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The philosophy of artificial intelligence is a collection of issues primarily concerned with whether or not AI is possible -- with whether or not it is possible to build an intelligent thinking machine.  Also of concern is whether humans and other animals are best thought of as machines (computational robots, say) themselves. The most important of the "whether-possible" problems lie at the intersection of theories of the semantic contents of thought and the nature of computation. A second suite of problems surrounds the nature of rationality. A third suite revolves around the seeming “transcendent” reasoning powers of the human mind. These problems derive from Kurt Gödel's famous Incompleteness Theorem.  A fourth collection of problems concerns the architecture of an intelligent machine.  Should a thinking computer use discrete or continuous modes of computing and representing, is having a body necessary, and is being conscious necessary.  This takes us to the final set of questions. Can a computer be conscious?  Can a computer have a moral sense? Would we have duties to thinking computers, to robots?  For example, is it moral for humans to even attempt to build an intelligent machine?  If we did build such a machine, would turning it off be the equivalent of murder?  If we had a race of such machines, would it be immoral to force them to work for us?

Key works Probably the most important attack on whether AI is possible is John Searle's famous Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980.  This attack focuses on the semantic aspects (mental semantics) of thoughts, thinking, and computing.   For some replies to this argument, see the same 1980 journal issue as Searle's original paper.  For the problem of the nature of rationality, see Pylyshyn 1987.  An especially strong attack on AI from this angle is Jerry Fodor's work on the frame problem: Fodor 1987.  On the frame problem in general, see McCarthy & Hayes 1969.  For some replies to Fodor and advances on the frame problem, see Ford & Pylyshyn 1996.  For the transcendent reasoning issue, a central and important paper is Hilary Putnam's Putnam 1960.  This paper is arguably the source for the computational turn in 1960s-70s philosophy of mind.  For architecture-of-mind issues, see, for starters: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford, which argues against the notion of discrete representations. See also, Gelder & Port 1995.  For an argument for discrete representations, see, Dietrich & Markman 2003.  For an argument that the mind's boundaries do not end at the body's boundaries, see, Clark & Chalmers 1998.  For a statement of and argument for computationalism -- the thesis that the mind is a kind of computer -- see Shimon Edelman's excellent book Edelman 2008. See also Chapter 9 of Chalmers's book Chalmers 1996.
Introductions Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980. Frame problem: Fodor 1987, Computationalism and Godelian style refutation: Putnam 1960. Architecture: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford and Shimon Edelman's Edelman 2008. Ethical issues: Anderson & Anderson 2011.  Conscious computers: Chalmers 2011.
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  1. T. B. Achacoso & W. S. Yamamoto (1989). Artificial Ethology and Computational Neuroethology: A Scientific Discipline and its Subset by Sharpening and Extending the Definition of Artificial Intelligence. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 33 (3):379-389.
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  2. Paul L. Borrill & Leigh Tesfatsion (2011). Agent-Based Modeling: The Right Mathematics for the Social Sciences? In J. B. Davis & D. W. Hands (eds.), Elgar Companion to Recent Economic Methodology. Edward Elgar Publishers. 228.
    This study provides a basic introduction to agent-based modeling (ABM) as a powerful blend of classical and constructive mathematics, with a primary focus on its applicability for social science research. The typical goals of ABM social science researchers are discussed along with the culture-dish nature of their computer experiments. The applicability of ABM for science more generally is also considered, with special attention to physics. Finally, two distinct types of ABM applications are summarized in order to illustrate concretely the duality (...)
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  3. Paul Bohan Broderick (2006). Book Review. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 16 (1):101-105.
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  4. Peter Brödner (2007). From Taylorism to Competence-Based Production. AI and Society 21 (4):497-514.
    During the four decades of my professional career, manufacturing has been subdued to a radical change from objectifying to subjectifying work. The evolution of the originally prevailing Taylor model with its functionally divided and highly mechanised work processes culminated in the 1980s in the rise and fall of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) contested by the alternative approach of human-centred production systems. The change process then went through phases of confusion and experimentation, in which competence-based manufacturing strategies and structures have been (...)
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  5. Peter Brödner (1989). In Search of the Computer-Aided Craftsman. AI and Society 3 (1):39-46.
    Profound changes in world markets are resulting in conflict between traditional structures of production and new market requirements. The right answers to this challenge are heavily disputed. One option is to replace human work still further by artificially intelligent technology without changing basic structures of production. In contrast to this strategy, alternative production concepts seek to combine the unique human capabilities of perception, evaluation and decision making in unstructured situations with appropriately designed computer systems. Empirical evidence from the use of (...)
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  6. Berit Brogaard (2002). Andy Clark,Mindware: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, VII + 210 Pp., $18.95 (Paper), ISBN 0-19-513857-. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 12 (1):151-156.
  7. Berit Brogaard (2002). Andy Clark, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, Vii+ 210 Pp., $18.95 (Paper), ISBN 0-19-513857-0. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 12 (1):151-156.
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  8. Ron Broglio (2011). Thinking About Stuff: Posthumanist Phenomenology and Cognition. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (2):187-192.
    Emerging digital technologies, such as sensors and pervasive computing, provide a robust interplay between digital and physical space. Architecture as a disciplinary endeavor has subsumed the capacities of these technologies without allowing the difference these technologies afford to challenge fundamental notions of architecture, such as cognition, visibility, and presence. This essay explores the inverse of the architectural ground by exploring the cognitive capacity for non-animate entities. The implication of this posthuman phenomenology is that entities themselves pose questions and that “stuff” (...)
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  9. Cyril Brom, Jiří Lukavský & Rudolf Kadlec (2010). Episodic Memory for Human-Like Agents and Human-Like Agents for Episodic Memory. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 2 (02):227-244.
  10. M. Brown & G. Paliouras (1996). Roger C. Schank, Alex Kass, and Christopher K. Riesbeck (Eds.) Inside Case-Based Explanation. Minds and Machines 6:279-285.
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  11. Trevor Brown & Dietrich Brandt (forthcoming). How High Growth Economies Impact Global Information Technology Departments. AI and Society:1-7.
    By the very nature of information technology (IT), change and dynamism have always been significant drivers on its path to further development—and it has traditionally been the Western countries leading these. Now the picture is changing. The new high growth economies of the world (also known as BRIC countries) are increasingly pressing forward as active IT development drivers. Internal IT organizations of international companies are experiencing these global shifts firsthand and are facing changes in their traditional roles. This exploratory research (...)
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  12. Derek Browne (1996). Cognitive Versatility. Minds and Machines 6 (4):507-23.
    Jerry Fodor divides the mind into peripheral, domain-specific modules and a domaingeneral faculty of central cognition. John Tooby and Lisa Cosmides argue instead that the mind is modular all the way through; cognition consists of a multitude of domain-specific processes. But human thought has a flexible, innovative character that contrasts with the inflexible, stereotyped performances of modular systems. My goal is to discover how minds that are constructed on modular principles might come to exhibit cognitive versatility.Cognitive versatility is exhibited in (...)
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  13. Will N. Browne & Richard J. Hussey (2009). Emotional Cognitive Steps Towards Consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (02):203-211.
  14. Christoph Brunner (2011). Nice-Looking Obstacles: Parkour as Urban Practice of Deterritorialization. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (2):143-152.
    Most academic publications refer to Parkour as a subversive and embodied tactic that challenges hegemonic discourses of discipline and control. Architecture becomes the playful ground where new ways to move take form. These approaches rarely address the material and embodied relations that occur in these practices and remain on the discursive plane of cultural signifiers. A theory of movement between bodies as the founding aspect of Parkour unfolds alternative concepts of body, space, time and movement beyond the discursive. Movement becomes (...)
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  15. Willi Bruns (1996). Grasping, Communicating, Understanding: Connecting Reality and Virtuality. [REVIEW] AI and Society 10 (1):6-14.
    Several simulation projects in the area of production and logistics indicated that, although we have sophisticated input and output devices for computer supported modelling, physical models still play an important role for cognition and communication. We therefore introduce the concept of a Graspable User Interface that aims at combining two model worlds, the one inside the computer and a corresponding physical one in the outside world. Sensored user hands will couple physical objects of the real world with virtual objects, thus (...)
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  16. Paul D. B. Bujac & John Kerins (2009). Developing and Implementing a Sparse Ontology with a Visual Index for Personal Photograph Retrieval. AI and Society 24 (4):383-392.
    The advent of digital cameras has provided photographers, with varying levels of expertise, the opportunity to accumulate large repositories of digital images. However, this expansion has also brought the attendant difficulty of image retrieval. This paper reviews the considerable work already carried out on image retrieval and identifies critical constraints in attempting to handle the underlying semantics of photographic images. The authors address the issue of how an amateur photographer, storing several thousand images a year, can effectively and efficiently manage (...)
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  17. Seth Bullock & Peter M. Todd (1999). Made to Measure: Ecological Rationality in Structured Environments. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 9 (4):497-541.
    A working assumption that processes of natural and cultural evolution have tailored the mind to fit the demands and structure of its environment begs the question: how are we to characterize the structure of cognitive environments? Decision problems faced by real organisms are not like simple multiple-choice examination papers. For example, some individual problems may occur much more frequently than others, whilst some may carry much more weight than others. Such considerations are not taken into account when (i) the performance (...)
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  18. James H. Bunn (2000). The Syntax of Galileo: Reply to Ray Jackendoff. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 10 (1):137-147.
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  19. James H. Bunn (2000). Universal Grammar or Common Syntax? A Critical Study of Jackendoff's Patterns in the Mind. Minds and Machines 10 (1):119-128.
  20. Ernesto Burattini (2003). Roberto Cordeschi: The Discovery of the Artificial. Behaviour, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. [REVIEW] AI and Society 17 (3-4):393-395.
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  21. Robert G. Burton (1999). A Neurocomputational Approach to Abduction. Minds and Machines 9 (2):257-265.
    Recent developments in the cognitive sciences and artificial intelligence suggest ways of answering the most serious challenge to Peirce's notion of abduction. Either there is no such logical process as abduction or, if abduction is a form of inference, it is essentially unconscious and therefore beyond rational control so that it lacks any normative significance. Peirce himself anticipates and attempts to answer this challenge. Peirce argues that abduction is both a source of creative insight and a form of logical inference (...)
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  22. K. Butler (1997). Jacques Mehler and Susana Franck, Eds., Cognition on Cognition. Minds and Machines 7:303-306.
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  23. Keith Butler (1994). Neural Constraints in Cognitive Science. Minds and Machines 4 (2):129-62.
    The paper is an examination of the ways and extent to which neuroscience places constraints on cognitive science. In Part I, I clarify the issue, as well as the notion of levels in cognitive inquiry. I then present and address, in Part II, two arguments designed to show that facts from neuroscience are at a level too low to constrain cognitive theory in any important sense. I argue, to the contrary, that there are several respects in which facts from neurophysiology (...)
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  24. Terrell Ward Bynum (2014). On the Possibility of Quantum Informational Structural Realism. Minds and Machines 24 (1):123-139.
    In The Philosophy of Information, Luciano Floridi presents an ontological theory of Being qua Being, which he calls “Informational Structural Realism”, a theory which applies, he says, to every possible world. He identifies primordial information (“dedomena”) as the foundation of any structure in any possible world. The present essay examines Floridi’s defense of that theory, as well as his refutation of “Digital Ontology” (which some people might confuse with his own). Then, using Floridi’s ontology as a starting point, the present (...)
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  25. Béatrice Cahour & Lyn Pemberton (2001). A Model of Conversational Positioning in Collaborative Design Dialogues. AI and Society 15 (4):344-358.
    This paper presents findings from a linguistic and psycho-social analysis of nine design dialogues which sets out to investigate the interweaving of transactional and interpersonal threads in collaborative work. We sketch a model of the participants' positioning towards their own or their partner's design proposals, from association to dissociation towards the proposals, together with the conversational cues which indicate this positioning. Our aim is to integrate the role of interpersonal relationships into the study of co-operation, to stress the importance of (...)
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  26. Patrice Caire (2009). Designing Convivial Digital Cities: A Social Intelligence Design Approach. [REVIEW] AI and Society 24 (1):97-114.
    Conviviality has been identified as a key concept necessary to web communities, such as digital cities, and while it has been simultaneously defined in literature as individual freedom realized in personal interdependence, rational and cooperative behavior and normative instrument, no model for conviviality has yet been proposed for computer science. In this article, we raised the question whether social intelligence design could be used to designing convivial digital cities. We first looked at digital cities and identified, from a social intelligence (...)
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  27. Cristian S. Calude (2002). Incompleteness, Complexity, Randomness and Beyond. Minds and Machines 12 (4):503-517.
    Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems have the same scientific status as Einstein's principle of relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and Watson and Crick's double helix model of DNA. Our aim is to discuss some new faces of the incompleteness phenomenon unveiled by an information-theoretic approach to randomness and recent developments in quantum computing.
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  28. William Cameron (2008). Ruth Garrett Millikan, Language: A Biological Model. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 18 (1):127-131.
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  29. Lelio Camilleri (1992). On Music Perception and Cognition: Modularity, Structure, and Processing. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 2 (4):365-377.
    The paper treats issues concerning the modular modelisation of musical mental processes. Some musical phenomena, like musical illusions, are explained in the framework of modularity and hypotheses are advanced in which the modular model seems very promising for the study of musical perception and cognition. In addition, arguments are proposed to distinguish between levels of abstraction and knowledge in musical cognitive processes.Moreover, some aspects about the theory of musical competence and the theory of musical processing are identified and the possibilities (...)
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  30. Lelio Camilleri (1992). Preface. Minds and Machines 2 (4):325-327.
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  31. Dr Joseph A. Cannataci (1989). Law, Liability and Expert Systems. AI and Society 3 (3):169-183.
    This paper examines some of the possible legal implications of the production, marketing and use of expert systems. The relevance of a legally useful definition of expert systems, comprising systems designed for use both by laymen and professionals, is related to the distinctions inherent in the legal doctrine underlying provision of goods and provision of services. The liability of the sellers and users of, and contributors to, expert systems are examined in terms of professional malpractice as well as product liability. (...)
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  32. Vittorio Capecchi (2004). A Changing Society and Problems of Method: A Politically Committed Research Type. [REVIEW] AI and Society 18 (2):149-174.
    This essay examines a politically engaged research genre, which follows the biography of the author who founded two journals: one on mathematical models published in English (Quality and Quantity) and one on politically committed social and economic research published in Italian (Inchiesta). The research considered focuses on Italy in the 1950s, the research by Lazarsfeld in Vienna in the 1920s and in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s, and post-1968 politically committed research in Italy. The analysis of such (...)
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  33. Rafael Capurro (2012). Toward a Comparative Theory of Agents. AI and Society 27 (4):479-488.
    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the questions on the notion of agent and agency in relation to property and personhood. I argue that following the Kantian criticism of Aristotelian metaphysics, contemporary biotechnology and information and communication technologies bring about a new challenge—this time, with regard to the Kantian moral subject understood in the subject’s unique metaphysical qualities of dignity and autonomy. The concept of human dignity underlies the foundation of many democratic systems, particularly in Europe (...)
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  34. Peter J. Carew, Larry Stapleton & Gabriel J. Byrne (2008). Implications of an Ethic of Privacy for Human-Centred Systems Engineering. AI and Society 22 (3):385-403.
    Privacy remains an intractable ethical issue for the information society, and one that is exacerbated by modern applications of artificial intelligence. Given its complicity, there is a moral obligation to redress privacy issues in systems engineering practice itself. This paper investigates the role the concept of privacy plays in contemporary systems engineering practice. Ontologically a nominalist human concept, privacy is considered from an appropriate engineering perspective: human-centred design. Two human-centred design standards are selected as exemplars of best practice, and are (...)
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  35. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2004). Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. However, the (...)
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  36. J. Case (2004). Offloading Memory to the Environment: A Quantitative Example. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 14 (3):387-89.
    R.W. Ashby maintained that people and animals do not have to remember as much as one might think since considerable information is stored in the environment. Presented herein is an everyday, quantitative example featuring calculation of the number bits of memory that can be off-loaded to the environment. The example involves one’s storing directions to a friend’s house. It is also argued that the example works with or without acceptance of the extended mind hypothesis. Additionally, a brief supporting argument for (...)
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  37. Cristiano Castelfranchi & Rosaria Conte (1992). Emergent Functionality Among Intelligent Systems: Cooperation Within and Without Minds. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (1):78-87.
    In this paper, the current AI view that emergent functionalities apply only to the study of subcognitive agents is questioned; a hypercognitive view of autonomous agents as proposed in some AI subareas is also rejected. As an alternative view, a unified theory of social interaction is proposed which allows for the consideration of both cognitive and extracognitive social relations. A notion of functional effect is proposed, and the application of a formal model of cooperation is illustrated. Functional cooperation shows the (...)
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  38. R. L. Causey (1997). Owen Flanagan, Consciousness Reconsidered. Minds and Machines 7:147-152.
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  39. Robert L. Causey (1994). Discussion Review. Minds and Machines 4 (3):345-352.
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  40. Robert L. Causey (1991). The Epistemic Basis of Defeasible Reasoning. Minds and Machines 1 (4):437-458.
    This article argues that: (i) Defeasible reasoning is the use of distinctive procedures for belief revision when new evidence or new authoritative judgment is interpolated into a system of beliefs about an application domain. (ii) These procedures can be explicated and implemented using standard higher-order logic combined with epistemic assumptions about the system of beliefs. The procedures mentioned in (i) depend on the explication in (ii), which is largely described in terms of a Prolog program, EVID, which implements a system (...)
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  41. Humberto Cavallin, Renate Fruchter & Toyoaki Nishida (2010). The Multiple Faces of Social Intelligence Design. AI and Society 25 (2):141-143.
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  42. Humberto Cavallin, W. Mike Martin & Ann Heylighen (2007). How Relative Absolute Can Be: SUMI and the Impact of the Nature of the Task in Measuring Perceived Software Usability. [REVIEW] AI and Society 22 (2):227-235.
    This paper addresses the possibility of measuring perceived usability in an absolute way. It studies the impact of the nature of the tasks performed in perceived software usability evaluation, using for this purpose the subjective evaluation of an application’s performance via the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The paper reports on the post-hoc analysis of data from a productivity study for testing the effect of changes in the graphical user interface (GUI) of a market leading drafting application. Even though one (...)
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  43. Lawrence Cavedon (1998). Default Reasoning as Situated Monotonic Inference. Minds and Machines 8 (4):509-531.
    Since its inception, situation theory has been concerned with the situated nature of meaning and cognition, a theme which has also recently gained some prominence in Artificial Intelligence. Channel theory is a recently developed framework which builds on concepts introduced in situation theory, in an attempt to provide a general theory of information flow. In particular, the channel theoretic framework offers an account of fallible regularities, regularities which provide enough structure to an agent's environment to support efficient cognitive processing but (...)
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  44. Michael A. Cerullo (forthcoming). Uploading and Branching Identity. Minds and Machines:1-20.
    If a brain is uploaded into a computer, will consciousness continue in digital form or will it end forever when the brain is destroyed? Philosophers have long debated such dilemmas and classify them as questions about personal identity. There are currently three main theories of personal identity: biological, psychological, and closest continuer theories. None of these theories can successfully address the questions posed by the possibility of uploading. I will argue that uploading requires us to adopt a new theory of (...)
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  45. G. Chabert, J. Ch Marty, B. Caron, T. Carron, L. Vignollet & C. Ferraris (2006). The Electronic Schoolbag, a CSCW Workspace: Presentation and Evaluation. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (3):403-419.
    This paper describes the Electronic Schoolbag, a digital workspace developed at the University of Savoie (France) and analyses its usages. This online environment is dedicated to the educational world: it offers pupils, students, teachers, school staff, or parents, personal and group workspaces in which individual or collaborative activities can take place. The flexibility of this software, allowing synchronous or asynchronous activities, lies in the “participation model”. This model allows groups themselves to describe and organise their activities. The architecture that permits (...)
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  46. Pritha Chandra (2008). Peter Carruthers, the Architecture of the Mind. Minds and Machines 18 (1):133-139.
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  47. Pritha Chandra (2006). Dedre Gentner and Susan Goldin-Meadow (Eds): Language in Mind: Advances in␣the Study of Language and Thought. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 16 (2):225-230.
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  48. V. G. R. Chandran, Veera Pandiyan Kaliani Sundram & Sinnappan Santhidran (forthcoming). Innovation Systems in Malaysia: A Perspective of University—Industry R&D Collaboration. [REVIEW] AI and Society:1-10.
    Collaborative research and development (R&D) activities between public universities and industry are of importance for the sustainable development of the innovation ecosystem. However, policymakers especially in developing countries show little knowledge on the issues. In this paper, we analyse the level of university–industry collaboration in Malaysia. We further examine the fundamental conditions that hinder university–industry collaboration despite the government’s initiatives to improve such linkages. We show that the low collaboration is a result of an R&D gap between the entities. While (...)
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  49. Kuo-Chin Chang, Tzung-Pei Hong & Shian-Shyong Tseng (1996). Machine Learning by Imitating Human Learning. Minds and Machines 6 (2):203-228.
    Learning general concepts in imperfect environments is difficult since training instances often include noisy data, inconclusive data, incomplete data, unknown attributes, unknown attribute values and other barriers to effective learning. It is well known that people can learn effectively in imperfect environments, and can manage to process very large amounts of data. Imitating human learning behavior therefore provides a useful model for machine learning in real-world applications. This paper proposes a new, more effective way to represent imperfect training instances and (...)
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  50. Arthur Charlesworth (2014). The Comprehensibility Theorem and the Foundations of Artificial Intelligence. Minds and Machines 24 (4):439-476.
    Problem-solving software that is not-necessarily infallible is central to AI. Such software whose correctness and incorrectness properties are deducible by agents is an issue at the foundations of AI. The Comprehensibility Theorem, which appeared in a journal for specialists in formal mathematical logic, might provide a limitation concerning this issue and might be applicable to any agents, regardless of whether the agents are artificial or natural. The present article, aimed at researchers interested in the foundations of AI, addresses many questions (...)
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