Lakebrink, B. La interpretación existencial del concepto tomista del acto de ser.--Inciarte, F. El problema de la verdad en la filosofía actual y en Santo Tomás.--Millán Puelles, A. El ser y el deber.--Beck, H. Dialéctica materialista y acto de ser tomista.--Pieper, J. La criatura humana.--García López, J. Armonía entre lo natural y lo sobrenatural en Tomás de Aquino.--Gherardini, B. La tradición agustiniana en la síntesis tomista.--Illanes, J. L. La sabiduría teológica.--Clavel, L. La metafísica como instrumento de la ciencia teológica.--García de (...) Haro, R. La noción teológica de ley natural.--Mateo Seco, L. F. Muerte y pecado original en la doctrina de Santo Tomás de Aquino.--Rodríguez, P. La resurrección de Cristo en el pensamiento teológico de Santo Tomás de Aquino.--Haerdelin, A. Dos caminos para aproximarse a la teología sacramentaria de Santo Tomás de Aquino.--Miralles, A. La noción de sacramento en Santo Tomás. (shrink)
Ecological sciences have informed environmental ethics from its inception as a scholarly pursuit in the 1970s-so much so that we now have ecological ethics, Deep Ecology, and ecofeminism. Throughout the 20th century, however, most ecologists remained enthralled by the myth that science is value-free. Closer study of science by philosophers reveals that metaphors are inescapable and cognitively indispensable to science, but that metaphors are value-laden. As we confront the enormous challenges of the 21st century-the prospect of a 6th mass extinction, (...) acidifying oceans, rising sea level, and global warming-ecologists can no longer remain aloof from public discourse about what actions to take to address these problems. And that means that 21st century ecologists understand that right action is guided by ethics. However, integration of ethical ideas into academic curricula and ecologists' research agendas is still meager. Aldo Leopold, 1947 President of the Ecological Society of America, keenly understood that latent in ecological sciences is an organizing worldview, with implications for reordering societal values and expanding ethics to embrace "soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land." Going beyond Leopold's land ethic, contemporary environmental ethics includes eco-social justice and the realization that as important as biodiversity is cultural diversity, inter-cultural, inter-institutional, and international collaboration requiring a novel approach known as biocultural conservation. Right action in confronting the challenges of the 21st century requires science and ethics to be seamlessly integrated. Contemporary science proposes the concept of the inclusive ecosystem that recognizes humans as components. In this book, this "inclusive conviction is endorsed, fortunately, by over forty contributors sharing their accounts, of living well in place, combining nature and culture, residing on landscapes: biocultural ethics" (Holmes Rolston, III). (shrink)
The biogeographic contributions of Léon Croizat (1894–1982) and the conflictive relationships with his intellectual descendants and critics are analysed. Croizat’s panbiogeography assumed that vicariance is the most important biogeographic process and that dispersal does not contribute to biogeographic patterns. Dispersalist biogeographers criticized or avoided mentioning panbiogeography, especially in the context of the “hardening” of the Modern Synthesis. Researchers at the American Museum of Natural History associated panbiogeography with Hennig’s phylogenetic systematics, creating cladistic biogeography. On the other hand, a group of (...) New Zealand biologists formalized Croizat’s original concepts and soon began arguing with cladistic biogeographers over the relative merits of their approaches. In Latin America, panbiogeography and cladistic biogeography were incorporated as parts of an integrative approach. A recent development, molecular panbiogeography, is based on the use of molecular phylogenetic data. The current practice shows that some authors insist on considering panbiogeography as the only appropriate approach and vicariance as the only relevant process, whereas others accept Croizat’s dictum “Earth and life evolve together” as a useful guide to understanding broad, general patterns, but recognize that dispersal also contributes substantially to biotic assembly. The framework of integrative pluralism allows to explain the complexities of the biogeographic processes involved in biotic assembly without the need of unification on a large scale. This historical analysis intersects with the existing historiography of the Modern Synthesis and may provide some insights on the dynamics of integrative pluralism, which may be especially relevant in the current development of the Extended Synthesis. (shrink)
The article considers the possibility of saying the same truth in different expressions. It is relevant the Fregean distinction between sense and reference. The author shows the deep difference between the objective Fregean notion of truth and Aquinas' version, according to which the truth of the proposition is related, in many cases, to the situation of the speaker.
In recent decades, the expansion of economic activity has been accompanied by negative environmental impacts. In response, there have been dramatic changes worldwide in terms of an increased demand for environmentally friendly products and services. To achieve these eco-innovations, firms have sought to acquire knowledge and implement operational flexibility by cooperating with different agents such as universities through a value cocreation system that is also expected to enhance firms’ performance. Using a sample of 250 companies, the present paper examines the (...) role of cooperation with universities in the development of diverse environmental innovations and building operational flexibility and, through this, improving firm performance. Results show that firms that value cooperation with universities develop a wider range of environmental innovations and increase their sales and benefits. (shrink)
This paper addresses the relationship between the divine Word and the creatures uttered eternally with it, and attempts to unravel the consequences of this relationship particularly from the perspective of the verum, so that one can glimpse not only the origin of creation in the Word but also the truth of things considered in and from the Logos.
Climate and evolution represents an important contribution to evolutionary biogeography, that influenced several authors, notably Karl P. Schmidt, George S. Myers, George G. Simpson, Philip J. Darlington, Ernst Mayr, Thomas Barbour, John C. Poynton, Allen Keast, Léon Croizat, Robin Craw, Michael Heads, and Osvaldo A. Reig. Authors belonging to the “New York School of Zoogeography” –a research community including Matthew, Schmidt, Myers and Simpson– accepted Matthew’s “Holarcticism” and the permanence of ocean basins and continents, whereas others, especially panbiogeographers and cladistic (...) biogeographers, were extremely critical and reacted against these ideas. “Holarcticism” has been falsified and rejected by dispersalists and the “New York School of Zoogeography” disappeared in the 1970s. Matthew, however, continues being identified by panbiogeographers and cladistic biogeographers as a key representative of classic dispersalism, helping provide some cohesion to their research communities. (shrink)
Esta reflexión tiene una motivación específica y que es necesario mencionar pues ella explica el enfoque y las preguntas que se van a suscitar aquí. En Colombia se adoptó un modelo político-judicial para tratar de superar un problema de violencia y violación de las normas elementales de convivencia social que ha afectado a su población durante décadas. No se trata, realmente, de un problema, sino, podríamos decir, de una familia de problemas, pero el modelo ha sido pensado para que se (...) adapte a ella. Este modelo está encarnado en la llamada "Ley de justicia y paz" (Ley 975 de 2005), "por la cual se dictan disposiciones para la reincorporación de los miembros de grupos armados organizados al margen de la ley, que contribuyan de manera efectiva a la consecución de la paz nacional, y se dictan otras disposiciones para acuerdos humanitarios". La ley regula cuestiones relativas a la investigación, procesamiento, sanción y beneficios judiciales de personas vinculadas a los grupos mencionados que se desmovilicen y contribuyan "a la reconciliación nacional". El Artículo 4° establece que el proceso de reconciliación al que dé lugar la ley deberá "promover, en todo caso, el derecho de las víctimas a la verdad, la justicia y la reparación". Mi interés en este momento se limita al elemento "verdad" contenido allí. [Fragmento]. (shrink)
This is a case study of a program to address professionalism at the Universidad de la República in Uruguay. We describe a five-year ongoing international collaboration. Relevant characteristics of the context, the program components, activities, and results were analyzed. The expected outcomes were to introduce standards of professional practices in the curricula of medical students and residents and the implementation of a program that might lead to a significant change in the culture of medicine in the University. Traditional didactics, interactive (...) theater, and professional development workshops, issues such as teamwork and communication, professional behavior, and the culture of medicine, and physician wellness were addressed. A total of 359 faculty members, general practitioners, stakeholders, and other healthcare professionals participated in the intervention. The process led to specific achievements including new content in the curricula, the use of educational innovations to address issues of professionalism, a growing institutional culture of accountability, and the establishment of new rules and regulations. The strategies and interventions followed in the case of Uruguay can serve as a model to other developing countries to promote physician professionalism, wellness, and joy. (shrink)
We used a qualitative dissociation procedure to assess semantic priming from spatially attended and unattended masked words. Participants categorized target words that were preceded by parafoveal prime words belonging to either the same or the opposite category as the target. Using this paradigm, only non-strategic use of the prime would result in facilitation of the target responses in related trials. Primes were immediately masked or masked with a delay, while spatial attention was allocated to the primes’ location or away from (...) the primes’ location. Immediate masked, strongly related primes facilitated target responses irrespective of the spatial attention. Delayed masked, related primes led to reversed or facilitatory priming depending on whether they were cued or uncued. These findings demonstrate that perceiving a stimulus with or without awareness depends on both stimulus quality and attention orienting and that non-strategic priming can be observed from clear visible but spatially unattended words. (shrink)
This article summarily describes the arrival and establishment of Analytic Philosophy [= AP] in Spain. It first expounds the role played in that process by philosophers such José Ferrater Mora, exiled alter the Spanish Civil War, and by Manuel Garrido, Jesús Mosterín, Javier Muguerza, Josep Blasco y José Hierro, the proper introducers of AP in the Spanish university. Secondly, the article refers to the work developed by the introducers’ former students and disciples, and holds that this second wave of AP (...) in Spain largely helped to its consolidation. Finally, the current situation–a third wave of analytic philosophers in action–is reviewed. Its most actives centres are identified, the main changes in the national scientific policy, its profound effects on academic activities for the last twenty years, and the high degree of internationalization reached by Spanish AP from the 1990s, after the founding of the Sociedad Española de Filosofía Analítica (S.E.F.A.), are concisely pointed out. (shrink)
Resumen: Levinas no suele hablar del Templo, pero en sus comentarios talmúdicos, dice algunas cosas muy impresionantes acerca del templo y de su imagen. Así, al comentar el Tratado Yoma 10a del Talmud, dice que «El templo de Jerusalén, según el pensamiento judío, es un símbolo, que significa para la humanidad entera». Este artículo se centra en clarificar esta tesis de Levinas y en la universalidad de un sólo templo, que según su comentario al Rabbi Hayyin Volozhiner «es una réplica (...) exacta del Templo celestial, el orden de la santidad absoluta». Investigo el valor simbólico del templo de Jerusalén, tanto construido como en ruinas, e intento conectar este valor con el resto de la filosofía de Levinas, espcialmente con su teoría del sacrificio como substitución.Key Words: Templo de Jerusalén; Mesianismo político; Historia; Responsabilidad; Culpa; Santidad; Sacrificio. (shrink)
RESUMENEste artículo trata del programa de la Enciclopedia de las ciencias filosóficas deHegel. Programa que Hegel delinea en la introducción a dicha obra, y que culmina en el silogismo de silogismos que concluye su obra. Desde su comienzo y término cabe advertir (1) la diferencia de la Enciclopedia hegeliana con las enciclopedias dieciochescas, y (2) la relación de la ciencia filosófica hegeliana con lo empírico.PALABRAS CLAVEHEGEL, ENCICLOPEDIA, FUNDACIONALISMO, CIENCIAABSTRACTThis paper focus on the Hegelian program of the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical (...) Sciences. Hegel explains his program in the ―Introduction‖, and in the last pages of the Encyclopedia, the syllogism of syllogisms. From its beginning and from its end, it is possible to notice (1) the difference between the Encyclopedia and other encyclopedias of the eighteenth-century, like the French one or the British one; and (2) the relationship of the Hegelian notion of philosophical science with the empirical.KEY WORDSHEGEL, ENCYCLOPEDIA, FOUNDATIONALISM, SCIENCE. (shrink)
Levinas does not speak quite often about the Temple, but in his Talmudic commentaries, he says quite impressive things about the Temple and its image. Commenting the Tractate Yoma 10a of Talmud, he says that «The Temple of Jerusalem in Jewish thought is a symbol, which signifies for the whole of humanity». This paper focuses on clarify this sentence and the universality of one Temple, which «is an exact replica of the heavenly Temple, the order of absolute holiness» according with (...) his comment to Rabbi Hayyim Volozhiner. I research the symbolic value of the Temple in Jerusalem built as in ruins and try to connect this value with the rest of Levinas’ philosophy, especially with his theory of sacrifice as substitution.Palabras clave: Temple of Jerusalem; Politics-Messianism; History; Responsibility; Guilt; Holiness; Sacrifice. (shrink)
Se abordan en este trabajo el desciframiento de un símbolo (de la physis) y una experiencia intelectual (la de eternidad). La metodología propuesta consiste en no tirar de la escalera (Wittgenstein), esto es señalando el carácter de visión siempre acompañada de enigma, y nunca totalizable objetivamente de los símbolos. En este sentido la tematización, interpretación y desciframiento de los símbolos es densa (Clifford Geertz). Se sitúa, asimismo, la filosofía poliana acerca de los conocimientos más altos de la esencia del hombre, (...) en el terreno de las modernas antropologías simbólicas. Y por último se señala la crítica poliana al ideal moderno de autoconciencia. (shrink)