The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: External world:skepticism

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Science:scientific anti-realism0.293
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
skepticism
28.8%(13/45)
53.3%(24/45)
not skepticism
10.5%(86/812)
83.4%(678/812)
Response pairs: 891   p-value: < 0.001
Free will:no free will0.227
no free will free will
skepticism
43.1%(19/44)
47.7%(21/44)
not skepticism
10.9%(88/806)
80.7%(651/806)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Laws of nature:Humean0.22
Humean non-Humean
skepticism
47.7%(21/44)
43.1%(19/44)
not skepticism
24.7%(192/775)
66.3%(514/775)
Response pairs: 852   p-value: < 0.001
Meta-ethics:moral anti-realism0.182
moral anti-realism moral realism
skepticism
59.5%(25/42)
30.9%(13/42)
not skepticism
27.2%(221/811)
65.3%(530/811)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Truth:epistemic0.167
epistemic not epistemic
skepticism
17%(7/41)
75.6%(31/41)
not skepticism
6.7%(52/774)
87.9%(681/774)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:relativism0.149
relativism not relativism
skepticism
15.3%(6/39)
71.7%(28/39)
not skepticism
2.5%(18/720)
86.8%(625/720)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: < 0.001
Moral judgment:non-cognitivism0.129
non-cognitivism cognitivism
skepticism
30.9%(13/42)
54.7%(23/42)
not skepticism
18.2%(144/790)
74.3%(587/790)
Response pairs: 862   p-value: < 0.001
not Free will:compatibilism0.129
compatibilism not compatibilism
skepticism
31.8%(14/44)
59%(26/44)
not skepticism
63.5%(512/806)
28.1%(227/806)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: < 0.001
Perceptual experience:sense-datum theory0.127
sense-datum theory not sense-datum theory
skepticism
14.7%(5/34)
76.4%(26/34)
not skepticism
3.5%(23/654)
81.3%(532/654)
Response pairs: 709   p-value: < 0.001
not Truth:correspondence0.123
correspondence not correspondence
skepticism
48.7%(20/41)
43.9%(18/41)
not skepticism
56.3%(436/774)
38.3%(297/774)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: < 0.001
Abstract objects:nominalism0.123
Platonism nominalism
skepticism
20.4%(9/44)
70.4%(31/44)
not skepticism
42.6%(342/801)
46.9%(376/801)
Response pairs: 880   p-value: < 0.001
A priori knowledge:no0.121
no yes
skepticism
31.1%(14/45)
62.2%(28/45)
not skepticism
18.2%(150/824)
74%(610/824)
Response pairs: 904   p-value: < 0.001
Aesthetic value:subjective0.1
objective subjective
skepticism
38%(16/42)
59.5%(25/42)
not skepticism
46.7%(378/809)
38.3%(310/809)
Response pairs: 884   p-value: 0.002
Politics:libertarianism0.098
libertarianism not libertarianism
skepticism
29.2%(12/41)
48.7%(20/41)
not skepticism
11.2%(75/666)
72%(480/666)
Response pairs: 738   p-value: 0.007
Logic:non-classical0.081
classical non-classical
skepticism
55.2%(21/38)
31.5%(12/38)
not skepticism
67.3%(490/728)
18.4%(134/728)
Response pairs: 794   p-value: 0.022
Epistemic justification:internalism0.081
externalism internalism
skepticism
33.3%(14/42)
42.8%(18/42)
not skepticism
51.7%(405/782)
30.9%(242/782)
Response pairs: 855   p-value: 0.017
Personal identity:psychological view0.08
psychological view not psychological view
skepticism
48.8%(21/43)
30.2%(13/43)
not skepticism
38.9%(285/731)
41.5%(304/731)
Response pairs: 803   p-value: 0.023
not Perceptual experience:representationalism0.078
representationalism not representationalism
skepticism
23.5%(8/34)
67.6%(23/34)
not skepticism
42.3%(277/654)
42.5%(278/654)
Response pairs: 709   p-value: 0.037
Time:A-theory0.073
B-theory A-theory
skepticism
33.3%(9/27)
22.2%(6/27)
not skepticism
48.2%(254/526)
29.2%(154/526)
Response pairs: 577   p-value: 0.079
Knowledge:empiricism0.07
empiricism rationalism
skepticism
48.8%(22/45)
26.6%(12/45)
not skepticism
41.5%(344/827)
34.9%(289/827)
Response pairs: 907   p-value: 0.035
Mental content:internalism0.065
internalism externalism
skepticism
31.7%(13/41)
46.3%(19/41)
not skepticism
26.4%(205/775)
60.2%(467/775)
Response pairs: 845   p-value: 0.058
Newcomb's problem:one box0.06
one box two boxes
skepticism
24.2%(8/33)
39.3%(13/33)
not skepticism
30.9%(184/594)
47.1%(280/594)
Response pairs: 652   p-value: 0.125
Metaphilosophy:naturalism0.058
non-naturalism naturalism
skepticism
13.6%(6/44)
75%(33/44)
not skepticism
29.2%(224/767)
55.8%(428/767)
Response pairs: 843   p-value: 0.092
Trolley problem:don't switch0.057
switch don't switch
skepticism
72%(31/43)
13.9%(6/43)
not skepticism
74.1%(578/779)
11.5%(90/779)
Response pairs: 852   p-value: 0.096
not Knowledge claims:invariantism0.057
invariantism not invariantism
skepticism
33.3%(13/39)
53.8%(21/39)
not skepticism
37.3%(269/720)
51.9%(374/720)
Response pairs: 789   p-value: 0.109
Truth:deflationary0.056
deflationary not deflationary
skepticism
24.3%(10/41)
68.2%(28/41)
not skepticism
27.3%(212/774)
67.3%(521/774)
Response pairs: 848   p-value: 0.103

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
xian:Hume0.134
Hume not Hume
skepticism
35.5%(16/45)
64.4%(29/45)
not skepticism
14.2%(119/835)
85.7%(716/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Metaphysics0.104
Metaphysics not Metaphysics
skepticism
15.5%(7/45)
84.4%(38/45)
not skepticism
25.7%(215/835)
74.2%(620/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.001
not xian:Lewis0.094
Lewis not Lewis
skepticism
~2.2%(~1/45)
~97.7%(~44/45)
not skepticism
7.7%(65/835)
92.2%(770/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.004
AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.09
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
skepticism
22.2%(10/45)
77.7%(35/45)
not skepticism
10.8%(91/835)
89.1%(744/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.006
xian:Kant0.088
Kant not Kant
skepticism
13.3%(6/45)
86.6%(39/45)
not skepticism
11.7%(98/835)
88.2%(737/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.007
tradition:continental0.084
continental analytic
skepticism
~2.2%(~1/45)
82.2%(37/45)
not skepticism
3.4%(29/835)
89.1%(744/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.011
not AOS:Philosophy of Mind0.078
Philosophy of Mind not Philosophy of Mind
skepticism
15.5%(7/45)
84.4%(38/45)
not skepticism
21.1%(177/835)
78.8%(658/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.018
xian:Rawls0.074
Rawls not Rawls
skepticism
8.8%(4/45)
91.1%(41/45)
not skepticism
4.1%(35/835)
95.8%(800/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.025
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.062
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
skepticism
8.8%(4/45)
91.1%(41/45)
not skepticism
3.7%(31/835)
96.2%(804/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.06
not AOS:Philosophy of Language0.061
Philosophy of Language not Philosophy of Language
skepticism
6.6%(3/45)
93.3%(42/45)
not skepticism
18.9%(158/835)
81%(677/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.065
xian:Quine0.054
Quine not Quine
skepticism
11.1%(5/45)
88.8%(40/45)
not skepticism
6.2%(52/835)
93.7%(783/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.102
not xian:Davidson0.054
Davidson not Davidson
skepticism
~2.2%(~1/45)
~97.7%(~44/45)
not skepticism
5.3%(45/835)
94.6%(790/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.102
not xian:Frege0.054
Frege not Frege
skepticism
6.6%(3/45)
93.3%(42/45)
not skepticism
7.7%(65/835)
92.2%(770/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.102
not AOS:Meta-Ethics0.054
Meta-Ethics not Meta-Ethics
skepticism
~2.2%(~1/45)
~97.7%(~44/45)
not skepticism
11.7%(98/835)
88.2%(737/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.102

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
year_of_phd0.105
year_of_phd ≥ median year_of_phd < median
skepticism
68.9%(20/29)
31%(9/29)
not skepticism
49.2%(322/654)
50.7%(332/654)
Response pairs: 710   p-value: 0.005
gender:female0.064
female male
skepticism
11.6%(5/43)
88.3%(38/43)
not skepticism
18.3%(145/790)
81.6%(645/790)
Response pairs: 867   p-value: 0.059
year_of_birth0.061
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
skepticism
55.8%(24/43)
44.1%(19/43)
not skepticism
50%(390/780)
50%(390/780)
Response pairs: 856   p-value: 0.074
not phd_region:Australasia0.054
Australasia not Australasia
skepticism
~2.2%(~1/45)
~97.7%(~44/45)
not skepticism
3.3%(28/835)
96.6%(807/835)
Response pairs: 915   p-value: 0.102