||Philosophical study of Ecology and Conservation Biology is a growing part of Philosophy of Science. Ecology and Conservation Biology are closely-related branches of biology. Ecology studies interactions between groups of organisms and among those groups and their environments. The questions of Conservation Biology arise from efforts to preserve groups of organisms or other biological units like ecosystems. Many of the questions in this area arise from more general questions in philosophy of science like the role of laws, the structure of explanations, the challenges of representation. The specific kinds of complexity arising from the interactions of so many and such different living organisms as are typical of ecological research make Ecology and Conservation Biology fruitful terrain for examining how scientists can represent complexity in a manageable way. Moreover, these biological disciplines are also appealed to in decision making, at scales from the management of a wetland to the development of international climate-change agreements. Some philosophers of science address biologists' capacities to answer the questions arising in these contexts, given the achievements and limitations of these complex sciences.