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John Woods [215]John Hayden Woods [4]John E. Woods [4]John A. Woods [2]
Johnny Woods [1]John H. Woods [1]
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John Woods
Illinois Mathematics And Science Acadamy
  1. Aims of Education: A Conceptual Inquiry.Richard S. Peters, John Woods & William H. Dray - forthcoming - The Philosophy of Education.
     
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  2.  54
    Enthymematic Parsimony.Fabio Paglieri & John Woods - 2011 - Synthese 178 (3):461 - 501.
    Enthymemes are traditionally defined as arguments in which some elements are left unstated. It is an empirical fact that enthymemes are both enormously frequent and appropriately understood in everyday argumentation. Why is it so? We outline an answer that dispenses with the so called "principle of charity", which is the standard notion underlying most works on enthymemes. In contrast, we suggest that a different force drives enthymematic argumentation—namely, parsimony, i.e. the tendency to optimize resource consumption, in light of the agent's (...)
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  3. Paradox and Paraconsistency: Conflict Resolution in the Abstract Sciences.John Woods - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    In a world plagued by disagreement and conflict one might expect that the exact sciences of logic and mathematics would provide a safe harbor. In fact these disciplines are rife with internal divisions between different, often incompatible, systems. Do these disagreements admit of resolution? Can such resolution be achieved without disturbing assumptions that the theorems of logic and mathematics state objective truths about the real world? In this original and historically rich book John Woods explores apparently intractable disagreements in logic (...)
     
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  4.  34
    Resource-Origins of Nonmonotonicity.Dov Gabbay & John Woods - 2008 - Studia Logica 88 (1):85-112.
    Formal nonmonotonic systems try to model the phenomenon that common sense reasoners are able to “jump” in their reasoning from assumptions Δ to conclusions C without their being any deductive chain from Δ to C. Such jumps are done by various mechanisms which are strongly dependent on context and knowledge of how the actual world functions. Our aim is to motivate these jump rules as inference rules designed to optimise survival in an environment with scant resources of effort and time. (...)
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  5.  28
    Philosophy of Economics.Uskali Mäki, Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard & John Woods (eds.) - 2012 - North Holland.
    This volume serves as a detailed introduction for those new to the field as well as a rich source of new insights and potential research agendas for those already engaged with the philosophy of economics.
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  6. Predicate Ranges.John Woods - 1969 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (2):259-269.
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  7.  81
    Advice on Abductive Logic.Dov Gabbay & John Woods - 2006 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 14 (2):189-219.
    One of our purposes here is to expose something of the elementary logical structure of abductive reasoning, and to do so in a way that helps orient theorists to the various tasks that a logic of abduction should concern itself with. We are mindful of criticisms that have been levelled against the very idea of a logic of abduction; so we think it prudent to proceed with a certain diffidence. That our own account of abduction is itself abductive is methodological (...)
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  8. Abductive Reasoning in Neural-Symbolic Systems.Artur S. D’Avila Garcez, Dov M. Gabbay, Oliver Ray & John Woods - 2007 - Topoi 26 (1):37-49.
    Abduction is or subsumes a process of inference. It entertains possible hypotheses and it chooses hypotheses for further scrutiny. There is a large literature on various aspects of non-symbolic, subconscious abduction. There is also a very active research community working on the symbolic (logical) characterisation of abduction, which typically treats it as a form of hypothetico-deductive reasoning. In this paper we start to bridge the gap between the symbolic and sub-symbolic approaches to abduction. We are interested in benefiting from developments (...)
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  9.  6
    Ancestor Worship in The Logic of Games. How Foundational Were Aristotle's Contributions?John Woods - 2013 - Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 8 (1).
    Notwithstanding their technical virtuosity and growing presence in mainstream thinking, game theoretic logics have attracted a sceptical question: "Granted that logic can be done game theoretically, but what would justify the idea that this is the preferred way to do it?'' A recent suggestion is that at least part of the desired support might be found in the Greek dialectical writings. If so, perhaps we could say that those works possess a kind of foundational significance. The relation of being foundational (...)
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  10.  24
    Arresting Circles in Formal Dialogues.John Woods & Douglas Walton - 1978 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 7 (1):73 - 90.
  11.  18
    Cognitive Economics and the Logic of Abduction.John Woods - 2012 - Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (1):148-161.
    An agent-centered, goal-directed, resource-bound logic of human reasoning would do well to note that individual cognitive agency is typified by the comparative scantness of available cognitive resourcess ignorance-preserving character. My principal purpose here is to tie abduction’s scarce-resource adjustment capacity to its ignorance preservation.
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  12.  42
    Enthymemes: From Reconstruction to Understanding. [REVIEW]Fabio Paglieri & John Woods - 2011 - Argumentation 25 (2):127-139.
    Traditionally, an enthymeme is an incomplete argument, made so by the absence of one or more of its constituent statements. An enthymeme resolution strategy is a set of procedures for finding those missing elements, thus reconstructing the enthymemes and restoring its meaning. It is widely held that a condition on the adequacy of such procedures is that statements restored to an enthymeme produce an argument that is good in some given respect in relation to which the enthymeme itself is bad. (...)
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  13.  43
    Petitio Principii.John Woods & Douglas Walton - 1975 - Synthese 31 (1):107 - 127.
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  14.  17
    Recent Developments in Abductive Logic.John Woods - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):240-244.
  15. The Logic of Fiction: A Philosophical Sounding of Deviant Logic.John Hayden Woods - 1974 - Mouton.
     
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  16.  9
    Normative Models of Rational Agency: The Theoretical Disutility of Certain Approaches.Dov Gabbay & John Woods - 2003 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (6):597-613.
    Much of cognitive science seeks to provide principled descriptions of various kinds and aspects of rational behaviour, especially in beings like us or AI simulacra of beings like us. For the most part, these investigators presuppose an unarticulated common sense appreciation of the rationality that such behaviour consists in. On those occasions when they undertake to bring the relevant norms to the surface and to give an account of that to which they owe their legitimacy, these investigators tend to favour (...)
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  17.  16
    Question-Begging and Cumulativeness in Dialectical Games.John Woods & Douglas Walton - 1982 - Noûs 16 (4):585-605.
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  18.  42
    Hintikka on Aristotle's Fallacies.John Woods & Hans V. Hansen - 1997 - Synthese 113 (2):217-239.
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  19. Making Too Much of Possible Worlds.John Woods - unknown
    A possible worlds treatment of the normal alethic modalities was, after classical model theory, logic’s most significant semantic achievement in the century just past.[1] Kripke’s groundbreaking paper appeared in 1959 and, in the scant few succeeding years, its principal analytical tool, possible worlds, was adapted to serve a range of quite different-seeming purposes – from nonnormal logics,[2] to epistemic and doxastic logics[3], deontic[4] and temporal logics[5] and, not much later, the logic of counterfactual conditionals.[6] In short order, possible worlds acquired (...)
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  20.  32
    Non-Cooperation in Dialogue Logic.Dov Gabbay & John Woods - 2001 - Synthese 127 (1-2):161 - 186.
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  21.  62
    Lightening Up on the Ad Hominem.John Woods - 2007 - Informal Logic 27 (1):109-134.
    In all three of its manifestations, —abusive, circumstantial and tu quoque—the role of the ad hominem is to raise a doubt about the opposite party’s casemaking bona-fides.Provided that it is both presumptive and provisional, drawing such a conclusion is not a logical mistake, hence not a fallacy on the traditional conception of it. More remarkable is the role of the ad hominem retort in seeking the reassurance of one’s opponent when, on the face of it, reassurance is precisely what he (...)
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  22.  92
    The Contradiction-Exterminator.John Woods - 1965 - Analysis 25 (3):49 - 53.
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  23.  2
    Virtuous Distortion.John Woods & Alirio Rosales - 2010 - In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. pp. 3--30.
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  24.  12
    By Parity of Reasoning.John Woods & Brent Hudak - 1989 - Informal Logic 11 (3).
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  25.  98
    Handbook of the History of Logic.Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.) - 2004 - Elsevier.
    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, The Emergence of Classical Logic, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and (...)
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  26.  25
    The Petitio: Aristotle'S Five Ways.John Woods & Douglas Walton - 1982 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (March):77-100.
  27.  14
    Argumentum ad Verecundiam.John Woods & Douglas Walton - 1974 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 7 (3):135 - 153.
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  28. The Economics of Paradox: A Response to Armour-Garb.John Woods - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (1):103 – 113.
    For scientific essentialists, the only logical possibilities of existence are the real (or metaphysical) ones, and such possibilities, they say, are relative to worlds. They are not a priori, and they cannot just be invented. Rather, they are discoverable only by the a posteriori methods of science. There are, however, many philosophers who think that real possibilities are knowable a priori, or that they can just be invented. Marc Lange [Lange 2004] thinks that they can be invented, and tries to (...)
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  29. Agenda Relevance - a Study in Formal Pragmatics.Dov M. Gabbay & John Woods - 2003
     
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  30.  46
    Context-Dependent Abduction and Relevance.Dov Gabbay, Rolf Nossum & John Woods - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (1):65-81.
    Based on the premise that what is relevant, consistent, or true may change from context to context, a formal framework of relevance and context is proposed in which • contexts are mathematical entities • each context has its own language with relevant implication • the languages of distinct contexts are connected by embeddings • inter-context deduction is supported by bridge rules • databases are sets of formulae tagged with deductive histories and the contexts they belong to • abduction and revision (...)
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  31.  58
    Is There a Relation of Intensional Conjunction?John Woods - 1967 - Mind 76 (303):357-368.
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  32.  46
    The Necessity of Formalism in Informal Logic.John Woods - 1989 - Argumentation 3:149-167.
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  33. On Atocha Aliseda Abductive Reasoning.Atocha Aliseda, Johan van Benthem, Lorenzo Magnani, Angel Nepomuceno-Fernandez, Fernando Soler Toscano, Joke Meheus, Dagmar Provijn, John Woods, Silvio Pinto & Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2007 - Theoria 22 (60).
     
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  34.  16
    Argumentum Ad Baculum.John Woods - 1998 - Argumentation 12 (4):493-504.
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  35.  4
    Aristotle (384--322 B.C.).John Woods - 1999 - Argumentation 13 (2):203-220.
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  36.  20
    How Philosophical is Informal Logic?John Woods - 2000 - Informal Logic 20 (2).
    Consider the proposition, "Informal logic is a subdiscipline of philosophy". The best chance of showing this to be true is showing that informal logic is part of logic, which in turn is a part of philosophy. Part 1 is given over to the task of sorting out these connections. If successful, informal logic can indeed be seen as part of philosophy; but there is no question of an exclusive relationship. Part 2 is a critical appraisal of the suggestion that informal (...)
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  37.  14
    The Maladroitness of Epistemic Tit for Tat.John Woods - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (6):324-331.
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  38.  85
    Semantic Penumbra: Concept Similarity in Logic. [REVIEW]John Woods - 2012 - Topoi 31 (1):121-134.
    Logic’s historically central mission has been to provide formally precise descriptions of logical consequence. This was done with two broad expectations in mind. One was that a pre-theoretically recognizable concept of consequence would be present in the ensuing formalization. The other was that the formalization would be mathematically mature. The first expectation calls for conceptual adequacy. The other calls for technical virtuosity. The record of the past century and a third discloses a tension between the two. Accordingly, logicians have sought (...)
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  39.  1
    Recent Developments in Abductive Logic.John Woods - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):240-244.
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  40.  45
    Dialectical Considerations on the Logic of Contradiction: Part I.John Woods - 2005 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 13 (2):231-260.
    This is an examination of the dialectical structure of deep disagreements about matters not open to empirical check. A dramatic case in point is the Law of Non-Contradiction . Dialetheists are notoriously of the view that, in some few cases, LNC has a true negation. The traditional position on LNC is that it is non-negotiable. The standard reason for thinking it non-negotiable is, being a first principle, there is nothing to negotiate. One of my purposes is to show that the (...)
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  41.  7
    Speaking Your Mind: Large Inarticulateness Constitutional and Circumstantial. [REVIEW]John Woods - 2002 - Argumentation 16 (1):59-79.
    When someone is asked to speak his mind, it is sometimes possible for him to furnish what his utterance appears to have omitted. In such cases we might say that he had a mind to speak. Sometimes, however, the opposite is true. Asked to speak his mind, our speaker finds that he has no mind to speak. When it is possible to speak one's mind and when not is largely determined by the kinds of beings we are and by the (...)
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  42.  18
    Filtration Structures and the Cut Down Problem in Abduction.D. Gabbay & John Woods - 2005 - In John Woods, Kent A. Peacock & A. D. Irvine (eds.), Mistakes of Reason: Essays in Honour of John Woods. University of Toronto Press. pp. 398-417.
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  43.  70
    Ignorance and Semantic Tableaux: Aliseda on Abduction.John Woods - 2007 - Theoria 22 (3):305-318.
    This is an examination of similarities and differences between two recent models of abductive reasoning. The one is developed in Atocha Aliseda’s Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into the Processes of Discovery and Evaluation (2006). The other is advanced by Dov Gabbay and the present author in their The Reach of Abduction: Insight and Trial (2005). A principal difference between the two approaches is that in the Gabbay-Woods model, but not in the Aliseda model, abductive inference is ignorance-preserving. A further differ-ence (...)
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  44.  9
    Fallacies as Cognitive Virtues.Dov M. Gabbay & John Woods - 2009 - In Ondrej Majer, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen & Tero Tulenheimo (eds.), Games: Unifying Logic, Language, and Philosophy. Springer Verlag. pp. 57--98.
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  45.  77
    W. V. Quine’s “Two Dogmas of Empiricism”.John Woods - 2011 - Topoi 30 (1):87-97.
    True to the spirit of Topoi’s Untimely Reviews section, the present essay is a work of the counterfactual imagination. Suppose that Quine’s “Two Dogmas” had been written and published in the late 1990s rather than the early 1950s. What, in those circumstances, would philosophical commentary look like, especially against the marked developments in Quine’s philosophy in that same period? In short, how would Quine’s “Two Dogmas” stand up as a late 1990s paper rather than an early 1950s paper? Answering that (...)
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  46.  6
    Privatizing Death: Metaphysical Discouragements of Ethical Thinking.John Woods - 2000 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 24 (1):199–218.
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  47.  40
    Antoine Arnauld (1612--1694).John Woods - 2000 - Argumentation 14 (1):31-43.
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  48.  49
    Epistemology Mathematicized.John Woods - 2013 - Informal Logic 33 (2):292-331.
    Epistemology and informal logic have overlapping and broadly similar subject matters. A principle of methodological symmetry is: philosophical theories of sufficiently similar subject matters should engage similar methods. Suppose the best way to do epistemology is in highly formalized ways, with a large role for mathematical methods. The symmetry principle suggests this is also the best way to do the logic of the reasoning and argument, the subject matter of informal logic. A capitulation to mathematics is inimical to informal logicians, (...)
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  49.  21
    Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc.John Woods & Douglas Walton - 1977 - Review of Metaphysics 30 (4):569 - 593.
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  50.  19
    Eight Theses Reflecting on Stephen Toulmin.John Woods - unknown
    I discuss eight theses espoused or occasioned by Toulmin: The validity standard is nearly always the wrong standard for real-life reasoning. Little in good reasoning is topic neutral. The probability calculus distorts much probabilistic reasoning. Scant resources have a benign influence on human reasoning. Theoretical progress and conceptual change are connected. Logic should investigate the cognitive aspects of reasoning and arguing. Ideal models are unsuitable for normativity. The role of the Can Do Principle.
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