: Erich Auerbach's famous comparative study of Homer and the Bible, "Odysseus' Scar," argues that their contrastive styles derive from the different possibilities available to oral tradition and literature. In support of this thesis, I invoke two theories of verbal art: Walter Benjamin's description of the storyteller's craft, and Victor Shklovsky's definition of art as "defamiliarization." Through a comparative analysis of the use of type-scenes in Homer and in biblical narrative, I demonstrate how Homer is a traditional storyteller, practicing an (...) "art of the familiar," whereas biblical narrative "defamiliarizes" traditional forms. (shrink)
A challenge in human genome research is how to describe the populations being studied. The use of improper and/or imprecise terms has the potential to both generate and reinforce prejudices and to diminish the clinical value of the research. The issue of population descriptors has not attracted enough academic attention outside North America and Europe. In January 2012, we held a two-day workshop, the first of its kind in Japan, to engage in interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in the humanities, social (...) sciences, medical sciences, and genetics to begin an ongoing discussion of the social and ethical issues associated with population descriptors. (shrink)
Kripke-completeness of every classical modal logic with Sahlqvist formulas is one of the basic general results on completeness of classical modal logics. This paper shows a Sahlqvist theorem for modal logic over the relevant logic Bin terms of Routley- Meyer semantics. It is shown that usual Sahlqvist theorem for classical modal logics can be obtained as a special case of our theorem.
A logic is called metacomplete if formulas that are true in a certain preferred interpretation of that logic are theorems in its metalogic. In the area of relevant logics, metacompleteness is used to prove primeness, consistency, the admissibility of γ and so on. This paper discusses metacompleteness and its applications to a wider class of modal logics based on contractionless relevant logics and their neighbours using Slaney’s metavaluational technique.
The sense of agency refers to an experience in which one’s own action causes a change in environment. It is strongly modulated by both the contingency between action and its outcome and the consistency between predicted and actual action outcomes. Recent studies have suggested that the action outcome can retrospectively modulate action awareness. We suspect that the sense of agency can also be retrospectively modulated. This study examined whether the quantity of action outcome could influence the sense of agency. The (...) participants’ task was to trigger dot motion in a display and rate the extent to which they could control the initiation of dot motion. Independently of both the temporal contiguity between action and its outcome and the consistency between predicted and actual action outcomes, the speed of dot motion as an action’s outcome strongly influenced the sense of agency rating. The present study suggests that the sense of agency stems partly from the inference of action efficiency based on the quantitative aspect of action outcome. (shrink)
Halldén completeness closely resembles the relevance property. To prove Halldén completeness in terms of Kripke-style semantics, the van Benthem–Humberstone theorem is often used. In relevant modal logics, the Halldén completeness of Meyer–Fuhrmann logics has been obtained using the van Benthem–Humberstone theorem. However, there remain a number of Halldén-incomplete relevant modal logics. This paper discusses the Halldén completeness of a wider class of relevant modal logics, namely, those with some Sahlqvist axioms.
Emotion modulates our time perception. So far, the relationship between emotion and time perception has been examined with visible emotional stimuli. The present study investigated whether invisible emotional stimuli affected time perception. Using continuous flash suppression, which is a kind of dynamic interocular masking, supra-threshold emotional pictures were masked or unmasked depending on whether the retinal position of continuous flashes on one eye was consistent with that of the pictures on the other eye. Observers were asked to reproduce the perceived (...) duration of a frame stimulus that was concurrently presented with a masked or unmasked emotional picture. As a result, negative emotional stimuli elongated the perceived duration of the frame stimulus in comparison with positive and neutral emotional stimuli, regardless of the visibility of emotional pictures. These results suggest that negative emotion unconsciously accelerates an internal clock, altering time perception. (shrink)
The admissibility of Ackermann's rule γ is one of the most important problems in relevant logics. The admissibility of γ was first proved by an algebraic method. However, the development of Routley-Meyer semantics and metavaluational techniques makes it possible to prove the admissibility of γ using the method of normal models or the method using metavaluations, and the use of such methods is preferred. This paper discusses an algebraic proof of the admissibility of γ in relevant modal logics based on (...) modern algebraic models. (shrink)