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  1. Bruce MacLennan, Field Computation in Motor Control.
    (brain area) to small (dendritic) scales. Further, it is often useful to describe motor control and sensorimotor coordination in terms of external elds such as force elds and sensory images. We survey the basic concepts of eld computation, including both feed-forward eld operations and eld dynamics resulting from recurrent connections. Adaptive and learning mechanisms are discussed brie y. The application of eld computation to motor control is illustrated by several examples: external force elds associated with spinal neurons (Bizzi (...)
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  2. Bruce MacLennan, Lp-Circular Functions.
    In this report we develop the basic properties of a set of functions analogous to the circular and hyperbolic functions, but based on L p circles. The resulting identities may simplify analysis in L p spaces in much the way that the circular functions do in Euclidean space. In any case, they are a pleasing example of mathematical generalization.
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  3. Bruce MacLennan, Living Neoplatonism.
    The title of my talk, “Living Neoplatonism,” is intentionally ambiguous, for it can refer, first, to Neoplatonism as a living philosophy rather than as a historical artifact embodied in the writings of Plotinus, Proclus, and the rest. And second, it can refer to the practice of living Neoplatonically as a modern way of life. But why Neoplatonism, as opposed to some other philosophy? From my perspective as a scientist I will explain why I think Neoplatonism is especially suited to provide (...)
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  4. Bruce MacLennan, Why the `Hard Problem' is Hard.
    I take the `hard problem' of consciousness to be to understand the relation between our subjective experience and the brain processes that cause it; that is, to reconcile our everyday feeling of consciousness with the scienti c worldview (MacLennan, 1995). This problem is hard because consciousness has unique epistemological characteristics, which must be accommodated by any attempted solution. I will summarize these characteristics; more detail can be found in Searle (1992, chs. 4, 5) and Chalmers (1995, 1996), whose positions, if (...)
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  5. Bruce J. MacLennan, Grounding Analog Computers Commentary on Harnad on Symbolism- Connectionism.
    The issue of symbol grounding is not essentially different in analog and digital computation. The principal difference between the two is that in analog computers continuous variables change continuously, whereas in digital computers discrete variables change in discrete steps (at the relevant level of analysis). Interpretations are imposed on analog computations just as on digital computations: by attaching meanings to the variables and the processes defined over them. As Harnad (2001) claims, states acquire intrinsic meaning through their relation to the (...)
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  6. Bruce J. MacLennan, (Position Paper for Symposium, \What is Computing?").
    The central claim of computationalism is generally taken to be that the brain is a computer, and that any computer implementing the appropriate program would ipso facto have a mind. In this paper I argue for the following propositions: (1) The central claim of computationalism is not about computers, a concept too imprecise for a scienti c claim of this sort, but is about physical calculi (instantiated discrete formal systems). (2) In matters of formality, interpretability, and so forth, analog computation (...)
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  7. Bruce J. MacLennan, Mixing Memory and Desire: Want and Will in Neural Modeling.
    Values are critical for intelligent behavior, since values determine interests, and interests determine relevance. Therefore we address relevance and its role in intelligent behavior in animals and machines. Animals avoid exhaustive enumeration of possibilities by focusing on relevant aspects of the environment, which emerge into the (cognitive) foreground, while suppressing irrelevant aspects, which submerge into the background. Nevertheless, the background is not invisible, and aspects of it can pop into the foreground if background processing deems them potentially relevant. Essential to (...)
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  8. Bruce James MacLennan (2013). Cognition in Hilbert Space. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):296-297.
    Use of quantum probability as a top-down model of cognition will be enhanced by consideration of the underlying complex-valued wave function, which allows a better account of interference effects and of the structure of learned and ad hoc question operators. Furthermore, the treatment of incompatible questions can be made more quantitative by analyzing them as non-commutative operators.
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  9. Bruce J. MacLennan (2008). Consciousness: Natural and Artificial. Synthesis Philosophica 22 (2):401-433.
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  10. Bruce J. MacLennan (2008). La conscience, naturelle et artificielle. Synthesis Philosophica 22 (2):401-433.
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  11. Bruce J. MacLennan (2008). Natürliches und künstliches Bewusstsein. Synthesis Philosophica 22 (2):401-433.
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  12. Bruce J. MacLennan (2005). Evolution, Jung, and Theurgy: Their Role in Modern Neoplatonism. In Robert M. Berchman & John F. Finamore (eds.), History of Platonism: Plato Redivivus. University Press of the South. 305--322.
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  13. Bruce J. MacLennan (2003). Color as a Material, Not an Optical, Property. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):37-38.
    For all animals, color is an indicator of the substance and state of objects, for which purpose reflectance is just one among many relevant optical properties. This broader meaning of color is confirmed by linguistic evidence. Rather than reducing color to a simple physical property, it is more realistic to embrace its full phenomenology.
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  14. Bruce MacLennan (2002). Synthetic Ethology: A New Tool for Investigating Animal Cognition. In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. Mit Press. 151--156.
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  15. Bruce MacLennan (1999). Neurophenomenological Constraints and Pushing Back the Subjectivity Barrier. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (6):961-963.
    In the first part of this commentary I argue that a neurophenomenological analysis of color reveals additional asymmetries that preclude undetectable color transformations, without appealing to weak arguments based on Basic Color Categories (BCCs); that is, I suggest additional factors that must be included in “an empirically accurate model of color experience,” and which break the remaining asymmetries. In the second part I discuss the “isomorphism constraint” and the extent to which we may predict the subjective quality of experience from (...)
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  16. Bruce J. MacLennan (1998). Finding Order in Our World: The Primacy of the Concrete in Neural Representations and the Role of Invariance in Substance Reidentification. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):78-79.
    I discuss neuroscientific and phenomenological arguments in support of Millikan's thesis. I then consider invariance as a unifying theme in perceptual and conceptual tracking, and how invariants may be extracted from the environment. Finally, some wider implications of Millikan's nondescriptionist approach to language are presented, with specific application to color terms.
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  17. Bruce J. MacLennan (1996). The Elements of Consciousness and Their Neurodynamical Correlates. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (5):409-424.
  18. Bruce J. MacLennan, Continuous Formal Systems: A Unifying Model in Language and Cognition.
    The idea of a calculus or discrete formal system is central to traditional models of language, knowledge, logic, cognition and computation, and it has provided a unifying framework for these and other disciplines. Nevertheless, research in psychology, neuroscience, philosophy and computer science has shown the limited ability of this model to account for the flexible, adaptive and creative behavior exhibited by much of the animal kingdom. Promising alternate models replace discrete structures by structured continua and discrete rule-following by continuous dynamical (...)
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  19. Bruce J. MacLennan (1995). The Investigation of Consciousness Through Phenomenology and Neuroscience. In Joseph E. King & Karl H. Pribram (eds.), Proceedings Scale in Conscious Experience: Third Appalachian Conference on Behavioral Neurodynamics. Lawrence Erlbaum. 23-43.
    The principal problem of consciousness is how brain processes cause subjective awareness. Since this problem involves subjectivity, ordinary scientific methods, applicable only to objective phenomena, cannot be used. Instead, by parallel application of phenomenological and scientific methods, we may establish a correspondence between the subjective and the objective. This correspondence is effected by the construction of a theoretical entity, essentially an elementary unit of consciousness, the intensity of which corresponds to electrochemical activity in a synapse. Dendritic networks correspond to causal (...)
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  20. Bruce J. MacLennan (1994). Words Lie in Our Way. Minds and Machines 4 (4):421-37.
    The central claim of computationalism is generally taken to be that the brain is a computer, and that any computer implementing the appropriate program would ipso facto have a mind. In this paper I argue for the following propositions: (1) The central claim of computationalism is not about computers, a concept too imprecise for a scientific claim of this sort, but is about physical calculi (instantiated discrete formal systems). (2) In matters of formality, interpretability, and so forth, analog computation and (...)
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  21. Bruce J. MacLennan (1993). Grounding Analog Computers. Think 2:8-51.
    In this commentary on Harnad's "Grounding Symbols in the Analog World with Neural Nets: A Hybrid Model," the issues of symbol grounding and analog (continuous) computation are separated, it is argued that symbol graounding is as important an issue for analog cognitive models as for digital (discrete) models. The similarities and differences between continuous and discrete computation are discussed, as well as the grounding of continuous representations. A continuous analog of the Chinese Room is presented.
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  22. Bruce J. MacLennan (1993). Visualizing the Possibilities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):356-357.
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  23. Bruce MacLennan (1990). The Discomforts of Dualism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):673-674.
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  24. Bruce J. MacLennan (1988). Causes and Intentions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):519-520.
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