise correspondence between any generalized stochastic system and a unitarily evolving quantum system. This theorem therefore leads to a new formulation of (...)
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  6. New Prospects for a Causally Local Formulation of Quantum Theory.Jacob A. Barandes - manuscript
    It is difficult to extract reliable criteria for causal locality from the limited ingredients found in textbook quantum theory. In the end, Bell humbly warned that his eponymous theorem was based on criteria that “should be viewed with the utmost suspicion.” Remarkably, by stepping outside the wave-function paradigm, one can reformulate quantum theory in terms of old-fashioned configuration spaces together with ‘unistochastic’ laws. These unistochastic laws take the form of directed conditional probabilities, which turn out to provide a hospitable foundation (...)
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  7. Homo deceptus: How language creates its own reality.Bruce Bokor - manuscript
    Homo deceptus is a book that brings together new ideas on language, consciousness and physics into a comprehensive theory that unifies science and philosophy in a different kind of Theory of Everything. The subject of how we are to make sense of the world is addressed in a structured and ordered manner, which starts with a recognition that scientific truths are constructed within a linguistic framework. The author argues that an epistemic foundation of natural language must be understood before laying (...)
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  8. Consciousness and Creativity: Federico Faggin's Notes / Consapevolezza e Creativita': Appunti di Federico Faggin.Enrique Canessa - manuscript
    A set of notes on consciousness and creativity by Federico Faggin are here collected. Federico Faggin, Italian-American physicist and 2009 U.S. National Medal of Technology and Innovation, is best known for designing and creating the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004. Faggin's curiosity about consciousness started in the late eighties when he asked himself if it was possible to develop a conscious computer. Faggin reveals here the main aspects and beliefs of his model about consciousness, fruit of his creative experiences (...)
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  9. Mass Time, Mass System, Electrical Charge Time (Infinities in Physics).Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    Here, we continue the discussion in [1], about infinities in Physics. Our goal is to create a Mathematical system to give a probable explanation for infinities in QED, based on Fuzzy time. This Mathematical system should be sufficiently satisfactory and Simple. In general, our goal of these series, is to provide more reasons to consider time as a fuzzy concept in a way that is explained in [4], [5], [6].
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  10. Zeno Paradox, Unexpected Hanging Paradox (Modeling of Reality & Physical Reality, A Historical-Philosophical view).Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    . In our research about Fuzzy Time and modeling time, "Unexpected Hanging Paradox" plays a major role. Here, we compare this paradox to the Zeno Paradox and the relations of them with our standard models of continuum and Fuzzy numbers. To do this, we review the project "Fuzzy Time and Possible Impacts of It on Science" and introduce a new way in order to approach the solutions for these paradoxes. Additionally, we have a more general discussion about paradoxes, as Philosophical (...)
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  11. Taming the Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser.Johannes Fankhauser - manuscript
    In this paper I discuss the delayed choice quantum eraser experiment by giving a straightforward account in standard quantum mechanics. At first glance, the experiment suggests that measurements on one part of an entangled photon pair can be employed to control whether the measurement outcome of the other part of the photon pair produces interference fringes at a screen after being sent through a double slit. Significantly, the choice whether there is interference or not can be made long after the (...)
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  12. Persistence and Reidentification in Systems of Identical Quantum Particles: Towards a Post-Atomistic Conception of Matter.Philip Goyal - manuscript
    The quantum symmetrization procedure that is used to handle systems of identical quantum particles brings into question whether the elementary constituents of matter, such as electrons, have the fundamental characteristics of persistence and reidentifiability that are attributed to classical particles. However, we presently lack a coherent conception of matter composed of entities that do not possess one or both of these fundamental characteristics. We also lack a clear a priori understanding of why systems of identical particles (as opposed to non-identical (...)
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  13. History of Science Enters through the Back Door.Nahum Kipnis - manuscript
    The author argues for a greater involvement of professional historians of science into teaching science to improve the historical component of science. Yet, however much some teachers like history they find no room in the curriculum for a history of science course. The solution is in make the history of science a useful tool for teaching physics. The author shares his experience of using historical experiments carried out by students in a lab setting. Playing scientists not only improved understanding of (...)
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  14. A Live Wire : Machismo of a Distant Surface.Marvin E. Kirsh - manuscript
    The scientific study of socio-cultural phenomenon requires a translocation of topics elaborated from the social perspective of the individual to a rationally ordered rendition of processes suitable for comprehension from a scientific perspective. Scholarly curiosity seeded from exposure in the natural setting to economic, political, socio-cultural, evolutionary, processes dictates that study of the self, should be a science with a necessary place in the body of world literatures; yet it has proven difficult to find a perspective to contain discussions of (...)
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  15. Wigner’s Friend Depends on Self-Contradictory Quantum Amplification.Andrew Knight - manuscript
    In a recent paper, Zukowski and Markiewicz showed that Wigner’s Friend (and, by extension, Schrodinger’s Cat) can be eliminated as physical possibilities on purely logical grounds. I validate this result and demonstrate the source of the contradiction in a simple experiment in which a scientist S attempts to measure the position of object |O⟩ = |A⟩S +|B⟩S by using measuring device M chosen so that |A⟩M ≈ |A⟩S and |B⟩M ≈ |B⟩S. I assume that the measurement occurs by quantum amplification (...)
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  16. QUANTUM RESONANCE WITH THE MIND: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BUDDHISM'S EIGHTH CONSCIOUSNESS, QUANTUM HOLOGRAPHY AND JUNG'S COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS.David Leong - manuscript
    This interdisciplinary exploration discusses the intricate conceptual linkages among Buddhism’s Eighth State of Consciousness, Quantum Holography, and the Jungian Collective Unconscious. Central to this study is examining the Eighth Consciousness in Buddhist thought—a realm that transcends the conventional sensory and mental states to connect with a more universal and profound awareness. Drawing parallels, Quantum Holography posits that every part of the universe retains information about the whole, much like a hologram. This notion seemingly mirrors the Jungian concept of the Collective (...)
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  17. When Occam's Razor Cuts too Deep.Marco Masi - manuscript
    Occam’s razor is frequently considered to be a cornerstone of the scientific method. Indeed, it was and remains a valuable tool for scientific and philosophical inquiry. However, we provided an overview of some historical instances in which it led science away from a reasonable and sound heuristic approach. Some words of caution are necessary to clarify how, contrary to common belief, a too strict adherence to such a principle did not guarantee scientific rigor but, rather, obstructed further progress.
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  18. Consciousness and Matter. Information-measuring Approach. Generalized Principle of Complementarity.Sergiy Melnyk & Igor Tuluzov - manuscript
    A wide range of problems of the relationship between consciousness and matter are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the structure and properties of consciousness in the framework of information evolution. The role of specific (non-computational) properties of consciousness in the procedure of classical and quantum measurements is analyzed. In particular, the issue of "cloning" of consciousness (the possibility of copying its properties onto a new material carrier) is discussed in detail. We hope that the generalized principle (...)
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  19. The ineffable now in physics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    While physicists know how to use quantum mechanics, there is no consensus on what quantum mechanics is a mechanics of. The aim of this paper is to introduce the beginning of what might turn out to be an interpretation of quantum mechanics—one that leaves all calculated probabilities intact. The basic idea is that quantum mechanics describes the objective world, but there must be added to it ineffable variables, one of which is the temporal 'now'. Ineffable variables are not 'hidden variables'.
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  20. Tests cosmologiques gravitationnels: l'univers en expansion.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Les modèles cosmologiques actuels sont construits sur la base de la relativité générale. Les solutions des équations spécifiques, Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker, permettent de modéliser l'évolution de l'univers à partir du Big Bang . Certains paramètres de l'univers ont été établis par des observations. Sur la base de ces données et d'autres données d'observation, les modèles peuvent être testés . Les observations sur la vitesse d'expansion de l'univers permettent d'estimer la quantité totale de matière, dont certaines théories prédisent que 90% sont de la (...)
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  21. Tests de la gravité quantique.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Le test primordial de toute théorie quantique de la gravité est la reproduction des succès de la relativité générale. Cela implique de reconstruire la géométrie locale à partir des observables non locaux. De plus, la gravité quantique devrait probablement prédire la topologie à grande échelle de l'Univers, qui pourrait bientôt être mesurable , et les phénomènes à l'échelle de Planck. Il existe déjà une prédiction liée à la gravité quantique: l'existence et le spectre du rayonnement Hawking du trou noir, une (...)
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  22. Termodinamica: Legi, Concepte, Sisteme, Stări.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Termodinamica se ocupă cu studiul energiei, a conversiilor sale între diferite forme, cum ar fi căldura, și capacitatea energiei de a produce lucru mecanic. Ea este strâns legată de mecanica statistică, din care pot fi derivate multe relații termodinamice. Se poate argumenta că termodinamica a fost greșit denumită astfel întrucât aceasta nu se referă de fapt la rate de schimbare ca atare și, prin urmare, ar fi fost probabil mai corect ca domeniul să se denumească termostatica. Termodinamica se referă la (...)
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  23. Cunoașterea Științifică, Volumul 1, Numărul 2, Decembrie 2022.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Revista Cunoașterea Științifică este o publicație trimestrială din domeniile științei și filosofiei, și domenii conexe de studiu și practică. -/- Cuprins: -/- EDITORIAL Viitorul științei – Știința științelor, de Nicolae Sfetcu -/- ȘTIINȚE NATURALE Anomalii ale relativității generale, de Nicolae Sfetcu -/- ȘTIINȚE SOCIALE Dezvoltarea capabilităților europene în domeniul managementului crizelor, de Alexandru Cristian The Security Management System from the Perspective of the Global Energy Crisis and the Extended Black Sea Region Escalating Conflict, de Daniela Georgiana Golea, Andreea Florina Radu, (...)
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  24. Unification de la gravité avec les autres forces fondamentales.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Plusieurs théories unificatrices ont été proposées. Une grande unification implique l'existence d'une force électronucléaire. La dernière étape de l'unification nécessiterait une théorie qui inclue à la fois la mécanique quantique et la gravité par la relativité générale (« la théorie finale »). Après 1990, certains physiciens considèrent que la théorie M à 11 dimensions, souvent identifiée à l'une des cinq théories des supercordes perturbateurs, ou parfois à la supergravité à supersymétrie maximale supersymétrique à 11 dimensions, est la théorie finale. L'idée (...)
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  25. Gravité et cosmologie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    En cosmologie, la métaphysique implique un large éventail de questions au-delà des preuves empiriques, utilisant parfois l'inférence spéculative. L'analyse épistémologique en cosmologie aide à modéliser l'évaluation. L'étude philosophique offre un cadre général pour interpréter des inférences qui vont au-delà de la science. En cosmologie, il existe des principes ontologiques qui aident à classer les modèles selon leurs caractéristiques, à concevoir la réalité cosmique dans une description plus transparente, et nous permettent de résoudre des équations mathématiques en tant que constructions centrales (...)
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  26. Ipoteze atomice.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Marea varietate de materie cu care ne confruntăm în experiența de zi cu zi este formată din atomi. Existența unor astfel de particule a fost propusă pentru prima dată de către filosofii greci, precum Democrit, Leucip, și epicurienii, dar fără niciun argument real, astfel încât conceptul a dispărut. Aristotel argumenta împotriva indivizibililor lui Democrit (care diferă considerabil de utilizarea istorică și modernă a termenului "atom"). Conceptul atomic a fost reînviat de Rudjer Boscovich în secolul XVIII, și apoi aplicat în chimie (...)
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  27. Jacob Roman Commentary on Aristotle's Physics : 218b10 to 223a23.Jacob Parr - manuscript
    The author Jacob Roman (Parr) provides commentary and line by line analysis of 218b10 through 223a23 , which is of Aristotle's Physica . -/- written in 2023 .
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  28. Unificarea gravitației cu celalalte forțe fundamentale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Au fost propuse mai multe teorii unificatoare. Marea unificare presupune existența unei forțe electronucleare. Ultimul pas în unificare ar necesita o teorie care să includă atât mecanica cuantică cât și gravitația prin relativitatea generală (”teoria finală”). După 1990, unii fizicieni consideră că teoria M 11-dimensională, identificată adesea cu una dintre cele cinci teorii ale supercorzilor perturbative, sau uneori cu supergravitația maximal-supersimetrică 11-dimensională, este teoria finală. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.23549.92642.
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  29. Prolifération des théories post-einsteiniennes - Formalisme paramétrisé post-newtonien (PPN).Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Immédiatement après l'élaboration et le succès de la relativité générale, des théories alternatives pour la gravité ont commencé à apparaître. En développant ces théories, de nombreuses stratégies différentes (heuristiques positives) ont été essayées, en ajoutant de nouvelles hypothèses à la RG, en utilisant un espace-temps pour lequel l'univers est statique, des hypothèses qui éliminent les singularités gravitationnelles, etc. Pour l'évaluation des modèles de gravité, plusieurs séries de tests ont été proposées. Le formalisme paramétrisé post-newtonien (PPN) détaille les paramètres qui différencient (...)
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  30. Classic gravitational tests of post-Einsteinian theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Albert Einstein proposed three tests of general relativity, later named the classic tests of general relativity, in 1916: the precession of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit, sun light deflection, and the gravitational redshift of the light. For gravitational testing, the indirect effects of gravity are always used, usually particles that are influenced by gravity. In the presence of gravity, the particles move along curved geodesic lines. The sources of gravity that cause the curvature of spacetime are material bodies, depending on (...)
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  31. Proliferation of Post-Newtonian, Non-Relativistic Theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Theoreticians have formulated a set of fundamental criteria that any theory of gravity should satisfy, two purely theoretical and two that are based on experimental evidence. Thus, a theory must be complete (capable of analyzing from the "first principles" the result of any experiment of interest), self-consistent (its prediction for the outcome of each experiment must be unique), relativistic (at the limit when gravity is neglected compared to other physical interactions, non-gravitational laws of physics must be reduced to special relativity (...)
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  32. Gravity and gravitational tests.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Theories in science in general, and in physics in particular, are confirmed (temporarily) by experiments that verify the assertions and predictions of theories, thus laying the groundwork for scientific knowledge. Francis Bacon was the first to support the concept of a crucial experiment, which can decide the validity of a hypothesis or theory. Later, Newton argued that scientific theories are directly induced by experimental results and observations, excluding untested hypotheses. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33549.08167.
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  33. Gravité et tests gravitationnels.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les théories scientifiques en général, en physique en particulier, sont confirmées (temporairement) par des expériences vérifiant les affirmations et les prédictions des théories, jetant ainsi les bases de la connaissance scientifique. Francis Bacon a été le premier à soutenir le concept d'une expérience cruciale, qui peut décider la validité d'une hypothèse ou d'une théorie. Plus tard, Newton a soutenu que les théories scientifiques sont directement induites par les résultats expérimentaux et les observations, excluant les hypothèses non vérifiées. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34744.70403 .
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  34. Strong Field Gravitational Tests.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    When the density of the body becomes large enough, general relativity predicts the formation of a black hole. The neutron stars of about 1.4 solar masses and the black holes are the final stage for the evolution of the massive stars. Usually a black hole in a galaxy has played an important role in its formation and related cosmic structures. Such bodies provide an efficient mechanism for the emission of electromagnetic radiation and the formation of microquasars. Accretion can lead to (...)
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  35. Gravitational Singularities.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Gravitational singularities in general relativity are spacetime locations where the gravitational field becomes infinite. Scalar invariant curves of spacetime include a measure of matter density. Some physicists and philosophers believe that because the density of matter tends to become infinite in singularity, spacetime laws are no longer valid there. A gravitational singularity almost universally accepted in astrophysics and cosmology as the earliest state of the universe, is the Big Bang. In this case also, the known laws of physics are no (...)
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  36. Tests and Anomalies of Post-Newtonian Gravitational Theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Usually, the "laboratory" of gravitational tests was the celestial bodies, the astrophysical systems. But such tests are disturbed by non-gravitational effects. The most used such "laboratory" was the solar system. Recently, scientists have focused on observing binary pulsars for the verification of gravitational theories, by observing the variations of the orbital period, thus providing indirect evidence for the emission of gravitational radiation. But the experimenter cannot "arrange the lab" according to his needs, nor trigger certain events when he needs them. (...)
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  37. Le modèle atomique de Bohr, un exemple de programme de recherche.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Le modèle atomique de Bohr a été l'un des exemples les plus brillants de la méthodologie des programmes de recherche d'Imre Lakatos. Les grandes lignes du programme de recherche de Bohr (Bohr 1913) peuvent être caractérisées par : 1. Le problème initial ; 2. Ses heuristiques négatives et positives ; 3. Les problèmes qu'il a tenté de résoudre au cours du développement ; 4. Son point de dégénérescence (point de saturation) et, enfin, 5. Le programme par lequel il a été (...)
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  38. Tests et anomalies des théories de la gravité post-newtoniennes.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans la première édition du Principia, Newton considérait que des expériences avec le pendule lui permettraient de déchiffrer les différents types de force de résistance et leur variation avec la vitesse. Habituellement, le « laboratoire » des tests gravitationnels était les corps célestes, les systèmes astrophysiques. Mais ces tests sont perturbés par des effets non gravitationnels. Le « laboratoire » le plus utilisé était le système solaire. Récemment, les scientifiques se sont concentrés sur l'observation des pulsars binaires pour la vérification (...)
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  39. Prolifération des théories post-newtoniennes.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les théoriciens ont formulé un ensemble de critères fondamentaux que toute théorie de la gravité devrait satisfaire, deux purement théoriques et deux fondés sur des preuves expérimentales. Ainsi, une théorie doit être : complet (capable d'analyser à partir des « premiers principes » le résultat de toute expérience d'intérêt), auto-cohérent (sa prédiction pour le résultat de chaque expérience doit être unique), relativiste (à la limite où la gravité est négligée par rapport à d'autres interactions physiques, les lois non gravitationnelles de (...)
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  40. Standard Quantum Theory Derived from First Physical Principles.Mehran Shaghaghi - manuscript
    The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has been known for almost a century, but its physical foundation has remained elusive. In recent decades, many physicists have noted connections between quantum theory and information theory. In this study, we present a physical account of the derivation of quantum theory's mathematical formalism based on information considerations in physical systems. We postulate that quantum systems are physical systems with only one independent adjustable variable. Using this physical postulate along with the conservation of the (...)
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  41. Nature's Information and Harmonic Proportion.Michael A. Sherbon - manuscript
    The history of science is polarized by debates over Plato and Aristotle’s holism versus the atomism of Democritus and others. This includes the complementarity of continuous and discrete, one and the many, waves and particles, and analog or digital views of reality. The three-fold method of the Pythagorean paradigm of unity, duality, and harmony enables the calculation of fundamental physical constants required by the forces of nature in the formation of matter; thereby demonstrating Plato’s archetypal viewpoint.
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  42. Constants of Nature from the Dynamics of Time.Michael A. Sherbon - manuscript
    An archetypal model for the constants of nature is found from the ancient geometry of the the Cosmological Circle and is related to Plato's cosmology, with its dynamics and harmonics of time cycles. The inverse fine-structure constant and the proton-electron mass ratio are calculated, connecting fundamental mathematical constants of geometry with the latest theoretical and experimental values of these physical constants. Continuing in the tradition of George Gamow's suggestion, "Since the works of Sir Arthur Eddington, it has become customary to (...)
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  43. Pythagorean Geometry and Fundamental Constants.Michael A. Sherbon - manuscript
    The Cosmological Circle from ancient geometry, with its right triangles, and the ratios of the Pythagorean Table are found to be harmonically related to the fundamental physical constants. After a brief history of harmonic mathematics, harmonic values are calculated for the speed of light constant, gravitational constant, Planck's constant, and the inverse fine-structure constant. We then calculate the harmonic of electron mass and proton mass, showing the related Pythagorean/Cosmological Circle harmonics; and speculate on geometry and symmetry.
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  44. Classical Quintessence and the Cosmological Constant.Michael A. Sherbon - manuscript
    From the cosmology of classical quintessence and the Cosmological Circle of ancient geometry, quintessence is calculated as the primary fundamental physical constant. The role of the fine-structure constant in quantum electrodynamics is briefly discussed and the same value for inverse alpha, the inverse fine-structure constant found in previous work, is confirmed. Then the cosmological constant is calculated, confirming a recent theoretical prediction related to the fine-structure constant and the cosmological constant.
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  45. The Fluid Margin between Physical Causal Closure and Non-Physical Causal Closure, extended to The Neutrosophic Causal Closure Principle.Florentin Smarandache - manuscript
    We plead for a fluid margin, or mixed/indeterminate buffer zone, between Physical and Non-Physical Causal Closures, and for a Neutrosophic Causal Closure Principle claiming that the chances of all physical effects are determined by their prior partially physical and partially non-physical causes.
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  46. Extra-Temporal Causality.Stephen I. Ternyik - manuscript
    The physical properties of time point to extra-temporal causality; this research abtract compiles the key findings.
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  47. Extra-Temporal Causality/Hebrew Version.Stephen I. Ternyik - manuscript
    The physical properties of time point to extra-temporal causality; this research abstract compiles the key findings in Hebrew.
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  48. Identical or Distinct? The Paneth–Fajans Debate on the Nature of Isotopes.Pieter Thyssen - manuscript
  49. Testing for Consciousness Using Theory of Mind.Brian Wachter - manuscript
    This proposed study would seek to test for a causal relationship between theory of mind (ToM) and consciousness by conducting a single-variable experiment. Further, the theory proposed to explain this relationship includes that it must exist as a quantum superposition. The independent variable of ToM would be manipulated by randomly assigning participants to two groups. The two groups would represent a higher and lower level of the ToM variable by exposing participants to dramatic material chosen, in the first group, to (...)
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  50. On the notion of existence.Piotr Witas - manuscript
    I argue that a slight shift in our understanding of the notion of existence is needed in order to cope with the problem of external world and the problem of mind and body. As a consequence of it being taught by "givenness" of the subjective mind, and despite its applicability in objective contexts, it should be considered a "tool" akin to qualia, rather than pertaining to a "true", objective reality. In plain language, one's supposed relation with their surroundings is known (...)
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