Results for 'Irem Kurtsal Steen'

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  1. Three-Dimensionalist’s Semantic Solution to Diachronic Vagueness.Irem Kurtsal Steen - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 150 (1):79-96.
    A standard response to the problem of diachronic vagueness is ‘the semantic solution’, which demands an abundant ontology. Although it is known that the abundant ontology does not logically preclude endurantism, their combination is rejected because it necessitates massive coincidence between countless objects. In this paper, I establish that the semantic solution is available not only to perdurantists but also to endurantists by showing that there is no problem with such ubiquitous and principled coincidence.
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  2.  59
    Almost‐Ontology: Why Epistemicism Cannot Help Us Avoid Unrestricted Composition or Diachronic Plenitude.İrem Kurtsal Steen - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):130-139.
    That any filled location of spacetime contains a persisting thing has been defended based on the ‘argument from vagueness.’ It is often assumed that since the epistemicist account of vagueness blocks the argument from vagueness it facilitates a conservative ontology without gerrymandered objects. It doesn't. The epistemic vagueness of ordinary object predicates such as ‘bicycle’ requires that objects that can be described as almost‐but‐not‐quite‐bicycle exist even though they fall outside the predicate's sharp extension. Since the predicates that begin with ‘almost’ (...)
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  3.  16
    Three-Dimensionalist’s Semantic Solution to Diachronic Vagueness.Irem Kurtsal Steen - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 150 (1):79-96.
    A standard response to the problem of diachronic vagueness is ‘the semantic solution’, which demands an abundant ontology. Although it is known that the abundant ontology does not logically preclude endurantism, their combination is rejected because it necessitates massive coincidence between countless objects. In this paper, I establish that the semantic solution is available not only to perdurantists but also to endurantists by showing that there is no problem with such ubiquitous and principled coincidence.
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  4.  14
    Persistence Egalitarianism.Irem Kurtsal - 2021 - Res Philosophica 98 (1):63-88.
    Modal Plenitude—the view that, for every empirically adequate modal profile, there is an object whose modal profile it is—is held to be consistent with each of endurantist and perdurantist views of persistence. Here I show that, because “endurer” and “perdurer” are two substantially different kinds of entity, compossible with each other and consistent with empirical data, Modal Plenitude actually entails a third view about persistence that I call “Persistence Egalitarianism.” In every non-empty spacetime region there are two persisting objects: one (...)
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  5.  19
    Self-Determination in Plenitude.Irem Kurtsal - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    On a plenitudinous ontology, in every filled region of spacetime, there is at least one object that’s ‘exactly then and there’; one per each modal profile that the matter in the region satisfies. One of the strongest arguments for plenitude, the “argument from anthropocentrism”, puts pressure on us to accept that members of different communities correctly self-identify under different subject concepts. I explore this consequence and offer an account of selves on which self-determination is both socially and individually variant; we (...)
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  6.  6
    The Sorites Paradox in Metaphysics.Irem Kurtsal - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 207-228.
    Take any putative ordinary object which is divisible into a finite number of small units and tolerant to the loss of one of them. We can remove these units one at a time, and since our object definitely doesn’t exist when there are zero units, and since we cannot pinpoint which removal brings about this destruction, the Sorites Puzzle threatens common sense. We can rescue ordinary objects from its grip, but since independently motivated linguistic explanations of vagueness depend on there (...)
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  7. Russell on Matter and Our Knowledge of the External World.Irem Steen - 2004 - The Bertrand Russell Society Quarterly 124.
     
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  8.  5
    Steen Brock A Conception of Modern Life as “the Awakening of the Human Spirit, Revisited”: Wittgenstein’s Early Remarks on Frazer as a Philosophy of Culture.Steen Brock - 2016 - In Aidan Seery, Josef G. F. Rothhaupt & Lars Albinus (eds.), Wittgenstein’s Remarks on Frazer: The Text and the Matter. De Gruyter. pp. 175-204.
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  9.  21
    Can Deception Be Desirable?Irem Uz & Markus Kemmelmeier - 2017 - Social Science Information 56 (1):98-106.
    Critics of deception in research allege harm to society, the discipline of psychology, the researchers and participants. However, neither empirical findings nor a ‘reasonable-person’ test seem to support those allegations. By and large, researchers who use deception consider its costs and benefits, and the kind and degree of deceit that is typically used in psychology is of a benevolent type. Moreover, participants prefer to participate in deception research rather than its non-deceptive alternatives. In the light of these premises, we argue (...)
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  10.  2
    Niels Bohr's Philosophy of Quantum Physics in the Light of the Helmholtzian Tradition of Theoretical Physics.Steen Brock - 2003 - Logos Verlag Berlin.
    Steen Brock paints a cross-disciplinary picture of the philosophical and scientific background for the rise of the quantum theory. He accounts for the unity of Kantian metaphysics of Nature, the Helmholtzian principles, and the Hamiltonian methods of modern pre-quantum physics. Brock shows how Planck's vision of a generalization of classical physics implies that the original quantum mechanics of Heisenberg can be regarded as a successful attempt to maintain this modern unity of physics.However, for Niels Bohr, the unity of science (...)
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  11.  25
    Retractions in the Scientific Literature: Is the Incidence of Research Fraud Increasing?R. Grant Steen - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):249-253.
    Next SectionBackground Scientific papers are retracted for many reasons including fraud (data fabrication or falsification) or error (plagiarism, scientific mistake, ethical problems). Growing attention to fraud in the lay press suggests that the incidence of fraud is increasing. Methods The reasons for retracting 742 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Reasons for retraction were initially dichotomised as fraud or error and then analysed to determine specific reasons for retraction. Results Error was (...)
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  12.  53
    Retractions in the Scientific Literature: Do Authors Deliberately Commit Research Fraud?R. Grant Steen - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (2):113-117.
    Background Papers retracted for fraud (data fabrication or data falsification) may represent a deliberate effort to deceive, a motivation fundamentally different from papers retracted for error. It is hypothesised that fraudulent authors target journals with a high impact factor (IF), have other fraudulent publications, diffuse responsibility across many co-authors, delay retracting fraudulent papers and publish from countries with a weak research infrastructure. Methods All 788 English language research papers retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 were evaluated. Data (...)
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  13.  31
    Collective Intelligence of the Artificial Life Community on Its Own Successes, Failures, and Future.Steen Rasmussen, Michael J. Raven, Gordon N. Keating & Mark A. Bedau - 2003 - Artificial Life 9:207-235.
    We describe a novel Internet-based method for building consensus and clarifying con icts in large stakeholder groups facing complex issues, and we use the method to survey and map the scienti c and organizational perspectives of the arti cial life community during the Seventh International Conference on Arti cial Life (summer 2000). The issues addressed in this survey included arti cial life’s main successes, main failures, main open scienti c questions, and main strategies for the future, as well as the (...)
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  14.  25
    Introduction. Artificial Protocells.Steen Rasmussen & Marc Bedau - unknown
    What makes a cell? How are cells able to replicate themselves in a stable manner? How did cellular life emerge on our planet? The answer to these fundamental questions lies at the base of biology. Cellular life is the basic unit of living organization and defines the presence of a stable information reservoir connected through the external world by a well-defined boundary. Inside the cell, chains of computations and chemical reactions take place, sustained by self-assembled molecular machines. At the cell (...)
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  15.  6
    An Argumentative Reconstruction of the Computer Metaphor of the Brain.Andreas Bilstrup Finsen, Gerard J. Steen & Jean H. M. Wagemans - 2019 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 8 (3):317-335.
    The computer metaphor of the brain is frequently criticized by scientists and philosophers outside the computational paradigm. Proponents of the metaphor may then seek to defend its explanatory merits, in which case the metaphor functions as a standpoint. Insofar as previous research in argumentation theory has treated metaphors either as presentational devices or arguments by analogy, this points to hitherto unexplored aspects of how metaphors may function in argumentative discourse. We start from the assumption that the computer metaphor of the (...)
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  16.  2
    The Paradox of Metaphor: Why We Need a Three-Dimensional Model of Metaphor.Gerard Steen - 2008 - Metaphor and Symbol 23 (4):213-241.
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  17.  29
    Company Delistings From the UN Global Compact: Limited Business Demand or Domestic Governance Failure? [REVIEW]Jette Steen Knudsen - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (3):331-349.
    While a substantial amount of the literature describes corporate benefits of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, the literature is silent concerning why some companies announce CSR initiatives, yet fail to implement them. The article examines company delistings from the UN Global Compact. Delistings are surprising because the CSR agenda is seen as having won the battle of ideas. The analysis proceeds in two parts. I first analyze firm-level characteristics focusing on geography while controlling for sector and size; I find that (...)
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  18. The Metaphysics of Mass Expressions.Mark Steen - 2012 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  19.  24
    Retractions in the Medical Literature: How Many Patients Are Put at Risk by Flawed Research?R. G. Steen - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (11):688-692.
    Background Clinical papers so flawed that they are eventually retracted may put patients at risk. Patient risk could arise in a retracted primary study or in any secondary study that draws ideas or inspiration from a primary study. Methods To determine how many patients were put at risk, we evaluated 788 retracted English-language papers published from 2000 to 2010, describing new research with humans or freshly derived human material. These primary papers—together with all secondary studies citing them—were evaluated using ISI (...)
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  20.  24
    Virtues in Participatory Design: Cooperation, Curiosity, Creativity, Empowerment and Reflexivity. [REVIEW]Marc Steen - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):945-962.
    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative (...)
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  21.  28
    The Growth of Private Regulation of Labor Standards in Global Supply Chains: Mission Impossible for Western Small- and Medium-Sized Firms? [REVIEW]Jette Steen Knudsen - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):387-398.
    Multinational corporations (MNCs) have come under pressure to adopt private regulatory initiatives such as supplier codes of conduct in order to address poor working conditions in global supply chain factories. While a well-known literature explores drivers and outcomes of such monitoring schemes, this literature focuses mainly on large firms and has ignored the growing integration of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into global supply chains. Furthermore, the literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in SMEs primarily emphasizes domestic initiatives and not (...)
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  22.  13
    The Business School’s Right to Operate: Responsibilization and Resistance.David Murillo & Steen Vallentin - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4):743-757.
    The current crisis has come at a cost not only for big business but also for business schools. Business schools have been deemed largely responsible for developing and teaching socially dysfunctional curricula that, if anything, has served to promote and accelerate the kind of ruthless behavior and lack of self-restraint and social irresponsibility among top executives that have been seen as causing the crisis. As a result, many calls have been made for business schools to accept their responsibilities as social (...)
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  23.  33
    Retractions in the Medical Literature: How Can Patients Be Protected From Risk?R. Grant Steen - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):228-232.
    Background Medical research so flawed as to be retracted may put patients at risk by influencing treatments. Objective To explore hypotheses that more patients are put at risk if a retracted paper appears in a journal with a high impact factor (IF) so that the paper is widely read; is written by a ‘repeat offender’ author who has produced other retracted research; or is a clinical trial. Methods English language papers (n=788) retracted from the PubMed database between 2000 and 2010 (...)
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  24.  20
    Metaphor in Usage.Gerard J. Steen, Aletta G. Dorst, J. Berenike Herrmann, Anna A. Kaal & Tina Krennmayr - 2010 - Cognitive Linguistics 21 (4):765–796.
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  25.  11
    Nature’s Affordances and Formation Length: The Ontology of Quantum Physical Experiments.Steen Brock & Rom Harré - 2016 - SATS 17 (1):1-20.
    We argue that Bohrian complementarity is a framework for making new ontological sense of scientific findings. It provides a conceptual pattern for making sense of the results of an empirical investigation into new realms or fields of natural properties. The idea of “formation length” engenders this mutual attunement of evidence and reality. Physicists want to be able to ascribe ontological features to atomic constituents and atomic processes such as “emission”, “impact”, or “change of energy-state”. These expressions supposedly refer to “local” (...)
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  26.  26
    Governmentalities of CSR: Danish Government Policy as a Reflection of Political Difference.Steen Vallentin - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1):1-15.
    This paper investigates the roles that Danish government has played in the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Denmark has emerged as a first mover among the Scandinavian countries when it comes to CSR. We argue that government has played a pivotal role in making this happen, and that this reflects strong traditions of regulation, corporatism and active state involvement. However, there is no unitary “Danish model of CSR” being promoted by government. Although Danish society is often associated with a (...)
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  27.  19
    Towards Disciplinary Disintegration in Biology.Wim J. Steen - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):259-275.
    Interdisciplinary integration has fundamental limitations. This is not sufficiently realized in science and in philosophy. Concerning scientific theories there are many examples of pseudo-integration which should be unmasked by elementary philosophical analysis. For example, allegedly over-arching theories of stress which are meant to unite biology and psychology, upon analysis, turn out to represent terminological rather than substantive unity. They should be replaced by more specific, local theories. Theories of animal orientation, likewise, have been formulated in unduly general terms. A natural (...)
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  28.  21
    Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries.Steen Vallentin, Susanne Sweet, Arno Kourula, Maria Gjølberg & Atle Midttun - 2015 - Business and Society 54 (4):464-500.
    Corporate social responsibility was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European Union. Conflicts can arise, however, when advanced welfare states introduce CSR into public policy. The reason for such conflict is that CSR leaves key public welfare issues to the discretion of private business. This voluntary issue assignment contrasts starkly with advanced welfare states’ traditions (...)
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  29.  21
    When is It Co-Evolution? A Reply to Steen and Co-Authors.Mark Sagoff - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):10.
    David Steen and co-authors in this journal offer a philosophical argument to support an “Evolutionary Community Concept” to identify what they call “evolutionary communities.” They describe these as “unique collections of species that interact and have co-evolved in a given geographic area” and that include “co-evolved dependencies between different parts of a community.” Steen et al. refer to the coevolution of assemblages, collections, communities, dependencies, interspecific and abiotic interactions, and traits, but they do not define “co-evolution” or provide (...)
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  30.  76
    A Resolute Reading of Cassirer’s Anthropology.Steen Brock - 2011 - Synthese 179 (1):93-113.
    In the paper I try, resolutely, to associate the open ended encyclopedic character of Cassirer's philosophy with the core part of this philosophy concerning symbolic formation. In this way I try to supplement and strengthen the anthropology that Cassirer formulated in AN ESSAY ON MAN. Finally I discuss the historical character and value of this anthropology.
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  31.  21
    Conceptualizing Communities as Natural Entities: A Philosophical Argument with Basic and Applied Implications.David A. Steen, Kyle Barrett, Ellen Clarke & Craig Guyer - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1019-1034.
    Recent work has suggested that conservation efforts such as restoration ecology and invasive species eradication are largely value-driven pursuits. Concurrently, changes to global climate are forcing ecologists to consider if and how collections of species will migrate, and whether or not we should be assisting such movements. Herein, we propose a philosophical framework which addresses these issues by utilizing ecological and evolutionary interrelationships to delineate individual ecological communities. Specifically, our Evolutionary Community Concept recognizes unique collections of species that interact and (...)
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  32. Teknologi, kompetence og vidensformer.Steen Wackerhausen - 1991 - Philosophia (Misc.) 20 (3/4):81-117.
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  33.  21
    Editors' Introduction: Abstract Concepts: Structure, Processing, and Modeling.Marianna Bolognesi & Gerard Steen - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (3):490-500.
  34.  16
    Personal Context in Autobiographical and Narrative Memories.Steen F. Larsen - 1992 - In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 53--74.
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  35.  44
    Making Phenomenology Accessible to a Wider Audience.Steen Halling - 2002 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 33 (1):19-38.
    Phenomenological research is of great value to clinicians, policy makers, and ordinary persons because of its distinctive emphasis on making human behavior and experience intelligible with reference to the point of view of the actor. Unfortunately, the phenomenological tradition is not readily accessible to readers who are unfamiliar with it. This article discusses specific ways that researchers within this tradition can reach more of the readers who might benefit from their findings without compromising the integrity of their scholarship.
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  36.  31
    Bergson and Politics: Ottoman-Turkish Encounters with Innovation.Nazım İrem - 2011 - The European Legacy 16 (7):873 - 882.
    This article seeks to explain how Bergson's philosophy was translated into a genuine political position in the Ottoman-Turkish context. I first overview the impact of Bergson's philosophy on continental politics at the beginning of the twentieth century; I then try to explain how Bergson's philosophical claims acquired definite political connotations; and lastly, I aim to display how political Bergsonism became a border language between republican radicals and conservatives in Turkey in the 1920s. I argue that, at the crossroads of all (...)
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  37. Why Everyone Acts Altruistically All the Time: What Parodying Psychological Egoism Can Teach Us.Mark Steen - 2011 - Philosophia 39 (3):563-570.
    Psychological Altruism (PA) is the view that everyone, ultimately, acts altruistically all the time. I defend PA by showing strong prima facie support, and show how a reinterpretive strategy against supposed counterexamples is successful. I go on to show how PA can be argued for in ways which exactly mirror the arguments for an opposing view, Psychological Egoism. This shows that the case for PA is at least as plausible as PE. Since the case for PA is not plausible, neither (...)
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  38.  2
    Upon Opening the Black Box and Finding It Full: Exploring the Ethics in Design Practices.Marc Steen - 2015 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 40 (3):389-420.
    Contemporary design practices, such as participatory design, human-centered design, and codesign, have inherent ethical qualities, which often remain implicit and unexamined. Three design projects in the high-tech industry were studied using three ethical traditions as lenses. Virtue ethics helped to understand cooperation, curiosity, creativity, and empowerment as virtues that people in PD need to cultivate, so that they can engage, for example, in mutual learning and collaborative prototyping. Ethics of alterity helped to understand human-centered design as a fragile encounter between (...)
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  39. A Balanced Psychology and a Full Life.Martin E. P. Seligman, Acacia C. Parks & Steen & Tracy - 2005 - In Felicia A. Huppert, Nick Baylis & Barry Keverne (eds.), The Science of Well-Being. Oxford University Press.
     
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  40.  87
    More Problems for MaxCon: Contingent Particularity and Stuff-Thing Coincidence.Mark Steen - 2011 - Acta Analytica 26 (2):135-154.
    Ned Markosian argues (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 76:213-228, 1998a; Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82:332-340, 2004a, The Monist 87:405-428, 2004b) that simples are ‘maximally continuous’ entities. This leads him to conclude that there could be non-particular ‘stuff’ in addition to things. I first show how an ensuing debate on this issue McDaniel (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81(2):265-275, 2003); Markosian (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82:332-340, 2004a) ended in deadlock. I attempt to break the deadlock. Markosian’s view entails stuff-thing coincidence, which I show (...)
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  41.  30
    Human Science Research as the Embodiment of Openness: Swimming Upstream in a Technological Culture.Karin Dahlberg & Steen Halling - 2001 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 32 (1):12-21.
    The principle of openness is central to human science approaches to research where the researcher becomes closely involved with the phenomenon under study. This article addresses both the practical and theoretical challenges that confront the researcher who seeks to be open. It also clarifies the meaning of the concept of openness and considers its relationship to the ideal of objectivity. Openness, it is argued, is neither an enduring state nor a trait but requires an ongoing struggle and has different forms (...)
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  42.  58
    Chisholm’s Changing Conception of Ordinary Objects.Mark Steen - 2008 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 76 (1):1-56.
    Roderick Chisholm changed his mind about ordinary objects. Circa 1973-1976, his analysis of them required the positing of two kinds of entities—part-changing ens successiva and non-part-changing, non-scatterable primary objects. This view has been well noted and frequently discussed (e.g., recently in Gallois 1998 and Sider 2001). Less often treated is his later view of ordinary objects (1986-1989), where the two kinds of posited entities change, from ens successiva to modes, and, while retaining primary objects, he now allows them to survive (...)
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  43.  8
    Temporally Restricted Composition.Mark Steen - 2017 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 17 (3):431-440.
    I develop and defend a novel answer to Peter van Inwagen’s ‘Special Composition Question,’ namely, under what conditions do some things compose and object? My answer is that things will compose an object when and only when they exist simultaneously relative to a reference frame. I then show how this view wards off objections given to ‘Unrestricted Mereology’. TREC, unlike other theories of Restricted Composition, does not fall prey to worries about vagueness, anthropocentrism, or arbitrariness. TREC also has advantages over (...)
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  44.  15
    Developing Tools to Counteract and Prevent Suicide Bomber Incidents: A Case Study in Value Sensitive Design.Lambèr Royakkers & Marc Steen - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (4):1041-1058.
    Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project. For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users’ perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into (...)
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  45.  11
    Sweet SIXTEEN: Automation Via Embedding Into Classical Higher-Order Logic.Alexander Steen & Christoph Benzmüller - 2016 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 25 (4):535-554.
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  46.  6
    Science and the Ethics of Belief. An Examination of Philipse’s ‘Rule R’.Joelle Steen & René Woudenberg - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (2):349-362.
    It has recently been argued that the following Rule should be part of any characterization of science: Claims concerning specific disputed facts should be endorsed only if they are sufficiently supported by the application of validated methods of research or discovery, and moreover that acceptance of this Rule should lead one to reject religious belief. This paper argues, first, that the Rule, as stated, should not be accepted as it suffers from a number of problems. And second, that even if (...)
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  47.  16
    Laws and Natural History in Biology.Wim J. Der Steen & Harmke Kamminga - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (4).
  48.  43
    The New Generation of Diagnostic Manuals : An Overvi Ew an D a pHenomenologically Based Critique.Steen Halling & Mical Goldfarb - 1996 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 27 (1):49-71.
    Given the extraordinary influence of the DSM-III and its successors, the DSM-III-R and the DSM-IV, it behooves humanistically oriented practitioners to appraise these new manuals most carefully. Toward this end, we discuss the goals that have guided the manuals' development and provide an overview of their basic structure. This is followed by a phenomenologically based critique, evaluating the claim that these manuals are "descriptive" and "atheoretical." We conclude with a discussion of five guiding principles for phenomenological diagnosis and assessment.
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  49.  12
    Steen Beck, Veje til Viden – Piagets og Vygotskys læringsteorier i historisk og teoretisk belysning.Mathias Christensen - 2016 - Studier I Pædagogisk Filosofi 4 (2):108-109.
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  50.  19
    Mere Generality is Not Enough.Wim J. Steen & Peter B. Sloep - 1988 - Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):217-219.
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