62 found
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  1. Recent Work in Epistemic Logic.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1978 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 30 (2):1-219.
  2.  24
    Leibniz’s Ontological Proof of the Existence of God and the Problem of »Impossible Objects«.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):85-104.
    The core idea of the ontological proof is to show that the concept of existence is somehow contained in the concept of God, and that therefore God’s existence can be logically derived—without any further assumptions about the external world—from the very idea, or definition, of God. Now, G.W. Leibniz has argued repeatedly that the traditional versions of the ontological proof are not fully conclusive, because they rest on the tacit assumption that the concept of God is possible, i.e. free from (...)
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  3. Auf der Suche nach dem verlorenen ≫Selbst≪ — Thomas Metzinger und die ≫letzte Kränkung≪ der Menschheit.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2006 - Facta Philosophica 8 (1-2):161-192.
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  4.  12
    Leibniz’s Logic and the “Cube of Opposition”.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (2-3):171-189.
    After giving a short summary of the traditional theory of the syllogism, it is shown how the square of opposition reappears in the much more powerful concept logic of Leibniz. Within Leibniz’s algebra of concepts, the categorical forms are formalized straightforwardly by means of the relation of concept-containment plus the operator of concept-negation as ‘S contains P’ and ‘S contains Not-P’, ‘S doesn’t contain P’ and ‘S doesn’t contain Not-P’, respectively. Next we consider Leibniz’s version of the so-called Quantification of (...)
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  5.  29
    Epistemologische betrachtungen zu [S4, S5].Wolfgang Lenzen - 1979 - Erkenntnis 14 (1):33-56.
    The numerous modal systems between S4 and S5 are investigated from an epistemological point of view by interpreting necessity either as knowledge or as (strong) belief. It is shown that-granted some assumptions about epistemic logic for which the author has argued elsewhere-the system S4.4 may be interpreted as the logic of true belief, while S4.3.2 and S4.2 may be taken to represent epistemic logic systems for individuals who accept the scheme knowledge = true belief only for certain special instances. There (...)
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  6.  6
    How to Square Knowledge and Belief.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2012 - In J.-Y. Beziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Birkhäuser. pp. 305--311.
  7. Glauben, Wissen Und Wahrscheinlichkeit. Systeme Der Epistemischen Logik.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1985 - Erkenntnis 23 (1):97-112.
     
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  8. Alles nur Illusionen?-Philosophische (In-) Konsequenzen der Neurobiologie.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2005 - Facta Philosophica 7 (2):189-229.
  9. Die Paradoxie der überraschenden Übung: Logische, epistemologische und pragmatische Aspekte.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1976 - Logique Et Analyse 19 (74):267-284.
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  10.  71
    Leibniz on Privative and Primitive Terms.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1991 - Theoria 6 (1/2):83-96.
    We first present an edition of the manuscript LH VII, B 2, 39 in which Leibniz develops a new formalism in order to give rigorous definitions of positive, of privative, and of primitive terms.This formalism involves a symbolic treatment of conceptual quantification which differs quite considerably from Leibniz’s “standard” theory of “indefinite concepts” as developed, e.g., in the “General Inquirles” In the subsequent commentary we give an interpretation and a critical evaluation of Leibniz’s symbolic apparatus. It turns out that the (...)
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  11.  7
    Searles verpatzte Lösung des Freiheitsproblems.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2005 - Facta Philosophica 7 (1):35-68.
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  12.  21
    On the Representation of Classificatory Value Structures.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1983 - Theory and Decision 15 (4):349-369.
  13.  75
    On Leibniz's Essay 'Mathesis Rationis'.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1990 - Topoi 9 (1):29-59.
  14.  7
    On Some Substitution Instances of ${\Bf R1}$ and ${\Bf L1}$.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1978 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (1):159-164.
  15.  4
    S4.1.4=S4.1.2 and S4.021=S4.04.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1978 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (3):465-466.
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  16. Theorien der Bestätigung Wissenschaftlicher Hypothesen.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1974
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  17. Leibniz: Logic.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2014 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Leibniz: Logic The revolutionary ideas of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) on logic were developed by him between 1670 and 1690. The ideas can be divided into four areas: the Syllogism, the Universal Calculus, Propositional Logic, and Modal Logic. These revolutionary ideas remained hidden in the Archive of the Royal Library in Hanover until 1903 when the French mathematician […].
     
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  18.  25
    Epistemic Logic.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2004 - In M. Sintonen, J. Wolenski & I. Niiniluoto (eds.), Handbook of Epistemology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 963--983.
  19. Damasios Theorie der Emotionen.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2004 - Facta Philosophica 6 (2):269-309.
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  20. On the Origin of the Utilitarian Maximization Requirement.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2003 - Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 6.
    Since the total utility of an action A, U, is taken as the decisive criterion for the moral quality of A in the sense that A1 is morally better than A2 iff U > U, utilitarian ethics usually requires that we should always chose that action A* by which the total utility is maximized. This requirement, however, is fundamentally mistaken since it entails that any morally good action A1 is forbidden as long as there exists another alternative A2 which is (...)
     
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  21. Non Est Non Est Est Non. Zu Leibnizens Theorie der Negation.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1986 - Studia Leibnitiana 18 (1):1-37.
    Leibniz's development of a "calculus universalis" stands and falls with his theory of negation. During the entire period of the elaboration of the algebra of concepts, L1, Leibniz had to struggle hard to grasp the difference between propositional and conceptual negation. Within the framework of syllogistic, this difference seems to disappear because 'Omne A non B' may be taken to be equivalent to ‘Omne A est non-B’. Within the "universal calculus", however, the informal quantifier expression 'omne' is to be dropped. (...)
     
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  22. Leibniz Und Die Boolesche Algebra.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1984 - Studia Leibnitiana 16:187.
    It is well known that in his logical writings Leibniz typically disregarded the operation of disjunction, confining himself to the theory of conjunction ajid negation. Now, while this fact has been interpreted by Couturat and others as indicating a serious incompleteness of the Leibnizian calculus, it is shown in this paper that actually Leibniz's conjunction-negation logic, with 'est Ens', i. e. 'is possible' as an additional logical operator, is provably equivalent to Boolean algebra. Moreover, already in the Generales Inquisitiones of (...)
     
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  23.  2
    A Rare Accident.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1978 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (2):249-250.
  24.  3
    Two Days in the Life of a Genius.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2018 - In Alessandro Giordani & Ciro de Florio (eds.), From Arithmetic to Metaphysics: A Path Through Philosophical Logic. De Gruyter. pp. 207-240.
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  25.  15
    Beschränkte und Unbeschränkte Reduktion von Konjunktionen von Modalitäten in S4.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1980 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 26 (7-9):131-143.
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  26.  19
    Ockham’s Calculus of Strict Implication.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2015 - Logica Universalis 9 (2):181-191.
    In his main work Summa Logicae written around 1323, William of Ockham developed a system of propositional modal logic which contains almost all theorems of a modern calculus of strict implication. This calculus is formally reconstructed here with the help of modern symbols for the operators of conjunction, disjunction, implication, negation, possibility, and necessity.
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  27. S4:1:4 = S4:1:2 and S4:021 = S4:04.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1978 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (July):465-466.
     
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  28.  20
    Leibniz's Logic.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2004 - In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier. pp. 3--1.
  29.  19
    Doxastic Logic and the Burge-Buridan-Paradox.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1981 - Philosophical Studies 39 (1):43 - 49.
  30. Das System der Leibnizschen Logik.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1992 - Studia Leibnitiana 24 (1):112-116.
  31.  30
    Ploucquet's “Refutation” of the Traditional Square of Opposition.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2008 - Logica Universalis 2 (1):43-58.
    . In the 18th century, Gottfried Ploucquet developed a new syllogistic logic where the categorical forms are interpreted as set-theoretical identities, or diversities, between the full extension, or a non-empty part of the extension, of the subject and the predicate. With the help of two operators ‘O’ (for “Omne”) and ‘Q’ (for “Quoddam”), the UA and PA are represented as ‘O(S) – Q(P)’ and ‘Q(S) – Q(P)’, respectively, while UN and PN take the form ‘O(S) > O(P)’ and ‘Q(S) > (...)
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  32.  1
    On Some Substitution Instances of R1 and L1.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1978 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19:159.
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  33.  10
    Belief and Probability.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1979 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 9:199-207.
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  34.  12
    Die Verwirrungen des Skeptizismus.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1982 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 18:123-135.
    Ausgehend von Descartes' Meditationen werden die Standard-Argumente für den — auf den Bereich empirischer Propositionen beschränkten — Skeptizismus untersucht. Der Versuch einer empirischen Begründung nach dem Schema "Wir haben uns alle schon einmal geirrt, also sollten wir es für möglich halten, daß wir uns immer irren" erweist sich dabei als zirkulär; der alternative, apriorische Begründungsversuch der Art "Es ist stets (logisch) möglich, daß wir uns irren, also wissen wir nichts mit absoluter Sicherheit" beruht dagegen auf einer Verwechslung der Begriffe logischer (...)
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  35.  12
    Wittgensteins Zweifel über Wissen und Gewißheit.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1980 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 10:43-52.
    In Über Gewissheit umkreist Wittgenstein immer wieder die Frage, ob Moore mit seiner Behauptung, er wisse diese und jene alltäglichen Dinge, wirklich Recht hat. Wittgenstein erweist sich dabei z.T. als Anti-Skeptiker, indem er zu zeigen versucht, daß ein prinzipieller, methodischer Zweifel ä la Descartes unmöglich ist. Andererseits entwickelt Wittgenstein Zweifel philosophischer Natur daran, ob man die Sachverhalte, selbst wenn sie außer jedem vernünftigen Zweifel stehen, wirklich weiß. Diese halb skeptische, halb antiskeptische Position ist jedoch unhaltbar.
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  36.  12
    Das Töten von Tieren und von Föten.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1990 - Analyse & Kritik 12 (2):190-205.
    Singer's ,Practical Ethics, is based on a form of utilitarianism which takes into account the interests of a living being if and only if it displays a minimum of rationality and consciousness. Accordingly aborting a human fetus in an early stage of development is held to be morally acceptable, whereas killing chicken, pigs, and cattle for mere culinary pleasure is not. Singer's view on abortion are refuted because they only consider the actual properties of the fetus but ignore the quality, (...)
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  37.  19
    Der “Logische Calcul Herrn Prof. Ploucquets”.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2008 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 90 (1):74-114.
    In several works published between 1759 and 1782, Gottfried Ploucquet developed a logical system which deviates from traditional syllogistics in several respects. The most important features – which are critically examined in this paper – comprise.
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  38.  8
    Knowledge, Belief, Existence, and Quantifiers.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1976 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 2:55-65.
    Die Diskussion des in Hintikkas Knowledge and Belief entwickelten Systems epistemischer Logik hat gezeigt, daß einige fundamentale, intuitiv außer Frage stehende Prinzipien zu unerwarteten Schwierigkeiten führen. Hier wird nun nachzuweisen versucht, daß diese Schwierigkeiten nicht den informellen Prinzipien anzulasten sind, sondern Hintikkas Behandlung der Existenz. Speziell wird gezeigt, daß die fraglichen Probleme sich dadurch lösen lassen, daß man allgemein über "mögliche Objekte", und nicht nur über tatsächlich existierende Gegenstände quantifiziert.
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  39.  8
    Zum Problem des Fundamentalismus aus der Perspektive der epistemischen Logik.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1984 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 22:13-25.
    Aus epistemisch-logischer Sicht reduziert sich das Fundamentalismusproblem auf die Fragen, ob die Bedingung "a's Glaube, daß p, ist fundiert" notwendig bzw. — im Verband mit "p ist wahr" und "a ist davon überzeugt, daß p " — auch hinreichend dafür ist, daß a weiß, daß p. Drei Explikationsversuche der Fundiertheitsbedingung werden untersucht: während die ersten beiden, mit den üblichen epistemischen Termen 'wissen' und 'überzeugt sein' formulierten Varianten scheitern, erweist sich die dritte Definition mittels des Terms 'evident sein' als erfolgversprechend, sofern (...)
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  40.  3
    Leibniz on Privative and Primitive Terms.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1991 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 6 (1-2):83-96.
    We first present an edition of the manuscript LH VII, B 2, 39 in which Leibniz develops a new formalism in order to give rigorous definitions of positive, of privative, and of primitive terms.This formalism involves a symbolic treatment of conceptual quantification which differs quite considerably from Leibniz’s “standard” theory of “indefinite concepts” as developed, e.g., in the “General Inquirles” In the subsequent commentary we give an interpretation and a critical evaluation of Leibniz’s symbolic apparatus. It turns out that the (...)
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  41.  7
    Negation Operators '.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1996 - In H. Wansing (ed.), Negation: A Notion in Focus. W. De Gruyter. pp. 7--37.
  42.  5
    What is (or at Least Appears to Be) Wrong with Intuitionistic Logic?Wolfgang Lenzen - 1991 - In Georg Schurz (ed.), Advances in Scientific Philosophy. pp. 173-186.
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  43.  6
    Wenn 0=1, dann ist die, reine Inhaltslogik' unmöglich. Bemerkungen zu Liskes Kritik der Leibnizschen Begriffstheorie.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2000 - Studia Leibnitiana 32 (1):105 - 116.
    In a 1994 paper entitled "Ist eine reine Inhaltslogik moglich?" M. Liske attempted to show that Leibniz's theory of intensional concepts suffers from a serious inadequacy. Liske begins by defining the intension of a concept in two slightly different ways. Broadly conceived, Int is the set of all concepts B which are contained in A, while in a narrow sense, Int* consists of all such B other than A itself. These definitions entail that the tautological concept 0 has an empty (...)
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  44.  8
    Ockhams modale Aussagenlogik.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1993 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 75 (2):125-159.
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  45.  4
    Lothar Krauth: Die Philosophie Carnaps.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1976 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 58 (1).
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  46.  7
    Therapeutic Versus Genuine Cloning.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2003 - Ethical Perspectives 10 (3):176-184.
    In order to answer the question raised in the title of my paper, I first put forward a general ethical theory, which is based on the traditional maxim neminem laedere. Second, I show how this principle in conjunction with certain assumptions concerning the value of life entails certain fundamental bioethical principles. Thus killing a living being Y is morally wrong whenever the intrinsic value of the life that Y would otherwise live is positive. But procreating a living being Y is (...)
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  47.  3
    Leibniz on Properties and Individuals.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1992 - In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 193--204.
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  48.  3
    Leibniz's Calculus of Strict Implication.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1987 - In Jan T. J. Srzednicki (ed.), Initiatives in Logic. M. Nijhoff. pp. 1--35.
  49.  1
    Knowledge, Belief, Existence, and Quantifiers: A Note on Hintikka.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1976 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 2:55-65.
    Die Diskussion des in Hintikkas Knowledge and Belief entwickelten Systems epistemischer Logik hat gezeigt, daß einige fundamentale, intuitiv außer Frage stehende Prinzipien zu unerwarteten Schwierigkeiten führen. Hier wird nun nachzuweisen versucht, daß diese Schwierigkeiten nicht den informellen Prinzipien anzulasten sind, sondern Hintikkas Behandlung der Existenz. Speziell wird gezeigt, daß die fraglichen Probleme sich dadurch lösen lassen, daß man allgemein über "mögliche Objekte", und nicht nur über tatsächlich existierende Gegenstände quantifiziert.
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  50.  1
    Zum Problem des Fundamentalismus aus der Perspektive der epistemischen Logik.Wolfgang Lenzen - 1984 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 22:13-25.
    Aus epistemisch-logischer Sicht reduziert sich das Fundamentalismusproblem auf die Fragen, ob die Bedingung "a's Glaube, daß p, ist fundiert" notwendig bzw. — im Verband mit "p ist wahr" und "a ist davon überzeugt, daß p " — auch hinreichend dafür ist, daß a weiß, daß p. Drei Explikationsversuche der Fundiertheitsbedingung werden untersucht: während die ersten beiden, mit den üblichen epistemischen Termen 'wissen' und 'überzeugt sein' formulierten Varianten scheitern, erweist sich die dritte Definition mittels des Terms 'evident sein' als erfolgversprechend, sofern (...)
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