About this topic
Summary Philosophical study of Ecology and Conservation Biology is a growing part of Philosophy of Science. Ecology and Conservation Biology are closely-related branches of biology. Ecology studies interactions between groups of organisms and among those groups and their environments. The questions of Conservation Biology arise from efforts to preserve groups of organisms or other biological units like ecosystems. Many of the questions in this area arise from more general questions in philosophy of science like the role of laws, the structure of explanations, the challenges of representation. The specific kinds of complexity arising from the interactions of so many and such different living organisms as are typical of ecological research make Ecology and Conservation Biology fruitful terrain for examining how scientists can represent complexity in a manageable way. Moreover, these biological disciplines are also appealed to in decision making, at scales from the management of a wetland to the development of international climate-change agreements. Some philosophers of science address biologists' capacities to answer the questions arising in these contexts, given the achievements and limitations of these complex sciences.
Key works An early monograph connecting ecology and conservation was Shrader-Frechette 1993. Cooper 2003 was the first monograph in philosophy of science focused on ecology.
Introductions Justus 2013 is an introduction to problems and debates in Philosophy of Ecology written for Biology instructors and other educators, but more generally useful for non-specialists. Colyvan et al 2009 surveys major issues in Philosophy of Ecology. Justus 2002 discusses prominent problems in Conservation Biology, and Sarkar 2004 is an introductory encyclopedia article on the same.
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  1. Ecological Justice and the Extinction Crisis: Giving Living Beings Their Due.Anna Wienhues - forthcoming - Bristol, Vereinigtes Königreich: Bristol University Press.
  2. Unifying the Essential Concepts of Biological Networks: Biological Insights and Philosophical Foundations.Daniel Kostic, Claus Hilgetag & Marc Tittgemeyer - forthcoming - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.
    Over the last decades, network-based approaches have become highly popular in diverse fields of biology, including neuroscience, ecology, molecular biology and genetics. While these approaches continue to grow very rapidly, some of their conceptual and methodological aspects still require a programmatic foundation. This challenge particularly concerns the question of whether a generalized account of explanatory, organisational and descriptive levels of networks can be applied universally across biological sciences. To this end, this highly interdisciplinary theme issue focuses on the definition, motivation (...)
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  3. A Defense of Free-Roaming Cats from a Hedonist Account of Feline Well-being.C. E. Abbate - 2019 - Acta Analytica 2019:1-23.
    There is a widespread belief that for their own safety and for the protection of wildlife, cats should be permanently kept indoors. Against this view, I argue that cat guardians have a duty to provide their feline companions with outdoor access. The argument is based on a sophisticated hedonistic account of animal well-being that acknowledges that the performance of species-normal ethological behavior is especially pleasurable. Territorial behavior, which requires outdoor access, is a feline-normal ethological behavior, so when a cat is (...)
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  4. Functional Diversity: An Epistemic Roadmap.Christophe Malaterre, Antoine C. Dussault, Sophia Rousseau-Mermans, Gillian Barker, Beatrix E. Beisner, Frédéric Bouchard, Eric Desjardins, Tanya I. Handa, Steven W. Kembel, Geneviève Lajoie, Virginie Maris, Alison D. Munson, Jay Odenbaugh, Timothée Poisot, B. Jesse Shapiro & Curtis A. Suttle - 2019 - BioScience 10 (69):800-811.
    Functional diversity holds the promise of understanding ecosystems in ways unattainable by taxonomic diversity studies. Underlying this promise is the intuition that investigating the diversity of what organisms actually do—i.e. their functional traits—within ecosystems will generate more reliable insights into the ways these ecosystems behave, compared to considering only species diversity. But this promise also rests on several conceptual and methodological—i.e. epistemic—assumptions that cut across various theories and domains of ecology. These assumptions should be clearly addressed, notably for the sake (...)
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  5. Macroevolution: Explanation, Interpretation and Evidence.Emanuelle Serrelli & Nathalie Gontier (eds.) - 2015 - Springer.
    This book is divided in two parts, the first of which shows how, beyond paleontology and systematics, macroevolutionary theories apply key insights from ecology and biogeography, developmental biology, biophysics, molecular phylogenetics, and even the sociocultural sciences to explain evolution in deep time. In the second part, the phenomenon of macroevolution is examined with the help of real life-history case studies on the evolution of eukaryotic sex, the formation of anatomical form and body-plans, extinction and speciation events of marine invertebrates, hominin (...)
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  6. Michel Serres: From Restricted to General Ecology.Christopher Watkin - 2017 - In Stephanie Posthumus & Daniel Finch-Race (eds.), French Ecocriticism: From the Early Modern Period to the Twenty-First Century. Bern: Peter Lang. pp. 153-172.
    Michel Serres's relation to ecocriticism is complex. On the one hand, he is a pioneer in the area, anticipating the current fashion for ecological thought by over a decade. On the other hand, 'ecology' and 'eco-criticism' are singularly infelicitous terms to describe Serres's thinking if they are taken to indicate that attention should be paid to particular 'environmental' concerns. For Serres, such local, circumscribed ideas as 'ecology' or 'eco-philosophy' are one of the causes of our ecological crisis, and no progress (...)
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  7. Ecological Kinds and the Units of Conservation.Christopher Lean - 2018 - Dissertation, The Australian National University
    Conservation has often been conducted with the implicit internalization of Aldo Leopold’s claim: “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community.” This position has been found to be problematic as ecological science has not vindicated the ecological community as an entity which can be stable or coherent. Ecological communities do not form natural kinds, and this has forced ecological scientists to explain ecology in a different manner. Individualist approaches to ecological (...)
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  8. Many Hurdles for the Translation of Species Preservation Research: Comment on “Ethics of Species Research and Preservation” by Rob Irvine.Nancy Sturman - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):531-532.
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  9. A Viability Analysis of Fishery Controlled by Investment Rate.C. Sanogo, N. Raïssi, S. Ben Miled & C. Jerry - 2013 - Acta Biotheoretica 61 (3):341-352.
    This work presents a stock/effort model describing both harvested fish population and fishing effort dynamics. The fishing effort dynamic is controlled by investment which corresponds to the revenue proportion generated by the activity. The dynamics are subject to a set of economic and biological state constraints. The analytical study focuses on the compatibility between state constraints and controlled dynamics. By using the mathematical concept of viability kernel, we reveal situations and management options that guarantee a sustainable system.
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  10. Phylogeny, Ecology and Behaviour. By D. R. Brooks & D. A. McLennan. Pp. 434.R. I. M. Dunbar - 1992 - Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (1):139-141.
  11. Lives on the Line. Women and Ecology on a Pacific Atoll. By Alexandra Brewis. Pp. 85.Stanley J. Ulijaszek - 1999 - Journal of Biosocial Science 31 (2):285-288.
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  12. The Conceptual Ecology of the Human Microbiome.Nicolae Morar & Brendan J. M. Bohannan - 2019 - Quarterly Review of Biology 94 (2):149-175.
    It has become increasingly clear that there is a vast array of microorganisms on and in the human body, known collectively as the human microbiome. Our microbiomes are extraordinarily complex, and this complexity has been linked to human health and well-being. Given the complexity and importance of our microbiomes, we struggle with how to think about them. There is a long list of competing metaphors that we use to refer to our microbiomes, including as an “organ” containing our “second genome,” (...)
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  13. Philosophy of Ethnobiology: Understanding Knowledge Integration and Its Limitations. Journal of Ethnobiology.David Ludwig & Charbel El-Hani - 2019 - Journal of Ethnobiology 39.
    Ethnobiology has become increasingly concerned with applied and normative issues such as climate change adaptation, forest management, and sustainable agriculture. Applied ethnobiology emphasizes the practical importance of local and traditional knowledge in tackling these issues but thereby also raises complex theoretical questions about the integration of heterogeneous knowledge systems. The aim of this article is to develop a framework for addressing questions of integration through four core domains of philosophy -epistemology, ontology, value theory, and political theory. In each of these (...)
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  14. Taxonomy and conservation science: interdependent and value-laden.Stijn Conix - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (2):15.
    The relation between conservation science and taxonomy is typically seen as a simple dependency of the former on the latter. This dependency is assumed to be strictly one-way to avoid normative concerns from conservation science inappropriately affecting the descriptive discipline of taxonomy. In this paper, I argue against this widely assumed standard view on the relation between these two disciplines by highlighting two important roles for conservation scientists in scientific decisions that are part of the internal stages of taxonomy. I (...)
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  15. Do Telomeres Influence Pace‐of‐Life‐Strategies in Response to Environmental Conditions Over a Lifetime and Between Generations?Mathieu Giraudeau, Frederic Angelier & Tuul Sepp - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800162.
    The complexity of the physiological phenotype currently prevents us from identifying an integrative measure to assess how the internal state and environmental conditions modify life‐history strategies. In this article, it is proposed that shorter telomeres should lead to a faster pace‐of‐life where investment in self‐maintenance is decreased as a means of saving energy for reproduction, but at the cost of somatic durability. Inversely, longer telomeres would favor an increased investment in soma maintenance and thus a longer reproductive lifespan (i.e., slower (...)
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  16. The Rise of the Technobionts: Toward a New Ontology to Understand Current Planetary Crisis.Gustavo Magallanes Guijón & O. López-Corona - forthcoming - Researchers.One.
    Inhere we expand the concept of Holobiont to incorporate niche construction theory in order to increase our understanding of the current planetary crisis. By this, we propose a new ontology, the Ecobiont, as the basic evolutionary unit of analysis. We make the case of Homo Sapiens organized around modern cities (technobionts) as a different Ecobiont from classical Homo Sapiens (i.e. Hunter- gatherers Homo Sapiens). We consider that Ecobiont ontology helps to make visible the coupling of Homo Sapiens with other biological (...)
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  17. At the intersection of medical geography and disease ecology: Mirko Grmek, Jacques May and the concept of pathocenosis.Jon Arrizabalaga - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (4):71.
    Environmental historians are not sufficiently aware of the extent to which mid twentieth-century thinkers turned to medical geography—originally a nineteenth-century area of study—in order to think through ideas of ecology, environment, and historical reasoning. This article outlines how the French–Croatian Mirko D. Grmek, a major thinker of his generation in the history of medicine, used those ideas in his studies of historical epidemiology. During the 1960s, Grmek attempted to provide, in the context of the Annales School’s research program under the (...)
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  18. Does God Roll Dice? Neutrality and Determinism in Evolutionary Ecology.Som B. Ale, Abdel Halloway, William A. Mitchell & Christopher J. Whelan - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):3.
    A tension between perspectives that emphasize deterministic versus stochastic processes has sparked controversy in ecology since pre-Darwinian times. The most recent manifestation of the contrasting perspectives arose with Hubbell’s proposed “neutral theory”, which hypothesizes a paramount role for stochasticity in ecological community composition. Here we shall refer to the deterministic and the stochastic perspectives as the niche-based and neutral-based research programs, respectively. Our goal is to represent these perspectives in the context of Lakatos’ notion of a scientific research program. We (...)
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  19. Ecology and Infection: Studying Host-Parasite Interactions at the Interface of Biology and Medicine.Rachel Mason Dentinger & Pierre-Olivier Méthot - 2016 - Journal of the History of Biology 49 (2):231-240.
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  20. Mathematical Model of the Dynamics of Fish, Waterbirds and Tourists in the Djoudj National Park, Senegal.Abdou Sène & Oumar Diop - 2016 - Acta Biotheoretica 64 (4):447-468.
    In the present paper, we propose and analyze a harvested predator–prey model that incorporates the dynamics of tourists in the Djoudj National Park of Birds, Senegal. The model describes the impact of migration of waterbirds and seasonal fishing on the global coexistence of species in the site of the Djoudj. By the Mahwin continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we investigate the existence of a positive periodic solution. The global asymptotic stability is discussed by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional. Some (...)
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  21. Relating Traditional and Academic Ecological Knowledge: Mechanistic and Holistic Epistemologies Across Cultures.David Ludwig & Luana Poliseli - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):43.
    Current debates about the integration of traditional and academic ecological knowledge struggle with a dilemma of division and assimilation. On the one hand, the emphasis on differences between traditional and academic perspectives has been criticized as creating an artificial divide that brands TEK as “non-scientific” and contributes to its marginalization. On the other hand, there has been increased concern about inadequate assimilation of Indigenous and other traditional perspectives into scientific practices that disregards the holistic nature and values of TEK. The (...)
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  22. Permanence and Extinction of a Diffusive Predator–Prey Model with Robin Boundary Conditions.M. A. Aziz-Alaoui, M. Daher Okiye & A. Moussaoui - 2018 - Acta Biotheoretica 66 (4):367-378.
    The main concern of this paper is to study the dynamic of a predator–prey system with diffusion. It incorporates the Holling-type-II and a modified Leslie–Gower functional responses under Robin boundary conditions. More concretely, we study the dissipativeness of the system by using the comparison principle, and we derive a criteria for permanence and for predator extinction.
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  23. Theoretical Assessment of the Impact of Climatic Factors in a Vibrio Cholerae Model.G. Kolaye, I. Damakoa, S. Bowong, R. Houe & D. Békollè - 2018 - Acta Biotheoretica 66 (4):279-291.
    A mathematical model for Vibrio Cholerae (V. Cholerae) in a closed environment is considered, with the aim of investigating the impact of climatic factors which exerts a direct influence on the bacterial metabolism and on the bacterial reservoir capacity. We first propose a V. Cholerae mathematical model in a closed environment. A sensitivity analysis using the eFast method was performed to show the most important parameters of the model. After, we extend this V. cholerae model by taking account climatic factors (...)
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  24. The Ecological Virus.Maureen A. O'Malley - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 59:71-79.
    Ecology is usually described as the study of organisms interacting with one another and their environments. From this view of ecology, viruses – not usually considered to be organisms – would merely be part of the environment. Since the late 1980s, however, a growing stream of micrographic, experimental, molecular, and model-based (theoretical) research has been investigating how and why viruses should be understood as ecological actors of the most important sort. Viruses, especially phage, have been revealed as participants in the (...)
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  25. Logical Fallacies and Invasion Biology.Radu Cornel Guiaşu & Christopher W. Tindale - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):34.
    Leading invasion biologists sometimes dismiss critics and criticisms of their field by invoking “the straw man” fallacy. Critics of invasion biology are also labelled as a small group of “naysayers” or “contrarians”, who are sometimes engaging in “science denialism”. Such unfortunate labels can be seen as a way to possibly suppress legitimate debates and dismiss or minimize reasonable concerns about some aspects of invasion biology, including the uncertainties about the geographic origins and complex environmental impacts of species, and the control (...)
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  26. Correction To: Holobionts and the Ecology of Organisms: Multi-Species Communities or Integrated Individuals?Derek Skillings - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):28.
    In the original publication, the acknowledgment was published incorrectly. The correct version is given below.
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  27. Ecological Hierarchy and Biodiversity.Christopher Lean & Kim Sterelny - 2016 - In Justin Garson, Anya Plutynski & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Biodiversity. London: Routledge. pp. 56 - 68.
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  28. Book Review: Dancing with the Sacred: Ecology, Evolution, and GodDancing with the Sacred: Ecology, Evolution, and GodbyPetersKarl E.Trinity Press International, Hamsburg, 2002. 171 Pp. $15.00. ISBN 1-56338-393-4. [REVIEW]Frank R. Hensley - 2004 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 58 (1):101-102.
  29. Why Do Corals Bleach? Conflict and Conflict Mediation in a Host/Symbiont Community.Neil W. Blackstone & Jeff M. Golladay - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800021.
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  30. Ecological and Evolutionary Benefits of Temperate Phage: What Does or Doesn't Kill You Makes You Stronger.Ellie Harrison & Michael A. Brockhurst - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (12):1700112.
    Infection by a temperate phage can lead to death of the bacterial cell, but sometimes these phages integrate into the bacterial chromosome, offering the potential for a more long-lasting relationship to be established. Here we define three major ecological and evolutionary benefits of temperate phage for bacteria: as agents of horizontal gene transfer, as sources of genetic variation for evolutionary innovation, and as weapons of bacterial competition. We suggest that a coevolutionary perspective is required to understand the roles of temperate (...)
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  31. Multispecies individuals.Pierrick Bourrat & Paul E. Griffiths - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (2):33.
    We assess the arguments for recognising functionally integrated multispecies consortia as genuine biological individuals, including cases of so-called ‘holobionts’. We provide two examples in which the same core biochemical processes that sustain life are distributed across a consortium of individuals of different species. Although the same chemistry features in both examples, proponents of the holobiont as unit of evolution would recognize one of the two cases as a multispecies individual whilst they would consider the other as a compelling case of (...)
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  32. Wild Animal Suffering is Intractable.Nicolas Delon & Duncan Purves - 2018 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2):239-260.
    Most people believe that suffering is intrinsically bad. In conjunction with facts about our world and plausible moral principles, this yields a pro tanto obligation to reduce suffering. This is the intuitive starting point for the moral argument in favor of interventions to prevent wild animal suffering. If we accept the moral principle that we ought, pro tanto, to reduce the suffering of all sentient creatures, and we recognize the prevalence of suffering in the wild, then we seem committed to (...)
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  33. The Perfect Way to Write a Truly Disappointing Book: The Balance of Nature: Ecology’s Enduring Myth John Kricher Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2009.Julien Delord - 2009 - Biological Theory 4 (3):309-310.
  34. Where Animals Go: Mechanistic Home Range Analysis Paul R. Moorcraft and Mark A. Lewis Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.R. McNeill Alexander - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (4):433-434.
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  35. Reactive Oxygen Species: Radical Factors in the Evolution of Animal Life.Yannick J. Taverne, Daphne Merkus, Ad J. Bogers, Barry Halliwell, Dirk J. Duncker & Timothy W. Lyons - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (3):1700158.
    Introduction of O2 to Earth's early biosphere stimulated remarkable evolutionary adaptations, and a wide range of electron acceptors allowed diverse, energy-yielding metabolic pathways. Enzymatic reduction of O2 yielded a several-fold increase in energy production, enabling evolution of multi-cellular animal life. However, utilization of O2 also presented major challenges as O2 and many of its derived reactive oxygen species are highly toxic, possibly impeding multicellular evolution after the Great Oxidation Event. Remarkably, ROS, and especially hydrogen peroxide, seem to play a major (...)
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  36. The Coupling of Taxonomy and Function in Microbiomes.S. Andrew Inkpen, Gavin M. Douglas, T. D. P. Brunet, Karl Leuschen, W. Ford Doolittle & Morgan G. I. Langille - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1225-1243.
    Microbiologists are transitioning from the study and characterization of individual strains or species to the profiling of whole microbiomes and microbial ecology. Equipped with high-throughput methods for studying the taxonomic and functional characteristics of diverse samples, they are just beginning to encounter the conceptual, theoretical, and experimental problems of comparing taxonomy to function, and extracting useful measures from such comparisons. Although still unresolved, these problems are well studied in macro-ecology and are reiterated here as an historical precautionary for microbial ecologists. (...)
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  37. Conceptualizing Communities as Natural Entities: A Philosophical Argument with Basic and Applied Implications.David A. Steen, Kyle Barrett, Ellen Clarke & Craig Guyer - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):1019-1034.
    Recent work has suggested that conservation efforts such as restoration ecology and invasive species eradication are largely value-driven pursuits. Concurrently, changes to global climate are forcing ecologists to consider if and how collections of species will migrate, and whether or not we should be assisting such movements. Herein, we propose a philosophical framework which addresses these issues by utilizing ecological and evolutionary interrelationships to delineate individual ecological communities. Specifically, our Evolutionary Community Concept recognizes unique collections of species that interact and (...)
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  38. In Defence of Biodiversity.Joanna Burch-Brown & Alfred Archer - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):969-997.
    The concept of biodiversity has played a central role within conservation biology over the last thirty years. Precisely how it should be understood, however, is a matter of ongoing debate. In this paper we defend what we call a classic multidimensional conception of biodiversity. We begin by introducing two arguments for eliminating the concept of biodiversity from conservation biology, both of which have been put forward in a recent paper by Santana. The first argument is against the concept’s scientific usefulness. (...)
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  39. Population Cycles, Disease, and Networks of Ecological Knowledge.Susan Jones - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (2):357-391.
    Wildlife populations in the northern reaches of the globe have long been observed to fluctuate or cycle periodically, with dramatic increases followed by catastrophic crashes. Focusing on the early work of Charles S. Elton, this article analyzes how investigations into population cycles shaped the development of Anglo-American animal ecology during the 1920s–1930s. Population cycling revealed patterns that challenged ideas about the “balance” of nature; stimulated efforts to quantify population data; and brought animal ecology into conversation with intellectual debates about natural (...)
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  40. On Interdisciplinary and Such.Leigh M. Van Valen - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):255-257.
  41. From Ecological Records to Big Data: The Invention of Global Biodiversity.Vincent Devictor & Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent - 2016 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 38 (4).
    This paper is a critical assessment of the epistemological impact of the systematic quantification of nature with the accumulation of big datasets on the practice and orientation of ecological science. We examine the contents of big databases and argue that it is not just accumulated information; records are translated into digital data in a process that changes their meanings. In order to better understand what is at stake in the ‘datafication’ process, we explore the context for the emergence and quantification (...)
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  42. Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins, and Trevor Pearce Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences: Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer, 2014, Series: History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences, Vol. 4, 279 Pp, € 107,09.Antonine Nicoglou - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (2):222-224.
  43. ‘Big Science’ in the Field: Experimenting with Badgers and Bovine TB, 1995–2015.Angela Cassidy - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (3):305-325.
    Since wild badgers were first connected with outbreaks of bovine TB in UK cattle herds in the early 1970s, the question of whether to cull them to control infections in cattle has been the subject of a protracted public and policy controversy. Following the recommendation of Prof. John Krebs that a “scientifically based experimental trial” be carried out to test the effectiveness of badger culling, the Randomised Badger Culling Trial was commissioned by Government in 1998. One of the largest field (...)
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  44. Love is Like Oxygen.Neil W. Blackstone - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (2):1600257.
  45. The One Past Health Workshop: Connecting Ancient DNA and Zoonosis Research.Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer & Tobias L. Lenz - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (7):1700075.
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  46. From “Natural” to “Ecosocial Flourishing”: Evaluating Evaluative Frameworks.Thomas Crowley - 2010 - Ethics and the Environment 15 (1):69.
    "Let's go inside nature," says my host, ecophilosopher Nils Faarlund, as we walk out of his small wooden cabin and into the Norwegian countryside. Faarlund is fond of such novel turns of phrase. As we enjoy local strawberries, Faarlund muses on how our everyday language both shapes and reflects our perceptions of the world. Recognizing the power of words, he is extremely careful about the language he uses. For instance, he avoids the term "environmental philosopher" because the word "environment" already (...)
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  47. Nero's Fiddle: On Hope, Despair, and the Ecological Crisis.Andrew Fiala - 2010 - Ethics and the Environment 15 (1):51.
    We are in the midst of a global ecological crisis. And yet, like Nero, we fiddle while Rome burns. Global warming is happening. Human population is growing. Land and water supplies are used and depleted at an ever-expanding rate. Species and habitats are destroyed and biodiversity is lost. Pollution and toxic waste pile up. Despite several decades of acute awareness of these ecological problems, we have made little progress toward sustainable solutions.This points us to a somewhat paradoxical feature of political (...)
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  48. Construction Sites: How Ecology Shapes Development: Scott F. Gilbert and David Epel: Ecological Developmental Biology: The Environmental Regulation of Development, Health, and Evolution ; Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 2015, 576 Pp., $69.95 Pbk, ISBN 978-1-60535-344-9.Jessica Bolker - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (1):42-46.
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  49. Conservation Compromises: The MAB and the Legacy of the International Biological Program, 1964–1974.Simone Schleper - 2017 - Journal of the History of Biology 50 (1):133-167.
    This article looks at the International Biological Program as the predecessor of UNESCO’s well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme. It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (...)
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  50. Epigenetic-Induced Alterations in Sex-Ratios in Response to Climate Change: An Epigenetic Trap?Sofia Consuegra & Carlos M. Rodríguez López - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (10):950-958.
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