Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

Edited by Eric Dietrich (State University of New York at Binghamton)
Assistant editor: Michelle Thomas (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary

The philosophy of artificial intelligence is a collection of issues primarily concerned with whether or not AI is possible -- with whether or not it is possible to build an intelligent thinking machine.  Also of concern is whether humans and other animals are best thought of as machines (computational robots, say) themselves. The most important of the "whether-possible" problems lie at the intersection of theories of the semantic contents of thought and the nature of computation. A second suite of problems surrounds the nature of rationality. A third suite revolves around the seeming “transcendent” reasoning powers of the human mind. These problems derive from Kurt Gödel's famous Incompleteness Theorem.  A fourth collection of problems concerns the architecture of an intelligent machine.  Should a thinking computer use discrete or continuous modes of computing and representing, is having a body necessary, and is being conscious necessary.  This takes us to the final set of questions. Can a computer be conscious?  Can a computer have a moral sense? Would we have duties to thinking computers, to robots?  For example, is it moral for humans to even attempt to build an intelligent machine?  If we did build such a machine, would turning it off be the equivalent of murder?  If we had a race of such machines, would it be immoral to force them to work for us?

Key works Probably the most important attack on whether AI is possible is John Searle's famous Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980.  This attack focuses on the semantic aspects (mental semantics) of thoughts, thinking, and computing.   For some replies to this argument, see the same 1980 journal issue as Searle's original paper.  For the problem of the nature of rationality, see Pylyshyn 1987.  An especially strong attack on AI from this angle is Jerry Fodor's work on the frame problem: Fodor 1987.  On the frame problem in general, see McCarthy & Hayes 1969.  For some replies to Fodor and advances on the frame problem, see Ford & Pylyshyn 1996.  For the transcendent reasoning issue, a central and important paper is Hilary Putnam's Putnam 1960.  This paper is arguably the source for the computational turn in 1960s-70s philosophy of mind.  For architecture-of-mind issues, see, for starters: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford, which argues against the notion of discrete representations. See also, Gelder & Port 1995.  For an argument for discrete representations, see, Dietrich & Markman 2003.  For an argument that the mind's boundaries do not end at the body's boundaries, see, Clark & Chalmers 1998.  For a statement of and argument for computationalism -- the thesis that the mind is a kind of computer -- see Shimon Edelman's excellent book Edelman 2008. See also Chapter 9 of Chalmers's book Chalmers 1996.
Introductions Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980. Frame problem: Fodor 1987, Computationalism and Godelian style refutation: Putnam 1960. Architecture: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford and Shimon Edelman's Edelman 2008. Ethical issues: Anderson & Anderson 2011 and Müller 2020.  Conscious computers: Chalmers 2011.
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  1. “Magic through many minor measures”: How introducing a flowline production mode in six steps enables journalist team autonomy in local news organizations.Aina Landsverk Hagen, Ingrid M. Tolstad & Arne Lindseth Bygdås - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    While facing cuts, downsizing and revenue losses, media organizations experience paradoxical demands in being organized for print or linear production with daily deadlines and simultaneously striving to be ‘digital first’ and produce and publish stories online on a continuous basis throughout the day. In this paper, we describe efforts applied when introducing the metaphor flowline in a medium-sized newspaper organization in Norway with the aim of aligning their production and publishing processes to readers’ consumption of online news. Both the production (...)
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  2. Political machines: a framework for studying politics in social machines.Orestis Papakyriakopoulos - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-18.
    In the age of ubiquitous computing and artificially intelligent applications, social machines serves as a powerful framework for understanding and interpreting interactions in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. Although researchers have largely used it to analyze the interactions of individuals and algorithms, limited attempts have been made to investigate the politics in social machines. In this study, I claim that social machines are per se political machines, and introduce a five-point framework for classifying influence processes in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. By drawing from scholars from (...)
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  3. Systematic Description of Functional Knowledge Based on Functional Ontologies and Its Use for Supporting Design of Functional Structuresオントロジーに基づく機能的知識の体系的記述とその機能構造設計支援における利用.Yoshinobu Kitamura, Toshinobu Kasai, Mariko Yoshikawa, Masaru Takahashi, Kouji Kozaki & Riichiro Mizoguchi - 2002 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 17:73-84.
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  4. A critique of robotics in health care.Arne Maibaum, Andreas Bischof, Jannis Hergesell & Benjamin Lipp - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    When the social relevance of robotic applications is addressed today, the use of assistive technology in care settings is almost always the first example. So-called care robots are presented as a solution to the nursing crisis, despite doubts about their technological readiness and the lack of concrete usage scenarios in everyday nursing practice. We inquire into this interconnection of social robotics and care. We show how both are made available for each other in three arenas: innovation policy, care organization, and (...)
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  5. Robotification & ethical cleansing.Marco Nørskov - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    Robotics is currently not only a cutting-edge research area, but is potentially disruptive to all domains of our lives—for better and worse. While legislation is struggling to keep pace with the development of these new artifacts, our intellectual limitations and physical laws seem to present the only hard demarcation lines, when it comes to state-of-the-art R&D. To better understand the possible implications, the paper at hand critically investigates underlying processes and structures of robotics in the context of Heidegger’s and Nishitani’s (...)
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  6. Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule: An Addendum.Tyler L. Jaynes - forthcoming - AI and Society.
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  7. The Ethical Application of Biometric Facial Recognition Technology.Marcus Smith & Seumas Miller - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    Biometric facial recognition is an artificial intelligence technology involving the automated comparison of facial features, used by law enforcement to identify unknown suspects from photographs and closed circuit television. Its capability is expanding rapidly in association with artificial intelligence and has great potential to solve crime. However, it also carries significant privacy and other ethical implications that require law and regulation. This article examines the rise of biometric facial recognition, current applications and legal developments, and conducts an ethical analysis of (...)
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  8. The Future of Artificial Intelligence, Posthumanism and the Inflection of Pixley Isaka Seme’s African Humanism.Malesela John Lamola - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Increasingly, innovation in artificial intelligence technologies portends the re-conceptualization of human existentiality along the paradigm of posthumanism. An exposition of this through a critical culturo-historical methodology uncloaks the Eurocentric genitive basis of the philosophical anthropology that underpins this technological posthumanism, as well as its dystopian possibilities. As a contribution to obviating the latter, an Africanist civilizational humanism proclaimed by Pixley ka Isaka Seme is proffered as a plausible alternative paradigm for humanity’s technological advancement. Seme, a pan-Africanist thinker of the early (...)
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  9. New Pythias of public administration: ambiguity and choice in AI systems as challenges for governance.Fernando Filgueiras - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    As public administrations adopt artificial intelligence, we see this transition has the potential to transform public service and public policies, by offering a rapid turnaround on decision making and service delivery. However, a recent series of criticisms have pointed to problematic aspects of mainstreaming AI systems in public administration, noting troubled outcomes in terms of justice and values. The argument supplied here is that any public administration adopting AI systems must consider and address ambiguities and uncertainties surrounding two key dimensions: (...)
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  10. A Computational Approach for Creativity Assessment of Culinary Products: The Case of elBulli.Antonio Jimenez-Mavillard & Juan Luis Suarez - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-23.
    In recent years, the gastronomy industry has increased the demand for rigorous and reliable tools to evaluate culinary creativity; but conceptually, creativity is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure. In this paper, we propose an AI-based method for assessing culinary product creativity by using the renowned high cuisine restaurant elBulli as a case study to understand the proliferation and scale of an entity’s creativity and innovation. To achieve so, we trained a Random Forest Classifier to assess the (...)
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  11. In search of the moral status of AI: why sentience is a strong argument.Martin Gibert & Dominic Martin - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    Is it OK to lie to Siri? Is it bad to mistreat a robot for our own pleasure? Under what condition should we grant a moral status to an artificial intelligence system? This paper looks at different arguments for granting moral status to an AI system: the idea of indirect duties, the relational argument, the argument from intelligence, the arguments from life and information, and the argument from sentience. In each but the last case, we find unresolved issues with the (...)
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  12. AI From Concrete to Abstract.Rubens Lacerda Queiroz, Fábio Ferrentini Sampaio, Cabral Lima & Priscila Machado Vieira Lima - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    Artificial intelligence has been adopted in a wide range of domains. This shows the imperative need to contribute to making citizens insightful actors in debates and decisions involving the adoption of AI mechanisms. Currently, existing approaches to the teaching of basic AI concepts through programming treat machine intelligence as an external element/module. After being trained, that external module is coupled to the main application. Combining block-based programming and WiSARD weightless artificial neural networks, this article presents the conceptualization and design of (...)
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  13. Algorithmic and Human Decision Making: For a Double Standard of Transparency.Mario Günther & Atoosa Kasirzadeh - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-7.
    Should decision-making algorithms be held to higher standards of transparency than human beings? The way we answer this question directly impacts what we demand from explainable algorithms, how we govern them via regulatory proposals, and how explainable algorithms may help resolve the social problems associated with decision making supported by artificial intelligence. Some argue that algorithms and humans should be held to the same standards of transparency and that a double standard of transparency is hardly justified. We give two arguments (...)
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  14. Discrimination in the Age of Artificial Intelligence.Bert Heinrichs - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    In this paper, I examine whether the use of artificial intelligence and automated decision-making aggravates issues of discrimination as has been argued by several authors. For this purpose, I first take up the lively philosophical debate on discrimination and present my own definition of the concept. Equipped with this account, I subsequently review some of the recent literature on the use AI/ADM and discrimination. I explain how my account of discrimination helps to understand that the general claim in view of (...)
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  15. It’s Friendship, Jim, but Not as We Know It: A Degrees-of-Friendship View of Human–Robot Friendships.Helen Ryland - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-17.
    This article argues in defence of human–robot friendship. I begin by outlining the standard Aristotelian view of friendship, according to which there are certain necessary conditions which x must meet in order to ‘be a friend’. I explain how the current literature typically uses this Aristotelian view to object to human–robot friendships on theoretical and ethical grounds. Theoretically, a robot cannot be our friend because it cannot meet the requisite necessary conditions for friendship. Ethically, human–robot friendships are wrong because they (...)
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  16. Educational technology: what it is and how it works.Jon Dron - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    This theoretical paper elucidates the nature of educational technology and, in the process, sheds light on a number of phenomena in educational systems, from the no-significant-difference phenomenon to the singular lack of replication in studies of educational technologies. Its central thesis is that we are not just users of technologies but coparticipants in them. Our participant roles may range from pressing power switches to designing digital learning systems to performing calculations in our heads. Some technologies may demand our participation only (...)
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  17. The Hard Limit on Human Nonanthropocentrism.Michael R. Scheessele - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    There may be a limit on our capacity to suppress anthropocentric tendencies toward non-human others. Normally, we do not reach this limit in our dealings with animals, the environment, etc. Thus, continued striving to overcome anthropocentrism when confronted with these non-human others may be justified. Anticipation of super artificial intelligence may force us to face this limit, denying us the ability to free ourselves completely of anthropocentrism. This could be for our own good.
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  18. Are Generative Models Structural Representations?Marco Facchin - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-27.
    Philosophers interested in the theoretical consequences of predictive processing often assume that predictive processing is an inferentialist and representationalist theory of cognition. More specifically, they assume that predictive processing revolves around approximated Bayesian inferences drawn by inverting a generative model. Generative models, in turn, are said to be structural representations: representational vehicles that represent their targets by being structurally similar to them. Here, I challenge this assumption, claiming that, at present, it lacks an adequate justification. I examine the only argument (...)
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  19. Experiences, Knowledge of Functions, and Social Acceptance of Robots: An Exploratory Case Study Focusing on Japan.Tatsuya Nomura & Motoharu Tanaka - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-8.
    Although Japanese society has become aware of some types of robots, social acceptance of robots is still not widespread. This study conducted an online questionnaire survey to investigate the relationships between experiences with and knowledge of vacuum, pet-type, and communication robots and acceptance of these robots, including the intention to use and trust. The results suggested that experiences with, knowledge of functions, and acceptance of the robots differed depending on the type of robot, and the influence of these factors on (...)
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  20. Patrick Heelan’s Phenomenology and Hermeneutics of Observation in Quantum Mechanics.Val Dusek - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    Patrick Heelan, with background in quantum theory and in hermeneutic phenomenology, investigated not only the hermeneutical philosophy of science but also the parallels between quantum mechanics and human experience in general and the logic of changes of worldview. Heelan’s closeness to Aristotle and Lonergan, often neglected, is discussed, and issues concerning Heelan’s treatment of the social context of science are raised.
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  21. AI and Law: Ethical, Legal, and Socio-Political Implications.John-Stewart Gordon - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-2.
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  22. If I Cannot Move Heaven, I Will Raise Hell.Francesco Garibaldo & Emilio Rebecchi - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-4.
    Freud puts the verse of Virgil as an epigraph to his book on the interpretation of dreams. It is the exclamation of Juno who, after having tried in every way to defeat Aeneas, witnesses his landing on the coast of Lazio and the birth of Rome. She cannot give a reason for her defeat and then:she sought the earth: and summoned Allecto, the grief-bringer, from the house of the Fatal Furies, from the infernal shadows: in whose mind are sad wars, (...)
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  23. Correction To: Epistemic Practices in Bio Art.Suzanne Anker - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-2.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-021-01181-5.
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  24. Word vector embeddings hold social ontological relations capable of reflecting meaningful fairness assessments.Ahmed Izzidien - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-20.
    Programming artificial intelligence to make fairness assessments of texts through top-down rules, bottom-up training, or hybrid approaches, has presented the challenge of defining cross-cultural fairness. In this paper a simple method is presented which uses vectors to discover if a verb is unfair or fair. It uses already existing relational social ontologies inherent in Word Embeddings and thus requires no training. The plausibility of the approach rests on two premises. That individuals consider fair acts those that they would be willing (...)
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  25. On the ‘Nature’ of the ‘Artificial’.Massimo Negrotti - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-6.
    Since the work by Herbert Simon, no particular attention has been paid to the distinction between conventional technology and technology directed at the reproduction of natural instances. Nevertheless, if we had a general knowledge of the methodological aspects that any attempt to reproduce natural objects or processes unavoidably requires, then we would understand why, as a rule, no artificial device can ‘converge’ to its natural counterpart and why, on the contrary, the more it advances, the further away it goes from (...)
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  26. Is explainable artificial intelligence intrinsically valuable?Nathan Colaner - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-8.
    There is general consensus that explainable artificial intelligence is valuable, but there is significant divergence when we try to articulate why, exactly, it is desirable. This question must be distinguished from two other kinds of questions asked in the XAI literature that are sometimes asked and addressed simultaneously. The first and most obvious is the ‘how’ question—some version of: ‘how do we develop technical strategies to achieve XAI?’ Another question is specifying what kind of explanation is worth having in the (...)
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  27. Perhaps Ned Ludd had a point?David Smith - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-3.
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  28. What Does It Mean to Empathise with a Robot?Joanna K. Malinowska - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-16.
    Given that empathy allows people to form and maintain satisfying social relationships with other subjects, it is no surprise that this is one of the most studied phenomena in the area of human–robot interaction. But the fact that the term ‘empathy’ has strong social connotations raises a question: can it be applied to robots? Can we actually use social terms and explanations in relation to these inanimate machines? In this article, I analyse the range of uses of the term empathy (...)
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  29. Algorithmic Fairness in Mortgage Lending: From Absolute Conditions to Relational Trade-Offs.Michelle Seng Ah Lee & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (1):165-191.
    To address the rising concern that algorithmic decision-making may reinforce discriminatory biases, researchers have proposed many notions of fairness and corresponding mathematical formalizations. Each of these notions is often presented as a one-size-fits-all, absolute condition; however, in reality, the practical and ethical trade-offs are unavoidable and more complex. We introduce a new approach that considers fairness—not as a binary, absolute mathematical condition—but rather, as a relational notion in comparison to alternative decisionmaking processes. Using US mortgage lending as an example use (...)
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  30. Material Hermeneutics as Cultural Learning: From Relations to Processes of Relations.Cathrine Hasse - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-8.
    What is the relation between material hermeneutics, bodies, perception and materials? In this article, I shall argue cultural learning processes tie them together. Three aspects of learning can be identified in cultural learning processes. First, all learning is tied to cultural practices. Second, all learning in cultural practice entangle humans’ ability to recognize a material world conceptually, and finally the boundaries of objects, the object we perceive, are set by shifting material-conceptual entanglements. All these aspects are important for material hermeneutics (...)
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  31. Development and Implementation Processes of Digitalization in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing: Enablers and Barriers.Sylvi Thun, Ottar Bakås & Tore Christian Bjørsvik Storholmen - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-19.
    This study seeks to gain knowledge about key conditions in the process of digitalization using a socio-technical systems design as a theoretical framework and a case-study approach. Semi-structured interviews with 15 relevant stakeholders are conducted to learn about barriers to and enablers of the development and implementation process in a manufacturing company. After conducting a thematic analysis, eight higher-ranked themes relevant to the digitalization process are identified. These are grouped to describe the overarching phenomena, resulting in four enablers and four (...)
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  32. The Future of Urban Models in the Big Data and AI Era: A Bibliometric Analysis.Marion Maisonobe - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-18.
    This article questions the effects on urban research dynamics of the Big Data and AI turn in urban management. Increasing access to large datasets collected in real time could make certain mathematical models developed in research fields related to the management of urban systems obsolete. These ongoing evolutions are the subject of numerous works whose main angle of reflection is the future of cities rather than the transformations at work in the academic field. Our article proposes grasp the scientific dynamics (...)
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  33. Could you hate a robot? And does it matter if you could?Helen Ryland - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    This article defends two claims. First, humans could be in relationships characterised by hate with some robots. Second, it matters that humans could hate robots, as this hate could wrong the robots. In defending this second claim, I will thus be accepting that morally considerable robots either currently exist, or will exist in the near future, and so it can matter how we treat these robots. The arguments presented in this article make an important original contribution to the robo-philosophy literature, (...)
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  34. Protecting Victim and Witness Statement: Examining the Effectiveness of a Chatbot That Uses Artificial Intelligence and a Cognitive Interview.Rashid Minhas, Camilla Elphick & Julia Shaw - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    Information of high evidentiary quality plays a crucial role in forensic investigations. Research shows that information provided by witnesses and victims often provide major leads to an inquiry. As such, statements should be obtained in the shortest possible time following an incident. However, this is not achieved in many incidents due to demands on resources. This intersectional study examined the effectiveness of a chatbot, that uses artificial intelligence and a cognitive interview to help record statements following an incident. After viewing (...)
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  35. Automated news recommendation in front of adversarial examples and the technical limits of transparency in algorithmic accountability.Antonin Descampe, Clément Massart, Simon Poelman, François-Xavier Standaert & Olivier Standaert - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Algorithmic decision making is used in an increasing number of fields. Letting automated processes take decisions raises the question of their accountability. In the field of computational journalism, the algorithmic accountability framework proposed by Diakopoulos formalizes this challenge by considering algorithms as objects of human creation, with the goal of revealing the intent embedded into their implementation. A consequence of this definition is that ensuring accountability essentially boils down to a transparency question: given the appropriate reverse-engineering tools, it should be (...)
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  36. How do people judge the credibility of algorithmic sources?Donghee Shin - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-16.
    The exponential growth of algorithms has made establishing a trusted relationship between human and artificial intelligence increasingly important. Algorithm systems such as chatbots can play an important role in assessing a user’s credibility on algorithms. Unless users believe the chatbot’s information is credible, they are not likely to be willing to act on the recommendation. This study examines how literacy and user trust influence perceptions of chatbot information credibility. Results confirm that algorithmic literacy and users’ trust play a pivotal role (...)
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  37. It is like taking a ball for a walk: on boundary work in software development.Kristin Wulff & Hanne Finnestrand - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    In this paper, we explore how the choices of boundary work in software development influence the team autonomy enacted by team members. Boundary work is when people protect their professional individual autonomy, when they downplay that autonomy to collaborate over professional boundaries, and when they create new boundaries. Team autonomy is here defined as a team using their autonomy to collaborate in deciding their own output. We use an action research design, with varied methodologies carried out through three action cycles. (...)
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  38. Algorithmic Augmentation of Democracy: Considering Whether Technology Can Enhance the Concepts of Democracy and the Rule of Law Through Four Hypotheticals.Paul Burgess - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-16.
    The potential use, relevance, and application of AI and other technologies in the democratic process may be obvious to some. However, technological innovation and, even, its consideration may face an intuitive push-back in the form of algorithm aversion :114–126, 2015). In this paper, I confront this intuition and suggest that a more ‘extreme’ form of technological change in the democratic process does not necessarily result in a worse outcome in terms of the fundamental concepts of democracy and the Rule of (...)
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  39. Attitude of college students towards ethical issues of artificial intelligence in an international university in Japan.Nader Ghotbi, Manh Tung Ho & Peter Mantello - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-8.
    We have examined the attitude and moral perception of 228 college students towards artificial intelligence in an international university in Japan. The students were asked to select a single most significant ethical issue associated with AI in the future from a list of nine ethical issues suggested by the World Economic Forum, and to explain why they believed that their chosen issues were most important. The majority of students chose unemployment as the major ethical issue related to AI. The second (...)
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  40. The AI doctor will see you know: assessing the framing of AI in news coverage.Mercedes Bunz & Marco Braghieri - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    One of the sectors for which Artificial Intelligence applications have been considered as exceptionally promising is the healthcare sector. As a public-facing sector, the introduction of AI applications has been subject to extended news coverage. This article conducts a quantitative and qualitative data analysis of English news media articles covering AI systems that allow the automation of tasks that so far needed to be done by a medical expert such as a doctor or a nurse thereby redistributing their agency. We (...)
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  41. The effect of visual and informational complexity of news website designs on comprehension and memorization among undergraduate students.Nidal Al Said & Khaleel M. Al-Said - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    The importance of web designs for commercial and informational use has been a focus of research for over a decade and a half. At present, findings concerning the influence of news website designs on the perception and recall of information are rather contradictory. This study aims to identify how the basic web designs aesthetically affect users. A total of 214 students from Arab universities were shown three news sites with different designs and asked to complete two tests to determine their (...)
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  42. Categorization and challenges of utilitarianisms in the context of artificial intelligence.Štěpán Cvik - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-7.
    The debates about ethics in the context of artificial intelligence have been recently focusing primarily on various types of utilitarianisms. This article suggests a categorization of the various presented utilitarianisms into static utilitarianisms and dynamic utilitarianisms. It explains the main features of both. Then, it presents the challenges the utilitarianisms in each group need to be able to deal with. Since it appears that those cannot be overcome in the context of each group alone, the article suggests a possibility of (...)
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  43. Optimal Time Intervals in Two-Stage Takeover Warning Systems With Insight Into the Drivers’ Neuroticism Personality.Wei Zhang, Yilin Zeng, Zhen Yang, Chunyan Kang, Changxu Wu, Jinlei Shi, Shu Ma & Hongting Li - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Conditional automated driving [level 3, Society of Automotive Engineers ] requires drivers to take over the vehicle when an automated system’s failure occurs or is about to leave its operational design domain. Two-stage warning systems, which warn drivers in two steps, can be a promising method to guide drivers in preparing for the takeover. However, the proper time intervals of two-stage warning systems that allow drivers with different personalities to prepare for the takeover remain unclear. This study explored the optimal (...)
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  44. Transformative power of technologies: cultural transfer and globalization.Mrinmoy Majumder & Arun Kumar Tripathi - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    In the last three decades, a cultural perspective has been used to understand scientific knowledge and technology. This relatively new perspective has introduced literature on the ethical dimension to the development of technology, which are embedded in techniques, tools and artifacts. Today, more than ever, there is an urgent need to comprehend the global ramifications of modernization. In this paper, we make an attempt to look at science and technology based on culture, wisdom, ecology and ethical values. We move towards (...)
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  45. Artifacts and Affordances: From Designed Properties to Possibilities for Action.Fabio Tollon - 2021 - AI and Society 2:1-10.
    In this paper I critically evaluate the value neutrality thesis regarding technology, and find it wanting. I then introduce the various ways in which artifacts can come to influence moral value, and our evaluation of moral situations and actions. Here, following van de Poel and Kroes, I introduce the idea of value sensitive design. Specifically, I show how by virtue of their designed properties, artifacts may come to embody values. Such accounts, however, have several shortcomings. In agreement with Michael Klenk, (...)
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  46. Patrick Aidan Heelan’s The observable: Heisenberg’s philosophy of quantum mechanics, EPUB, ISBN 978-1-4541-9011-0.Paul Downes - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-5.
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  47. The Making of AI Society: AI Futures Frames in German Political and Media Discourses.Lea Köstler & Ringo Ossewaarde - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    In this article, we shed light on the emergence, diffusion, and use of socio-technological future visions. The artificial intelligence future vision of the German federal government is examined and juxtaposed with the respective news media coverage of the German media. By means of a content analysis of frames, it is demonstrated how the German government strategically uses its AI future vision to uphold the status quo. The German media largely adapt the government´s frames and do not integrate alternative future narratives (...)
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  48. Hidalgo, C.A (2021). How Humans Judge Machines. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. ISBN: 9780262045520.Karamjit S. Gill - forthcoming - AI and Society.
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  49. Quem ou o que pensa? Uma busca de aportes para questões filosóficas suscitadas pela revolução informática atual.Lamartine De Hollanda Cavalcanti Neto - 2020 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal de São Paulo
    Taking as an assumption the existence of an informatics revolution nowadays and that the examination of studies and debates related to it may allow the identification of questions of a philosophical nature, the present study aims to identify and formulate some of these questions, as well as to investigate whether the historical controversy about monopsychism, which occurred at the University of Paris in 1270, can be considered a theoretical framework capable of providing contributions to these philosophical questions. The answer to (...)
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  50. Ethical encounters.Karamjit S. Gill - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):1-7.
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