51 found
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  1. Holism, Entrenchment, and the Future of Climate Model Pluralism.Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (3):253-262.
  2. Calculated Surprises: A Philosophy of Computer Simulation.Johannes Lenhard - 2019 - Oup Usa.
    Simulation modeling, the core thesis of Calculated Surprises, is transforming the established conception of mathematical modeling in fundamental ways. These transformations feed back into philosophy of science, opening up new perspectives on longstanding oppositions. The book integrates historical features with both practical case studies and broad reflections on science and technology.
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  3. Computer Simulation: The Cooperation Between Experimenting and Modeling.Johannes Lenhard - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (2):176-194.
    The goal of the present article is to contribute to the epistemology and methodology of computer simulations. The central thesis is that the process of simulation modeling takes the form of an explorative cooperation between experimenting and modeling. This characteristic mode of modeling turns simulations into autonomous mediators in a specific way; namely, it makes it possible for the phenomena and the data to exert a direct influence on the model. The argumentation will be illustrated by a case study of (...)
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  4.  44
    Surprised by a Nanowire: Simulation, Control, and Understanding.Johannes Lenhard - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):605-616.
    This paper starts by looking at the coincidence of surprising behavior on the nanolevel in both matter and simulation. It uses this coincidence to argue that the simulation approach opens up a pragmatic mode of understanding oriented toward design rules and based on a new instrumental access to complex models. Calculations, and their variation by means of explorative numerical experimentation and visualization, can give a feeling for a model's behavior and the ability to control phenomena, even if the model itself (...)
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  5.  16
    Holism, or the Erosion of Modularity: A Methodological Challenge for Validation.Johannes Lenhard - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):832-844.
    Modularity is a key concept in building and evaluating complex simulation models. My main claim is that in simulation modeling modularity degenerates for systematic methodological reasons. Consequently, it is hard, if not impossible, to accessing how representational structure and dynamical properties of a model are related. The resulting problem for validating models is one of holism. The argument will proceed by analyzing the techniques of parameterization, tuning, and kludging. They are – to a certain extent – inevitable when building complex (...)
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  6.  9
    Boon and Bane: On the Role of Adjustable Parameters in Simulation Models.Hans Hasse & Johannes Lenhard - 2017 - In Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.), Mathematics as a Tool. Springer Verlag.
    We claim that adjustable parameters play a crucial role in building and applying simulation models. We analyze that role and illustrate our findings using examples from equations of state in thermodynamics. In building simulation models, two types of experiments, namely, simulation and classical experiments, interact in a feedback loop, in which model parameters are adjusted. A critical discussion of how adjustable parameters function shows that they are boon and bane of simulation. They help to enlarge the scope of simulation far (...)
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  7.  19
    Disciplines, Models, and Computers: The Path to Computational Quantum Chemistry.Johannes Lenhard - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 48:89-96.
  8.  6
    Mathematics as a Tool. Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences.Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.) - 2017 - Springer Verlag.
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  9.  5
    Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - De Gruyter.
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  10. Computersimulationen: Modellierungen 2. Ordnung. [REVIEW]Günter Küppers & Johannes Lenhard - 2005 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 36 (2):305 - 329.
    Es soll ein Beitrag zur epistemischen Charakterisierung von Computersimulationen als jenseits von Experiment und Theorie geleistet werden. Es wird argumentiert, dass die in der Simulationstechnik eingesetzten Verfahren nicht numerische Lösungen liefern, sondern deren Dynamik mittels generativer Mechanismen imitieren. Die Computersimulationen in der Klimatologie werden als systematisches wie historisches Fallbeispiel behandelt. Erst "Simulationsexperimente" gestatten es, mittels Modellen eine Dynamik zu imitieren, ohne deren Grundgleichungen zu "lösen". /// Computer simulations will be characterized in epistemic respect as a method between experiment and theory. (...)
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  11.  2
    Boon and Bane: On the Role of Adjustable Parameters in Simulation Models.Johannes Lenhard & Hans Hasse - 2017 - In Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.), Mathematics as a Tool. Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences. Springer Verlag.
    We claim that adjustable parameters play a crucial role in building and applying simulation models. We analyze that role and illustrate our findings using examples from equations of state in thermodynamics. In building simulation models, two types of experiments, namely, simulation and classical experiments, interact in a feedback loop, in which model parameters are adjusted. A critical discussion of how adjustable parameters function shows that they are boon and bane of simulation. They help to enlarge the scope of simulation far (...)
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  12.  15
    Epistemologie der Iteration. Gedankenexperimente und Simulationsexperimente.Johannes Lenhard - 2011 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 59 (1):131-145.
    Thought experiments and simulation experiments are compared and contrasted with each other. While the former rely on epistemic transparency as a working condition, in the latter complexity of model dynamics leads to epistemic opacity. The difference is elucidated by a discussion of the different kinds of iteration that are at work in both sorts of experiment.
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  13.  9
    Elephant and Ant: The Social and Cognitive Organization of Computer Simulation.Johannes Lenhard - 2017 - Social Science Information 56 (3):375-392.
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  14. Models and Statistical Inference: The Controversy Between Fisher and Neyman–Pearson.Johannes Lenhard - 2006 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):69-91.
    The main thesis of the paper is that in the case of modern statistics, the differences between the various concepts of models were the key to its formative controversies. The mathematical theory of statistical inference was mainly developed by Ronald A. Fisher, Jerzy Neyman, and Egon S. Pearson. Fisher on the one side and Neyman–Pearson on the other were involved often in a polemic controversy. The common view is that Neyman and Pearson made Fisher's account more stringent mathematically. It is (...)
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  15.  16
    Thought Experiments and Simulation Experiments: Exploring Hypothetical Worlds.Johannes Lenhard - unknown
    Both thought experiments and simulation experiments apparently belong to the family of experiments, though they are somewhat special members because they work without intervention into the natural world. Instead they explore hypothetical worlds. For this reason many have wondered whether referring to them as “experiments” is justified at all. While most authors are concerned with only one type of “imagined” experiment – either simulation or thought experiment – the present chapter hopes to gain new insight by considering what the two (...)
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  16.  24
    Coal to Diamonds.Johannes Lenhard - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (3):583-586.
    In this commentary to Napoletani et al. (Foundations of Science 16:1–20, 2011), we put agnostic science in a wider historical context of philosophy of mathematics. Secondly, the parallel to Tukey’s “exploratory data analysis” will be discussed. Thirdly, it will be argued that what is new is the mutually interdependent dynamics of data (on which Napoletani et al. focus) and of computational modeling—which puts science closer to engineering and vice versa.
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  17.  63
    Autonomy and Automation: Computational Modeling, Reduction, and Explanation in Quantum Chemistry.Johannes Lenhard - 2014 - The Monist 97 (3):339-358.
    This paper discusses how computational modeling combines the autonomy of models with the automation of computational procedures. In particular, the case of ab-initio methods in quantum chemistry will be investigated to draw two lessons from the analysis of computational modeling. The first belongs to general philosophy of science: Computational modeling faces a trade-off and enlarges predictive force at the cost of explanatory force. The other lesson is about the philosophy of chemistry: The methodology of computational modeling puts into doubt claims (...)
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  18.  22
    Climate Models: How to Assess Their Reliability.Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard - 2019 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 32 (2):81-100.
    The paper discusses modelling uncertainties in climate models and how they can be addressed based on physical principles as well as based on how the models perform in light of empirical data. We ar...
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  19.  9
    Computersimulationen: Modellierungen 2. Ordnung.Günter Küppers & Johannes Lenhard - 2005 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 36 (2):305-329.
    Es soll ein Beitrag zur epistemischen Charakterisierung von Computersimulationen als jenseits von Experiment und Theorie geleistet werden. Es wird argumentiert, dass die in der Simulationstechnik eingesetzten Verfahren nicht numerische Lösungen liefern, sondern deren Dynamik mittels generativer Mechanismen imitieren. Die Computersimulationen in der Klimatologie werden als systematisches wie historisches Fallbeispiel behandelt. Erst "Simulationsexperimente" gestatten es, mittels Modellen eine Dynamik zu imitieren, ohne deren Grundgleichungen zu "lösen". /// Computer simulations will be characterized in epistemic respect as a method between experiment and theory. (...)
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  20.  3
    Sachindex.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 210-212.
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  21.  86
    Holism and Entrenchment in Climate Model Validation.Johannes Lenhard & Eric Winsberg - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 115--130.
  22. Computation and Simulation.Johannes Lenhard - 2010 - In Julie Thompson Klein & Carl Mitcham (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Oxford University Press. pp. 246.
     
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  23. Dispositional Versus Epistemic Causality.Paul Bohan Broderick, Johannes Lenhard & Arnold Silverberg - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (3).
    Noam Chomsky and Frances Egan argue that David Marr’s computational theory of vision is not intentional, claiming that the formal scientific theory does not include description of visual content. They also argue that the theory is internalist in the sense of not describing things physically external to the perceiver. They argue that these claims hold for computational theories of vision in general. Beyond theories of vision, they argue that representational content does not figure as a topic within formal computational theories (...)
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  24.  22
    Analyse und Synthese oder von Leibniz und Kant zum axiomatischen Denken.Johannes Lenhard & Michael Otte - 2002 - Philosophia Naturalis 39 (2):259-292.
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  25.  11
    Axiomatics Without Foundations. On the Model-Theoretical Viewpoint In Modern Axiomatics.Johannes Lenhard - 2005 - Philosophia Scientiae 9 (2: Aperçus philosophiques en log):97-107.
    Two conflicting interpretations of modern axiomatics will be considered. The logico-analytical interpretation goes back to Pasch, while the model-theoretical approach stems from Hilbert. This perspective takes up the distinction between logic as calculus ratiocinator versus lingua characterica that Heijenoort and Hintikka placed emphasis on. It is argued that the Heijenoort-Hintikka distinction can be carried over from logic to mathematical axiomatics. In particular, the model-theoretical viewpoint is deeply connected to a philosophy of mathematics that is not committed to a foundational perspective, (...)
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  26.  17
    The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem: Mathematization as Exploration.Johannes Lenhard & Michael Otte - 2018 - Foundations of Science 23 (4):719-737.
    This paper discerns two types of mathematization, a foundational and an explorative one. The foundational perspective is well-established, but we argue that the explorative type is essential when approaching the problem of applicability and how it influences our conception of mathematics. The first part of the paper argues that a philosophical transformation made explorative mathematization possible. This transformation took place in early modernity when sense acquired partial independence from reference. The second part of the paper discusses a series of examples (...)
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  27.  9
    Reproducibility and the Concept of Numerical Solution.Johannes Lenhard & Uwe Küster - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (1):19-36.
    In this paper, we show that reproducibility is a severe problem that concerns simulation models. The reproducibility problem challenges the concept of numerical solution and hence the conception of what a simulation actually does. We provide an expanded picture of simulation that makes visible those steps of simulation modeling that are numerically relevant, but often escape notice in accounts of simulation. Examining these steps and analyzing a number of pertinent examples, we argue that numerical solutions are importantly different from usual (...)
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  28. Axiomatics Without Foundations. On the Model-Theoretical Viewpoint In Modern Axiomatics.Johannes Lenhard - 2005 - Philosophia Scientae 9:97-107.
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  29. Grenzen der Mathematisierung: Von der grundlegenden Bedeutung der Anwendungen.Johannes Lenhard & Michael Otte - 2005 - Philosophia Naturalis 42 (1):15-47.
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  30.  30
    Scepticism and Mathematization: Pascal and Peirce on Mathematical Epistemology.Johannes Lenhard - 2004 - Philosophica 74.
    In his Pensées, Pascal introduced the very influential distinction between the subtle intelligence and the geometrical intelligence. In the first part of the present paper Pascal’s distinction is considered by looking at his famous wager argument where Pascal acts as a skeptical philosopher and at the same time as an applied mathematician. This argument employs the esprit de finesse in a way that is of fundamental significance for the epistemology of mathematics. This claim will be backed up in the second (...)
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  31.  1
    How Does Holism Challenge the Validation of Computer Simulation?Johannes Lenhard - 2019 - In Claus Beisbart & Nicole J. Saam (eds.), Computer Simulation Validation - Fundamental Concepts, Methodological Frameworks, and Philosophical Perspectives. Springer. pp. 943-960.
    Designing and building complex artifacts like simulation models often rely on the strategy of modularity. My main claim is that the validation of simulation models faces a challenge of holismHolism because modularityModularity tends to erode over the process of building a simulation model. Two different reasons that fuel the tendency to erosion are analyzed. Both are based on the methodologyMethodology of simulation, but on different levels. The first has to do with the way parameter adjustment works in simulation; the second (...)
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  32.  35
    Kants Philosophie der Mathematik und die umstrittene Rolle der Anschauung.Johannes Lenhard - 2006 - Kant-Studien 97 (3):301-317.
    Einleitung Die Kantische Philosophie der Mathematik ist nach einer weitverbreiteten Meinung in ihren Grundzügen überholt. Die moderne Mathematik gilt, ganz unkantisch, als analytisches Denken. Im folgenden soll für eine partielle Verteidigung von Kants Philosophie der Mathematik argumentiert werden. Sie hat nämlich den Gegenstandsbezug der Mathematik und deren Anwendungsrelation zu ihrem zentralen Problem gemacht. Für Kant war es die Anschauung, die den gegenständlichen Bezug ermöglichen sollte und in dieser Funktion ist sie, wie von einem anwendungsorientierten Standpunkt aus argumentiert wird, keineswegs überholt. (...)
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  33.  1
    Introduction: Mathematics as a Tool.Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard - 2017 - In Martin Carrier & Johannes Lenhard (eds.), Mathematics as a Tool. Tracing New Roles of Mathematics in the Sciences. Springer Verlag.
    The role mathematics plays in the sciences has been assessed differently and in conflicting ways. Put very roughly, a strong view holds that mathematically formulated laws of nature refer to or reveal the rational structure of the world. By contrast, a weak view denies that these fundamental laws are of an essentially mathematical character, and rather suggests that mathematics is merely a tool for systematizing observational knowledge. We put forward a position that combines features of both viewpoints. The tool perspective (...)
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  34.  14
    Simulation, Representation, and Cartography: Compiling a Virtual Atlas.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (4):386-404.
    It is a commonplace that “the map is not the territory.” The phrase goes back to Alfred Korzybski, while the insight—formulated by insisting on an apparent triviality—is surely older and has received poetical expressions from Lewis Carroll and Jorge Luis Borges among others. The difference between map and territory is a difference of categories and is at the base of the representation relation. Hence maps play a prominent role in the discourse about representation which takes place in a number of (...)
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  35.  11
    4. Epistemische Opazität.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 82-110.
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  36.  10
    Paul Humphreys, Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.Johannes Lenhard - 2006 - Minds and Machines. Journal for Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy and Cognitive Science 16.
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  37.  8
    Book Review. [REVIEW]Johannes Lenhard - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (1):95-100.
  38.  6
    8. Epistemologie und Simulation – Fazit und Ausblick.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 175-190.
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  39.  5
    5. Ein neuer Typ mathematischer Modellierung.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 111-122.
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  40.  5
    Literatur.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 191-205.
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  41.  5
    FrontmatterVorwortInhaltEinleitungTeil I: Ein neuer Typ mathematischer Modellierung1. Experiment und Artifizialität2. Visualisierung und Interaktion3. Plastizität4. Epistemische Opazität5. Ein neuer Typ mathematischer ModellierungTeil II: Begriffliche Verschiebungen6. Lösung oder Imitation?7. Validierung und Grenzen der AnalyseTeil III: Fazit und Ausblick8. Epistemologie und Simulation – Fazit und AusblickLiteraturNamenindexSachindex. [REVIEW]Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 1-12.
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  42.  4
    1. Experiment und Artifizialität.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 15-37.
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  43.  3
    Einleitung.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 1-12.
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  44.  3
    Vorwort.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter.
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  45.  2
    3. Plastizität.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 59-81.
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  46.  2
    7. Validierung und Grenzen der Analyse.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 145-172.
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  47.  1
    6. Lösung oder Imitation?Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 125-144.
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  48.  1
    Namenindex.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 206-209.
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  49.  1
    2. Visualisierung und Interaktion.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Mit Allem Rechnen - Zur Philosophie der Computersimulation. De Gruyter. pp. 38-58.
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  50. Iteration Unleashed. Computer Technology in Science.Johannes Lenhard - 2015 - In Sven Ove Hansson (ed.), The Role of Technology in Science: Philosophical Perspectives. Springer Verlag.
     
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