Six-month-old infants discriminate between large sets of objects on the basis of numerosity when other extraneous variables are controlled, provided that the sets to be discriminated differ by a large ratio (8 vs. 16 but not 8 vs. 12). The capacities to represent approximate numerosity found in adult animals and humans evidently develop in human infants prior to language and symbolic counting.
By introducing a flux-controlled memristor with quadratic nonlinearity into a 4D hyperchaotic system as a feedback term, a novel 5D hyperchaotic four-wing memristive system is derived in this paper. The HFWMS with multiline equilibrium and three positive Lyapunov exponents presented very complex dynamic characteristics, such as the existence of chaos, hyperchaos, limit cycles, and periods. The dynamic characteristics of the HFWMS are analyzed by using equilibria, phase portraits, poincare map, Lyapunov exponential spectrum, bifurcation diagram, and spectral entropy. Of particular interest (...) is that this novel system can generate two-wing hyperchaotic attractor under appropriate parameters and initial conditions. Moreover, the FPGA realization of the novel 5D HFWMS is reported, which prove that the system has complex dynamic behavior. Finally, synchronization of the 5D hyperchaotic system with different structures by active control and a secure signal masking application of the HFWMS are implemented based on numerical simulations and FPGA. This research demonstrates that the hardware-based design of the 5D HFWMS can be applied to various chaos-based embedded system applications including random number generation, cryptography, and secure communication. (shrink)
By introducing a flux-controlled memristor model with absolute value function, a 5D multistable four-wing memristive hyperchaotic system with linear equilibrium points is proposed in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the system are studied in terms of equilibrium point, perpetual point, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponential spectrum, phase portraits, and spectral entropy. This system is of the group of systems that have coexisting attractors. In addition, the circuit implementation scheme is also proposed. Then, a secure communication scheme based on the proposed (...) 5D multistable FWMHS with disturbance inputs is designed. Based on parametric modulation theory and Lyapunov stability theory, synchronization and secure communication between the transmitter and receiver are realized and two message signals are recovered by a convenient robust high-order sliding mode adaptive controller. Through the proposed adaptive controller, the unknown parameters can be identified accurately, the gain of the receiver system can be adjusted continuously, and the disturbance inputs of the transmitter and receiver can be suppressed effectively. Thereafter, the convergence of the proposed scheme is proven by means of an appropriate Lyapunov functional and the effectiveness of the theoretical results is testified via numerical simulations. (shrink)
Representative of the Fachia, or Legalist, school of philosophy, the writings of Han Fei Tzu confront the issues of preserving and strengthening the state. His lessons remain timely as scholars continue to examine the nature and use of power. Burton Watson provides a new preface and a helpful introduction.
In this paper, a multistable modified fourth-order autonomous Chua’s chaotic system is investigated. In addition to the dynamic characteristics of the third-order Chua’s chaotic system itself, what interests us is that this modified fourth-order autonomous Chua’s chaotic system has five different types of coexisting attractors: double-scroll, single band chaotic attractor, period-4 limit cycle, period-2 limit cycle, and period-1 limit cycle. Then, an inductorless modified fourth-order autonomous Chua’s chaotic circuit is proposed. The active elements as well as the synthetic inductor employed (...) in this circuit are designed using second-generation current conveyors. The reason for using CCIIs is that they have high conversion rate and operation speed, which enable the circuit to work at a higher frequency range. The Multisim simulations confirm the theoretical estimates of the performance of the proposed circuit. Finally, using RK-4 numerical algorithm of VHDL 32-bit IQ-Math floating-point number format, the inductorless modified fourth-order autonomous Chua’s chaotic system is implemented on FPGA for the development of embedded engineering applications based on chaos. The system is simulated and synthesized on Virtex-6 FPGA chip. The maximum operating frequency of modified Chua’s chaotic oscillator based on FPGA is 180.180 MHz. This study demonstrates that the hardware-based multistable modified fourth-order autonomous Chua’s chaotic system is a very good source of entropy and can be applied to various embedded systems based on chaos, including secure communication, cryptography, and random number generator. (shrink)
An adaptive fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller for a microgyroscope is presented with uncertainties and external disturbances using a fuzzy neural network compensator based on a backstepping technique. First, the dynamic of the microgyroscope is transformed into an analogical cascade system to guarantee the application of a backstepping design. Then, a fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode surface is designed which provides an additional degree of freedom, higher precision, and finite convergence without a singularity problem. The proposed control scheme requires (...) no prior knowledge of the unknown dynamics of the microgyroscope system since the fuzzy neural network is utilized to approximate the upper bound of the lumped uncertainties and adaptive algorithms are derived to allow online adjustment of the unknown system parameters. The chattering phenomenon can be reduced simultaneously by the fuzzy neural network compensator. The stability and finite time convergence of the system can be established by the Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller and the comparison of root mean square error between different fractional orders and integer order is given to signify the high precision tracking performance of the proposed control scheme. (shrink)
In much of pre-Qin political philosophy, including those thinkers usually labeled Confucian, Daoist, or Mohist, at least part of the justification of the political state comes from their views on morality, and the vision of the good ruler was quite closely tied to the vision of the good person. In an important sense, for these thinkers, political philosophy is an exercise in applied ethics. Han Fei, however, offers an interesting break from this tradition, arguing that, given the vastly different goals (...) of moral theory and political theory, it would be disastrous to rely upon the former to undergird the latter. He develops a distinctly amoral political philosophy that avoids many of the problems he sees as arising from a reliance on particular virtues on the part of the ruler or others within the state. In this paper, I analyze the source of normativity in Han Fei’s political philosophy, arguing that he demonstrates a keen understanding of the problems inherent in any system that relies upon moral standards to develop a strong, stable, and prosperous state. Rather, he demonstrates how an understanding of human nature, along with a recognition of facts about the natural world, allows for the development of a non-moral political philosophy that relies on a systematic bureaucracy and an inviolate system of law, one which will be much more successful, he believes, than anything his competitors can construct. (shrink)
This paper explores the relation of order and welfare for Han Fei's philosophy. It will be claimed that the Legalist did indeed show concern for the overall quality of life of society, claiming that his model state would lead to a substantial increase for the individual's welfare. On the other hand, although he acknowledges (and cares) for these positive consequences, Han Fei does not attach any value for legitimizing the system he proposes to them. Even if there were any value (...) attached to benefitting the people, it would be indirect. For Han Fei, a welfare does not legitimize the system but is a consequence of the ‘right system’. He is not concerned with letting the people live better for the sake of the people, but rather with having healthy and motivated subjects, as these are at the same time consequences of, and requirements for, a strong and stable state. The novelty of this paper is to interpret Han Fei's philosophy as welfare-maximization through a specific understanding of the role of virtue. (shrink)
In this work, a novel 6D four-wing hyperchaotic system with a line equilibrium based on a flux-controlled memristor model is proposed. The novel system is inspired from an existing 5D four-wing hyperchaotic system introduced by Zarei. Fundamental properties of the novel system are discussed, and its complex behaviors are characterized using phase portraits, Lyapunov exponential spectrum, bifurcation diagram, and spectral entropy. When a suitable set of parameters are chosen, the system exhibits a rich repertoire of dynamic behaviors including double-period bifurcation (...) of the quasiperiod, a single two-wing, and four-wing chaotic attractors. Further analysis of the novel system shows that the multiple coexisting attractors can be observed with different system parameter values and initial values. Moreover, the feasibility of the proposed mathematical model is also presented by using Multisim simulations based on an electronic analog of the model. Finally, the active control method is used to design the appropriate controller to realize the synchronization between the proposed 6D memristive hyperchaotic system and the 6D hyperchaotic Yang system with different structures. The Routh–Hurwitz criterion is used to prove the rationality of the controller, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method are proved by numerical simulations. (shrink)
In this article, I argue for a distinct and novel right-based account of risks and I call it the Sophisticated High-risk Thesis. I argue that there is a distinction between rights-infringing risk impositions and no-rights-infringing risk impositions. An action imposing a high risk of harm infringes rights, whereas an act imposing a low risk of harm does not. I also suggest three principles that govern the permissibility of highly risky actions. If a highly risky action meets the conditions specified by (...) any of these three principles, it can be justified. These principles are the consent principle*, the prevent disaster principle* and the reciprocity principle**. I show that the Sophisticated High-risk Thesis is, in general, better than the alternative Risk Thesis defended by McCarthy. (shrink)
Novel memristive hyperchaotic system designs and their engineering applications have received considerable critical attention. In this paper, a novel multistable 5D memristive hyperchaotic system and its application are introduced. The interesting aspect of this chaotic system is that it has different types of coexisting attractors, chaos, hyperchaos, periods, and limit cycles. First, a novel 5D memristive hyperchaotic system is proposed by introducing a flux-controlled memristor with quadratic nonlinearity into an existing 4D four-wing chaotic system as a feedback term. Then, the (...) phase portraits, Lyapunov exponential spectrum, bifurcation diagram, and spectral entropy are used to analyze the basic dynamics of the 5D memristive hyperchaotic system. For a specific set of parameters, we find an unusual metastability, which shows the transition from chaotic to periodic dynamics. Moreover, its circuit implementation is also proposed. By using the chaoticity of the novel hyperchaotic system, we have developed a random number generator for practical image encryption applications. Furthermore, security analyses are carried out with the RNG and image encryption designs. (shrink)
This paper proposes a novel adaptive fuzzy super-twisting sliding mode control scheme for microgyroscopes with unknown model uncertainties and external disturbances. Firstly, an adaptive algorithm is used to estimate the unknown parameters and angular velocity of microgyroscopes. Secondly, in order to improve the performance of the system and the superiority of the super-twisting algorithm, this paper utilizes the universal approximation characteristic of the fuzzy system to approach the gain of the super-twisting sliding mode controller and identify the gain of the (...) controller online, realizing the adaptive adjustment of the controller parameters. Simulation results verify the superiority and the effectiveness of the proposed approach, compared with adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control without fuzzy approximation; the proposed method is more effective. (shrink)
In this paper, a robust adaptive fractional fast terminal sliding mode controller is introduced into the microgyroscope for accurate trajectory tracking control. A new fast terminal switching manifold is defined to ensure fast finite convergence of the system states, where a fractional-order differentiation term emerges into terminal sliding surface, which additionally generates an extra degree of freedom and leads to better performance. Adaptive algorithm is applied to estimate the damping and stiffness coefficients, angular velocity, and the upper bound of the (...) lumped nonlinearities. Numerical simulations are presented to exhibit the validity of the proposed method, and the comparison with the other two methods illustrates its superiority. (shrink)
This paper investigates the synchronization of general complex dynamical networks with both internal delay and transmission delay. Event-triggered mechanism is applied for the feedback controllers, in which the triggered function is formed as a nonincreasing function. Both continuous feedback and sampled-data feedback methods are studied. According to Lyapunov stability theorem and generalized Halanay’s inequality, quasi-synchronization criteria are derived at first. The synchronization error is bounded with some parameters of the triggered function. Then, the completed synchronization can be guaranteed as a (...) special case. Finally, coupled neural networks as numerical simulation examples are given to verify the theoretical results. (shrink)
Chapter 49 of the Han Feizi, entitled 'Wudu', includes one of the earliest discussions in Chinese history of the concepts of gong and si: Han Fei takes si to mean 'acting in one's own interest'. Gong is simply what opposes si. 'Acting in one's own interest' is not inherently reprehensible in Han Fei's view; but a ruler must remember why ministers propose their policies: they are concerned only with enriching themselves, and look upon the ruler as nothing more than a (...) resource to be exploited in their quest for material aggrandizement. The interests of the ministers and the ruler are diametrically opposed. Ministers hope for a comfortable career; a ruler must weed out the posers in his search for those rare and invaluable adjuvants who are genuinely capable of administering the state. In short, if si is the self-interest of the minister, gong is the self-interest of the ruler. (shrink)
It is commonly accepted that Han Fei studied under Xunzi sometime during the late third century BCE. However, there is surprisingly little dedicated to the in-depth study of the relationship between Xunzi’s ideas and one of his best-known followers. In this essay I argue that Han Fei’s notion of xing, commonly translated as human nature, was not only influenced by Xunzi but also that it is an important feature of his political philosophy.
I make two points in this commentary on Carey (2009). First, it may be too soon to conclude that core cognition is innate. Recent advances in computational cognitive science and developmental psychology suggest possible mechanisms for developing inductive biases. Second, there is another possible answer to Fodor's challenge – if concepts are merely mental tokens, then cognitive scientists should spend their time on developing a theory of belief fixation instead.
Much research on cognitive development focuses either on early-emerging domain-specific knowledge or domain-general learning mechanisms. However, little research examines how these sources of knowledge interact. Previous research suggests that young infants can make inferences from samples to populations (Xu & Garcia, 2008) and 11- to 12.5-month-old infants can integrate psychological and physical knowledge in probabilistic reasoning (Teglas, Girotto, Gonzalez, & Bonatti, 2007; Xu & Denison, 2009). Here, we ask whether infants can integrate a physical constraint of immobility into a statistical (...) inference mechanism. Results from three experiments suggest that, first, infants were able to use domain-specific knowledge to override statistical information, reasoning that sometimes a physical constraint is more informative than probabilistic information. Second, we provide the first evidence that infants are capable of applying domain-specific knowledge in probabilistic reasoning by using a physical constraint to exclude one set of objects while computing probabilities over the remaining sets. (shrink)