Results for 'Computation'

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  1. Randomness and Recursive Enumerability.Siam J. Comput - unknown
    One recursively enumerable real α dominates another one β if there are nondecreasing recursive sequences of rational numbers (a[n] : n ∈ ω) approximating α and (b[n] : n ∈ ω) approximating β and a positive constant C such that for all n, C(α − a[n]) ≥ (β − b[n]). See [R. M. Solovay, Draft of a Paper (or Series of Papers) on Chaitin’s Work, manuscript, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, 1974, p. 215] and [G. J. (...)
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  2. The fortieth annual lecture series 1999-2000.Brain Computations & an Inevitable Conflict - 2000 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 31:199-200.
  3.  19
    Hector freytes, Antonio ledda, Giuseppe sergioli and.Roberto Giuntini & Probabilistic Logics in Quantum Computation - 2013 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. pp. 49.
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  4. Paul M. kjeldergaard.Pittsburgh Computations Centers - 1968 - In T. Dixon & Deryck Horton (eds.), Verbal Behavior and General Behavior Theory. Prentice-Hall.
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  5. The general problem of the primitive was finally solved in 1912 by A. Den-joy. But his integration process was more complicated than that of Lebesgue. Denjoy's basic idea was to first calculate the definite integral∫ b. [REVIEW]How to Compute Antiderivatives - 1995 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 1 (3).
     
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  6. Section 2. Model Theory.Va Vardanyan, On Provability Resembling Computability, Proving Aa Voronkov & Constructive Logic - 1989 - In Jens Erik Fenstad, Ivan Timofeevich Frolov & Risto Hilpinen (eds.), Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science Viii: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Moscow, 1987. Sole Distributors for the U.S.A. And Canada, Elsevier Science.
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  7.  8
    Proceedings of the 1986 Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Knowledge: March 19-22, 1988, Monterey, California.Joseph Y. Halpern, International Business Machines Corporation, American Association of Artificial Intelligence, United States & Association for Computing Machinery - 1986
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  8.  7
    ALPUK91: Proceedings of the 3rd UK Annual Conference on Logic Programming, Edinburgh, 10–12 April 1991.Tim Duncan, C. S. Mellish, Geraint A. Wiggins & British Computer Society - 1992 - Springer.
    Since its conception nearly 20 years ago, Logic Programming - the idea of using logic as a programming language - has been developed to the point where it now plays an important role in areas such as database theory, artificial intelligence and software engineering. However, there are still many challenging research issues to be addressed and the UK branch of the Association for Logic Programming was set up to provide a forum where the flourishing research community could discuss important issues (...)
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  9.  8
    Computer Science Logic: 11th International Workshop, CSL'97, Annual Conference of the EACSL, Aarhus, Denmark, August 23-29, 1997, Selected Papers.M. Nielsen, Wolfgang Thomas & European Association for Computer Science Logic - 1998 - Springer Verlag.
    This book constitutes the strictly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Computer Science Logic, CSL '97, held as the 1997 Annual Conference of the European Association on Computer Science Logic, EACSL, in Aarhus, Denmark, in August 1997. The volume presents 26 revised full papers selected after two rounds of refereeing from initially 92 submissions; also included are four invited papers. The book addresses all current aspects of computer science logics and its applications and thus presents the state (...)
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  10. Computing machinery and intelligence.Alan M. Turing - 1950 - Mind 59 (October):433-60.
    I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous, If the meaning of the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning and the answer to (...)
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  11. A computational foundation for the study of cognition.David Chalmers - 2011 - Journal of Cognitive Science 12 (4):323-357.
    Computation is central to the foundations of modern cognitive science, but its role is controversial. Questions about computation abound: What is it for a physical system to implement a computation? Is computation sufficient for thought? What is the role of computation in a theory of cognition? What is the relation between different sorts of computational theory, such as connectionism and symbolic computation? In this paper I develop a systematic framework that addresses all of these (...)
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  12. Computability and Logic.George Boolos, John Burgess, Richard P. & C. Jeffrey - 1980 - New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited by John P. Burgess & Richard C. Jeffrey.
    Computability and Logic has become a classic because of its accessibility to students without a mathematical background and because it covers not simply the staple topics of an intermediate logic course, such as Godel's incompleteness theorems, but also a large number of optional topics, from Turing's theory of computability to Ramsey's theorem. This 2007 fifth edition has been thoroughly revised by John Burgess. Including a selection of exercises, adjusted for this edition, at the end of each chapter, it offers a (...)
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  13. Computation in Physical Systems: A Normative Mapping Account.Paul Schweizer - 2019 - In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag. pp. 27-47.
    The relationship between abstract formal procedures and the activities of actual physical systems has proved to be surprisingly subtle and controversial, and there are a number of competing accounts of when a physical system can be properly said to implement a mathematical formalism and hence perform a computation. I defend an account wherein computational descriptions of physical systems are high-level normative interpretations motivated by our pragmatic concerns. Furthermore, the criteria of utility and success vary according to our diverse purposes (...)
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  14. What Computers Can’T Do: The Limits of Artificial Intelligence.Hubert L. Dreyfus - 1972 - Harper & Row.
  15. Computability & unsolvability.Martin Davis - 1958 - New York: Dover Publications.
    Classic text considersgeneral theory of computability, computable functions, operations on computable functions, Turing machines self-applied, unsolvable decision problems, applications of general theory, mathematical logic, Kleene hierarchy, computable functionals, classification of unsolvable decision problems and more.
  16.  36
    Computability and Logic.George S. Boolos, John P. Burgess & Richard C. Jeffrey - 1974 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Edited by John P. Burgess & Richard C. Jeffrey.
    This fourth edition of one of the classic logic textbooks has been thoroughly revised by John Burgess. The aim is to increase the pedagogical value of the book for the core market of students of philosophy and for students of mathematics and computer science as well. This book has become a classic because of its accessibility to students without a mathematical background, and because it covers not simply the staple topics of an intermediate logic course such as Godel's Incompleteness Theorems, (...)
  17. Computer Models On Mind: Computational Approaches In Theoretical Psychology.Margaret A. Boden - 1988 - Cambridge University Press.
    What is the mind? How does it work? How does it influence behavior? Some psychologists hope to answer such questions in terms of concepts drawn from computer science and artificial intelligence. They test their theories by modeling mental processes in computers. This book shows how computer models are used to study many psychological phenomena--including vision, language, reasoning, and learning. It also shows that computer modeling involves differing theoretical approaches. Computational psychologists disagree about some basic questions. For instance, should the mind (...)
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  18. Computation and cognition: Issues in the foundation of cognitive science.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):111-32.
    The computational view of mind rests on certain intuitions regarding the fundamental similarity between computation and cognition. We examine some of these intuitions and suggest that they derive from the fact that computers and human organisms are both physical systems whose behavior is correctly described as being governed by rules acting on symbolic representations. Some of the implications of this view are discussed. It is suggested that a fundamental hypothesis of this approach is that there is a natural domain (...)
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  19. Computation and Cognition: Toward a Foundation for Cognitive Science.Zenon W. Pylyshyn - 1984 - Cambridge: MIT Press.
    This systematic investigation of computation and mental phenomena by a noted psychologist and computer scientist argues that cognition is a form of computation, that the semantic contents of mental states are encoded in the same general way as computer representations are encoded. It is a rich and sustained investigation of the assumptions underlying the directions cognitive science research is taking. 1 The Explanatory Vocabulary of Cognition 2 The Explanatory Role of Representations 3 The Relevance of Computation 4 (...)
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  20.  61
    The computational complexity of logical theories.Jeanne Ferrante - 1979 - New York: Springer Verlag. Edited by Charles W. Rackoff.
    This book asks not only how the study of white-collar crime can enrich our understanding of crime and justice more generally, but also how criminological ...
  21.  69
    Computability: Computable Functions, Logic, and the Foundations of Mathematics.Richard L. Epstein - 2004
    This book is dedicated to a classic presentation of the theory of computable functions in the context of the foundations of mathematics. Part I motivates the study of computability with discussions and readings about the crisis in the foundations of mathematics in the early 20th century, while presenting the basic ideas of whole number, function, proof, and real number. Part II starts with readings from Turing and Post leading to the formal theory of recursive functions. Part III presents sufficient formal (...)
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  22.  43
    Why computer games can be essential for human flourishing.Barbro Fröding & Martin Peterson - 2013 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 11 (2):81-91.
    – The purpose of this paper is to argue that playing computer games for lengthy periods of time, even in a manner that will force the player to forgo certain other activities normally seen as more important, can be an integral part of human flourishing., – The authors' claim is based on a modern reading of Aristotle's Nichomacean Ethics. It should be emphasized that the authors do not argue that computer gaming and other similar online activities are central to all (...)
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  23. Quantum Computer: Quantum Model and Reality.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Epistemology eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (17):1-7.
    Any computer can create a model of reality. The hypothesis that quantum computer can generate such a model designated as quantum, which coincides with the modeled reality, is discussed. Its reasons are the theorems about the absence of “hidden variables” in quantum mechanics. The quantum modeling requires the axiom of choice. The following conclusions are deduced from the hypothesis. A quantum model unlike a classical model can coincide with reality. Reality can be interpreted as a quantum computer. The physical processes (...)
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  24.  62
    Computational neuroscience and localized neural function.Daniel C. Burnston - 2016 - Synthese 193 (12):3741-3762.
    In this paper I criticize a view of functional localization in neuroscience, which I call “computational absolutism”. “Absolutism” in general is the view that each part of the brain should be given a single, univocal function ascription. Traditional varieties of absolutism posit that each part of the brain processes a particular type of information and/or performs a specific task. These function attributions are currently beset by physiological evidence which seems to suggest that brain areas are multifunctional—that they process distinct information (...)
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  25.  47
    Physical Computation: A Mechanistic Account.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2015 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press UK.
    Gualtiero Piccinini articulates and defends a mechanistic account of concrete, or physical, computation. A physical system is a computing system just in case it is a mechanism one of whose functions is to manipulate vehicles based solely on differences between different portions of the vehicles according to a rule defined over the vehicles. Physical Computation discusses previous accounts of computation and argues that the mechanistic account is better. Many kinds of computation are explicated, such as digital (...)
  26.  26
    Computable structures and the hyperarithmetical hierarchy.C. J. Ash - 2000 - New York: Elsevier. Edited by J. Knight.
    This book describes a program of research in computable structure theory. The goal is to find definability conditions corresponding to bounds on complexity which persist under isomorphism. The results apply to familiar kinds of structures (groups, fields, vector spaces, linear orderings Boolean algebras, Abelian p-groups, models of arithmetic). There are many interesting results already, but there are also many natural questions still to be answered. The book is self-contained in that it includes necessary background material from recursion theory (ordinal notations, (...)
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  27.  33
    Computability, complexity, logic.Egon Börger - 1989 - New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Elsevier Science Pub. Co..
    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, (...)
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  28.  34
    Computability theory, semantics, and logic programming.Melvin Fitting - 1987 - Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    This book describes computability theory and provides an extensive treatment of data structures and program correctness. It makes accessible some of the author's work on generalized recursion theory, particularly the material on the logic programming language PROLOG, which is currently of great interest. Fitting considers the relation of PROLOG logic programming to the LISP type of language.
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  29. Computer Simulations, Machine Learning and the Laplacean Demon: Opacity in the Case of High Energy Physics.Florian J. Boge & Paul Grünke - forthcoming - In Andreas Kaminski, Michael Resch & Petra Gehring (eds.), The Science and Art of Simulation II.
    In this paper, we pursue three general aims: (I) We will define a notion of fundamental opacity and ask whether it can be found in High Energy Physics (HEP), given the involvement of machine learning (ML) and computer simulations (CS) therein. (II) We identify two kinds of non-fundamental, contingent opacity associated with CS and ML in HEP respectively, and ask whether, and if so how, they may be overcome. (III) We address the question of whether any kind of opacity, contingent (...)
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  30.  94
    Computability, an introduction to recursive function theory.Nigel Cutland - 1980 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    What can computers do in principle? What are their inherent theoretical limitations? These are questions to which computer scientists must address themselves. The theoretical framework which enables such questions to be answered has been developed over the last fifty years from the idea of a computable function: intuitively a function whose values can be calculated in an effective or automatic way. This book is an introduction to computability theory (or recursion theory as it is traditionally known to mathematicians). Dr Cutland (...)
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  31.  26
    Quantum Computation and Quantum Information.Michael A. Nielsen & Isaac L. Chuang - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    First-ever comprehensive introduction to the major new subject of quantum computing and quantum information.
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  32. The Ethics of Cloud Computing.Boudewijn De Bruin & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):21-39.
    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the informational duties of hosting companies that own and operate cloud computing datacenters (e.g., Amazon). It considers the cloud services providers leasing ‘space in the cloud’ from hosting companies (e.g, Dropbox, Salesforce). And it (...)
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  33. Computer-assisted argument mapping: A Rationale Approach.Martin Davies - 2009 - Higher Education 58:799-820.
    Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping (CAAM) is a new way of understanding arguments. While still embryonic in its development and application, CAAM is being used increasingly as a training and development tool in the professions and government. Inroads are also being made in its application within education. CAAM claims to be helpful in an educational context, as a tool for students in responding to assessment tasks. However, to date there is little evidence from students that this is the case. This paper outlines (...)
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  34.  2
    Computations in higher types.Johan Moldestad - 1977 - New York: Springer Verlag.
  35. Subsymbolic computation and the chinese room.David J. Chalmers - 1992 - In J. Dinsmore (ed.), The Symbolic and Connectionist Paradigms: Closing the Gap. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 25--48.
    More than a decade ago, philosopher John Searle started a long-running controversy with his paper “Minds, Brains, and Programs” (Searle, 1980a), an attack on the ambitious claims of artificial intelligence (AI). With his now famous _Chinese Room_ argument, Searle claimed to show that despite the best efforts of AI researchers, a computer could never recreate such vital properties of human mentality as intentionality, subjectivity, and understanding. The AI research program is based on the underlying assumption that all important aspects of (...)
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  36. Learning Computer Networks Using Intelligent Tutoring System.Mones M. Al-Hanjori, Mohammed Z. Shaath & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Advanced Research and Development 2 (1).
    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) has a wide influence on the exchange rate, education, health, training, and educational programs. In this paper we describe an intelligent tutoring system that helps student study computer networks. The current ITS provides intelligent presentation of educational content appropriate for students, such as the degree of knowledge, the desired level of detail, assessment, student level, and familiarity with the subject. Our Intelligent tutoring system was developed using ITSB authoring tool for building ITS. A preliminary evaluation of (...)
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  37.  31
    Lilliputian computer ethics.John Weckert - 2002 - In James Moor & Terrell Ward Bynum (eds.), Cyberphilosophy: the intersection of philosophy and computing. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 366-375.
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  38.  19
    Computational semantics: an introduction to artificial intelligence and natural language comprehension.Eugene Charniak & Yorick Wilks (eds.) - 1976 - New York: distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier/North Holland.
    Linguistics. Artificial intelligence. Related fields. Computation.
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  39. The varieties of computation: A reply.David Chalmers - 2012 - Journal of Cognitive Science 2012 (3):211-248.
    Computation is central to the foundations of modern cognitive science, but its role is controversial. Questions about computation abound: What is it for a physical system to implement a computation? Is computation sufficient for thought? What is the role of computation in a theory of cognition? What is the relation between different sorts of computational theory, such as connectionism and symbolic computation? In this paper I develop a systematic framework that addresses all of these (...)
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  40.  13
    Monotonically Computable Real Numbers.Robert Rettinger, Xizhong Zheng, Romain Gengler & Burchard von Braunmühl - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (3):459-479.
    Area number x is called k-monotonically computable , for constant k > 0, if there is a computable sequence n ∈ ℕ of rational numbers which converges to x such that the convergence is k-monotonic in the sense that k · |x — xn| ≥ |x — xm| for any m > n and x is monotonically computable if it is k-mc for some k > 0. x is weakly computable if there is a computable sequence s ∈ ℕ of (...)
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  41. Computers Are Syntax All the Way Down: Reply to Bozşahin.William J. Rapaport - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (2):227-237.
    A response to a recent critique by Cem Bozşahin of the theory of syntactic semantics as it applies to Helen Keller, and some applications of the theory to the philosophy of computer science.
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  42.  21
    Ordinal Computability: An Introduction to Infinitary Machines.Merlin Carl - 2019 - Boston: De Gruyter.
    Ordinal Computability discusses models of computation obtained by generalizing classical models, such as Turing machines or register machines, to transfinite working time and space. In particular, recognizability, randomness, and applications to other areas of mathematics, including set theory and model theory, are covered.
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  43. Computable Rationality, NUTS, and the Nuclear Leviathan.S. M. Amadae - 2018 - In Daniel Bessner & Nicolas Guilhot (eds.), The Decisionist Imagination: Democracy, Sovereignty and Social Science in the 20th Century. New York, NY, USA:
    This paper explores how the Leviathan that projects power through nuclear arms exercises a unique nuclearized sovereignty. In the case of nuclear superpowers, this sovereignty extends to wielding the power to destroy human civilization as we know it across the globe. Nuclearized sovereignty depends on a hybrid form of power encompassing human decision-makers in a hierarchical chain of command, and all of the technical and computerized functions necessary to maintain command and control at every moment of the sovereign's existence: this (...)
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  44.  45
    Computability Theory.S. Barry Cooper - 2003 - Chapman & Hall.
    Computability theory originated with the seminal work of Gödel, Church, Turing, Kleene and Post in the 1930s. This theory includes a wide spectrum of topics, such as the theory of reducibilities and their degree structures, computably enumerable sets and their automorphisms, and subrecursive hierarchy classifications. Recent work in computability theory has focused on Turing definability and promises to have far-reaching mathematical, scientific, and philosophical consequences. Written by a leading researcher, Computability Theory provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary (...)
  45.  31
    New computational paradigms: changing conceptions of what is computable.S. B. Cooper, Benedikt Löwe & Andrea Sorbi (eds.) - 2008 - New York: Springer.
    Logicians and theoretical physicists will also benefit from this book.
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  46.  46
    Computation and automata.Arto Salomaa - 1985 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This introduction to certain mathematical topics central to theoretical computer science treats computability and recursive functions, formal languages and automata, computational complexity, and cruptography. The presentation is essentially self-contained with detailed proofs of all statements provided. Although it begins with the basics, it proceeds to some of the most important recent developments in theoretical computer science.
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  47.  44
    The Computational and Neural Basis of Cognitive Control: Charted Territory and New Frontiers.Matthew M. Botvinick - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (6):1249-1285.
    Cognitive control has long been one of the most active areas of computational modeling work in cognitive science. The focus on computational models as a medium for specifying and developing theory predates the PDP books, and cognitive control was not one of the areas on which they focused. However, the framework they provided has injected work on cognitive control with new energy and new ideas. On the occasion of the books' anniversary, we review computational modeling in the study of cognitive (...)
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  48.  82
    Computer Simulations as Scientific Instruments.Ramón Alvarado - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1183-1205.
    Computer simulations have conventionally been understood to be either extensions of formal methods such as mathematical models or as special cases of empirical practices such as experiments. Here, I argue that computer simulations are best understood as instruments. Understanding them as such can better elucidate their actual role as well as their potential epistemic standing in relation to science and other scientific methods, practices and devices.
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  49.  36
    Brain–Computer Interfaces, Completely Locked-In State in Neurodegenerative Diseases, and End-of-Life Decisions.Christopher Poppe & Bernice S. Elger - 2024 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 21 (1):19-27.
    In the future, policies surrounding end-of-life decisions will be faced with the question of whether competent people in a completely locked-in state should be enabled to make end-of-life decisions via brain-computer interfaces (BCI). This article raises ethical issues with acting through BCIs in the context of these decisions, specifically self-administration requirements within assisted suicide policies. We argue that enabling patients to end their life even once they have entered completely locked-in state might, paradoxically, prolong and uphold their quality of life.
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  50. Computer Simulations in Science and Engineering. Concept, Practices, Perspectives.Juan Manuel Durán - 2018 - Springer.
    This book addresses key conceptual issues relating to the modern scientific and engineering use of computer simulations. It analyses a broad set of questions, from the nature of computer simulations to their epistemological power, including the many scientific, social and ethics implications of using computer simulations. The book is written in an easily accessible narrative, one that weaves together philosophical questions and scientific technicalities. It will thus appeal equally to all academic scientists, engineers, and researchers in industry interested in questions (...)
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