This paper presents a review of 100 empirical papers studying corporate codes of ethics in business organizations from the time period mid-2005 until mid-2016, following approximately an 11-year time period after the previous review of the literature. The reviewed papers are broadly categorized as content-oriented, output-oriented, or transformation-oriented. The review sheds light on empirical focus, context, questions addressed, methods, findings and theory. The findings are discussed in terms of the three categories as well as the aggregate, stock of empirical CCE (...) studies in comparison with previous reviews, answering the question “where are we now?” Content and output studies still stand for the majority of the studies, whereas the transformation studies are fewer. Within these areas, two new trends are found to have emerged: discursive analyses and a focus on labor conditions. The review finds that the content of CCEs is still predominantly self-defensive, that CCEs are insufficient in themselves in terms of protecting workers’ rights, that CCEs are likely to encounter tensions when implemented across national and organizational boundaries, and that while perception of CCEs is generally positive, CCEs may lead to both positive and negative outcomes. Based on these findings, potential areas for further exploration in the area of CCE research are suggested. (shrink)
Este artigo estuda a expressão da narrativa transmidiática (Jenkins, 2008) no seriado norte-americano Lost . Delimitou-se como corpus a segunda temporada do seriado, que foi estudada a partir de três categorias de análise – a presença de portais de acesso, a apresentação de conteúdos ficcionais inéditos e a participação de consumidores em comunidades de conhecimento.
In this paper, reasons of postponing motherhood by professional young women are explored and related with changes of course in their biographies, especially with those sociologically associated with individualization, by means a qualitative research on this demographic group in Caracas (Venezuela) a..
We study the SIS and SIRI epidemic models discussing different approaches to compute the thresholds that determine the appearance of an epidemic disease. The stochastic SIS model is a well known mathematical model, studied in several contexts. Here, we present recursively derivations of the dynamic equations for all the moments and we derive the stationary states of the state variables using the moment closure method. We observe that the steady states give a good approximation of the quasi-stationary states of the (...) SIS model. We present the relation between the SIS stochastic model and the contact process introducing creation and annihilation operators. For the spatial stochastic epidemic reinfection model SIRI, where susceptibles S can become infected I, then recover and remain only partial immune against reinfection R, we present the phase transition lines using the mean field and the pair approximation for the moments. We use a scaling argument that allow us to determine analytically an explicit formula for the phase transition lines in pair approximation. (shrink)
Este ensaio é sobre o processo de criar ruínas – por meio do radical estranhamento com relação a discursos que nos são caros, familiares e confortáveis – e passar a [gostar de] habitá-las. As ruínas criadas são o resultado de deslocamentos e desconstruções que efetuados por estudos afinados com perspectivas teóricas pós-estruturalistas. A proposta consiste em favorecer a invenção de outras paisagens em Educação Ambiental, nas quais não nos sintamos tão seguros, mas que talvez por isso mesmo sejam instigantes e (...) desafiadoras por permitirem uma sensação de desorientação e desfamiliarização. A Educação Ambiental é constituída e marcada por verdades e certezas, tanto provindas do campo da educação quanto do que poderíamos chamar de “metanarrativas ambientais” – as verdades ambientais que nos interpelam. A fim de imprimir rasuras e instalar fissuras nessas metanarrativas, foram focalizadas provocações, ideias explosivas, vindas de dois “lugares” diferentes: a desconstrução dos conceitos de meio ambiente e natureza feita por Bruno Latour e colaboradores; e as mordazes críticas aos discursos ambientalistas feitas em um vídeo pelo filósofo Slavoj Žižek. A partir dessa insólita combinação, acredita-se ter provocado alguns desmoronamentos, algumas rachaduras, produzindo, quiçá, espaços vazios que venham a ser ocupados de formas inventivas pelos educadores ambientais. (shrink)
The text here summarized aims to examine the tragedy Medea of Euripides, from the gender concept stand point, trying to emphasize the gender relationships in it described and the tactics of the female universe in it reported.
Objetivou-se discutir a comunicação silenciosa entre mãe e bebê, a partir do pensamento de Winnicott. Fez-se uma pesquisa qualitativa, baseada no método clínico e referencial psicanalítico, por meio do estudo de caso de uma criança, com 8 anos de idade e dificuldades no desenvolvimento da fala, sem ..
The current environmental crisis can be approached, through many perspectives, as a civilizational crisis. Alternatives of human transcendence are identified in the Inca civilization to compensate for the malaise that characterizes the actual crisis. There is a multicultural dimension to the manifestations of Hoasca occurring in Amazonian countries. As employed by the Beneficent Spiritist Center União do Vegetal in a religious context, it can contribute to the reconstruction of buen vivir, which served as the principle of the civilizations that preceded (...) the colonization of the Americas by Europeans. Today, the State openly confronts the manifestation of the constitutional principles of buen vivir, religious freedom, and the protection of this cultural heritage. Here, the implications of the civilizational crisis and ways of overcoming it are approached from the standpoint of deep ecology, but the implications also reflect the doctrinal vision of the UDV to which the authors are affiliated. (shrink)
A condição humana”, de autoria de Hannah Arendt, possui conteúdos teóricos importantes para a compreensão das atividades humanas na atualidade e, entre elas, as exercidas pelos profissionais da área da saúde e neste momento, da Enfermagem. Dessa forma, pode-se analisar o relato dos Docentes de Enfermagem em relação à Vita Activa quando expõem a condição humana experienciada no cotidiano. Em outros termos, o labor está relacionado às atividades que correspondem ao processo biológico do corpo humano para garantir à subsistência: os (...) cuidados com o corpo do Enfermeiro Docente. Este é realizado por meio da alimentação, da higienização, do sono, do repouso, com uso de medicamentos e o acompanhamento com especialistas. Em relação ao work, os ED realizam uma obra manual e intelectual que compreende ao ensino dos estudantes e ao cuidado ao labor dos usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde. O work abrange também o fazer científico e as relações interpessoais na Universidade, as quais ocorrem por meio do comando, da obediência e com hierarquia. A action é estabelecida quando os ED agem e falam conjuntamente com os pares durante as reuniões de Departamento, nos Sindicatos e nos Conselhos Municipais de Saúde, atuando com igualdade, liberdade, responsabilidade, isto é, de maneira cidadã. O ED precisa estar ciente da importância destas três atividades da Vita Activa, pois além de consumir e produzir pode, ao exercer a política, iniciar novos processos que possibilitem mudanças em relação aos cuidados com o próprio labor, no processo de work e na convivência com os outros. Acredita-se que isto resultará na melhoria da qualidade de vida dele, do ensino em Enfermagem e dos cuidados de saúde aos usuários do SUS. (shrink)
Douze ans après la création de la Chaire de recherche du Canada en traditions juridiques et rationalité pénale, ce livre rédigé par des chercheurs associés à cette chaire se veut un hommage à son titulaire, le professeur Alvaro Pires. L’ouvrage fait état des plus récentes recherches empiriques et réflexions théoriques liées au concept de « rationalité pénale moderne ». La RPM fournit une grille d’analyse pour l’observation et la description du droit criminel moderne et permet de soulever des questions pertinentes (...) sur la criminologie et la sociologie du droit criminel. Les points abordés touchent notamment au renouvellement du débat sur la torture, à l’influence de l’opinion publique sur le rendement de la justice, à la reconnaissance des droits de l’homme dans le droit criminel et à la représentation des juges et des politiciens dans les processus de détermination des peines et d’élaboration du droit pénal. Au-delà des spécificités de chacune des contributions, un thème général ressort de l’ensemble de l’ouvrage : celui de la transformation du droit criminel moderne. Ainsi, à l’aube du XXIe siècle et dans le cadre des sociétés dites « modernes », l’évolution d’un système social – qui valorise l’idéal de justice à travers des valeurs négatives telles que l’enfermement, la distribution de la souffrance et la production de l’exclusion sociale – demeure au centre de la réflexion. L’ouvrage cerne les obstacles cognitifs qui nuisent à l’évolution du droit criminel et à l’émergence d’idées innovantes susceptibles de soutenir et de motiver des pratiques alternatives. (shrink)
ContextPeople with mental disorders can acquire long-term disabilities, which could impair their functioning and quality of life, requiring permanent care and social support. Systematic data on QoL and functioning, which could support a better management of these people, were not available.ObjectiveTo analyze the QoL, level of functioning and their association with sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with mental disorders who underwent deinstitutionalization using assisted living facilities.MethodsA Cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2018 and July 2019, through interviews using the (...) World Health Organization Quality of Life to determine the QoL scores, and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule to determine the level of functioning. All adults with mental disorders, who underwent deinstitutionalization, users of assisted living facilities and assisted by the Psychosocial Assistance Centers III, in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were selected. For statistical analysis of the associated factors, Student’s t-test was used for dichotomous variables and ANOVA for polynomial variables. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between QoL and functioning scores.ResultsOut of 359 people who underwent deinstitutionalization with mental disorders, 147 met the eligibility criteria. The mean total score for the WHOQOL-BREF was 66.5 ± 13.4 and the mean score for WHODAS 2.0 was 10.4 ± 7.6. An association was found between people who were studying and better WHOQOL-BREF QoL scores or WHODAS 2.0 levels of functioning. A weak negative correlation emerged between higher QoL scores and functioning improvement.ConclusionThis study indicates that the QoL of the sample is associated by their functioning levels, which, in turn, may reflect on their social interactions. Public policies that favor interventions increasing socialization of this population can result in better health outcomes. The QoL and functioning scores provide valuable insights to develop public policies more suited to this population profile. (shrink)
Exploring the meaning of a Buddhist story, this book is a testimony of faith in the urgent relevance of India's spiritual traditions to the future of life on Earth, and it is an inquiry into the meaning of some central notions of these traditions. The value of spiritual traditions and of life itself is at stake here. In the Introduction, Ramchandra Gandhi raises the Ayodhya issue to international and universal levels. In the text, he offers a solution on the local (...) and national levels. The temple mound in Ayodhya --the sacred hill on which the present Babri Masjid was built, also known as "Sita's Kitchen"--was originally a sacred place of the Adivasis (the aboriginal inhabitants of the subcontinent). It was sacred to the Goddess, the great nurturing earth, the fecund source of all life, the aboriginal presupposition of all later religions. As an aboriginal place sacred to the Mother Goddess, the hill in Ayodhya brings together all religions. Rather than a source of conflict, Ayodhya should become a meeting ground for the divergent religious traditions of the world to see their ultimate harmony. In the Buddhist story, the principal female character is an adivasi named Ananya ("not other"). The opposing sides come to see their oneness in Ananya. The frame-story is taken from the Vinaya-pitaka of the Pali Canon. It is the Bhaddavaggiyavatthu or "The Story of the Group of Well-Off Ones.". (shrink)
The paradox of Gandhi being treated as an ivory-tower idealist despite being one of the most successful political leaders of the twentieth century, can be traced to his using a method to understand social processes that is fundamentally different from the dominant tendency to reduce reality to an underlying system. The fact that his method did not fit into the ideological systems that dominated the twentieth century contributed to it being ignored. This paper seeks to revisit the Gandhian method by (...) first identifying the limitations of viewing democracies entirely in terms of systems. It then goes on to explore Gandhi's alternative view of reality as a mass of actions. It finally uses this philosophical method to understand a rather violent example of identity politics, namely the destruction of the Babri Masjid in the Indian town of Ayodhya. (shrink)
This autobiographical, sociological, and musicological essay, written for a symposium on xenophilia, concerns how the love of a foreign culture can lead to a better understanding and renewed love of one’s own. The author, a Japanese musicologist, studied Hindustani music with North Indian masters, both Hindu and Muslim, and concluded that it is the shared concept of a “sound-god” that brings them together on stage in peaceful celebration with audiences from religious communities often at odds. The author’s training in ethnomusicology (...) began in India in 1992, immediately after the violent demolition of the Babri Masjid mosque in Ayodhya by militant Hindus, but even at that time she found no trace of such belligerence in the Hindustani musical world. Years later, while conducting research on the Shinto music rituals of her own culture, she discovered a little-known imperial and aristocratic cult of Myō’onten, a Japanese form of the Hindu goddess of music, Saraswati, who is presently an object of devotion for both Hindu and Muslim musicians in North India. This essay, based on nearly three decades of research in India and Japan, offers some answers to a question raised repeatedly in the Common Knowledge symposium on xenophilia: What is the source of the xenophilic impulse and the power that sustains it? (shrink)