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Reidar K. Lie [27]Reidar Krummradt Lie [5]
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Reidar Lie
University of Bergen
  1.  5
    Conducting Human Challenge Studies in LMICs: A Survey of Researchers and Ethics Committee Members in Thailand.Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Pornpimon Adams, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Reidar K. Lie & David Wendler - 2019 - PLoS ONE 14 (10).
    Questions have been raised over the acceptability of conducting human challenge studies in low and middle income countries. Most of these concerns are based on theoretical considerations and there exists little data on the attitudes of stakeholders in these countries. This study examines the view of researchers and REC members in Thailand regarding the design and conduct of challenge studies in the country. A questionnaire was developed based on ethical frameworks for human challenge studies. The target respondents included those who (...)
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  2.  23
    Priority Setting in Health Care: Lessons From the Experiences of Eight Countries.Lindsay M. Sabik & Reidar K. Lie - unknown
    All health care systems face problems of justice and efficiency related to setting priorities for allocating a limited pool of resources to a population. Because many of the central issues are the same in all systems, the United States and other countries can learn from the successes and failures of countries that have explicitly addressed the question of health care priorities. We review explicit priority setting efforts in Norway, Sweden, Israel, the Netherlands, Denmark, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the (...)
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  3.  38
    Evidence-Based Medicine as an Instrument for Rational Health Policy.Nikola Biller-Andorno, Reidar K. Lie & Ruud Ter Meulen - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (3):261-275.
    This article tries to present a broad view on the values and ethicalissues that are at stake in efforts to rationalize health policy on thebasis of economic evaluations (like cost-effectiveness analysis) andrandomly controlled clinical trials. Though such a rationalization isgenerally seen as an objective and `value free' process, moral valuesoften play a hidden role, not only in the production of `evidence', butalso in the way this evidence is used in policy making. For example, thedefinition of effectiveness of medical treatment or (...)
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  4.  29
    Attitudes Towards Transfers of Human Tissue Samples Across Borders: An International Survey of Researchers and Policy Makers in Five Countries.Xinqing Zhang, Kenji Matsui, Benjamin Krohmal, Alaa Abou Zeid, Vasantha Muthuswamy, Young Mo Koo, Yoshikuni Kita & Reidar K. Lie - 2010 - BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):16-.
    Background: Sharing of tissue samples for research and disease surveillance purposes has become increasingly important. While it is clear that this is an area of intense, international controversy, there is an absence of data about what researchers themselves and those involved in the transfer of samples think about these issues, particularly in developing countries. Methods: A survey was carried out in a number of Asian countries and in Egypt to explore what researchers and others involved in research, storage and transfer (...)
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  5.  17
    Comparative Effectiveness Research: What to Do When Experts Disagree About Risks.Reidar K. Lie, Francis K. L. Chan, Christine Grady, Vincent Ng & David Wendler - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):42.
    Ethical issues related to comparative effectiveness research, or research that compares existing standards of care, have recently received considerable attention. In this paper we focus on how Ethics Review Committees should evaluate the risks of comparative effectiveness research. We discuss what has been a prominent focus in the debate about comparative effectiveness research, namely that it is justified when “nothing is known” about the comparative effectiveness of the available alternatives. We argue that this focus may be misleading. Rather, we should (...)
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  6.  13
    Obligations of Poor Countries in Ensuring Global Justice: The Case of Uganda.John Barugahare & Reidar K. Lie - unknown
    Obligations of global justice rest mainly on the global rich but also to a lesser extent on the global poor. The governments of poor countries are obliged to fulfill requirements of non-aggression, good governance and decency, along with all other requirements which facilitate the achievement of global justice. So far, obligations of poor countries seem to be taken as given yet the behavior of governments in poor countries and occurrences therein attest to the contrary;this suggests a need to mainstream these (...)
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  7.  36
    The Fair Benefits Approach Revisited.Reidar K. Lie - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (4):3-3.
    In this issue, Alex London and Kevin Zollman provide an analysis of an influential approach to the ethics of international research, known as the “fair benefits” approach. According to them, the fair benefits approach suffers from a fatal flaw: it is either too vague to be useful, or worse, is internally inconsistent. The fair benefits approach was developed based on a presentation I gave at a workshop organized in Malawi in March 2001 by the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center’s (...)
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  8.  16
    Ethics of Placebo Controlled Trials in Developing Countries.Reidar K. Lie - 1998 - Bioethics 12 (4):307–311.
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  9.  61
    Principles Versus Procedures in Making Health Care Coverage Decisions: Addressing Inevitable Conflicts.Lindsay M. Sabik & Reidar K. Lie - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (2):73-85.
    It has been suggested that focusing on procedures when setting priorities for health care avoids the conflicts that arise when attempting to agree on principles. A prominent example of this approach is “accountability for reasonableness.” We will argue that the same problem arises with procedural accounts; reasonable people will disagree about central elements in the process. We consider the procedural condition of appeal process and three examples of conflicts over coverage decisions: a patients’ rights law in Norway, health technologies coverage (...)
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  10.  27
    Aiming at a Moving Target: Research Ethics in the Context of Evolving Standards of Care and Prevention.Seema Shah & Reidar K. Lie - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):699-702.
    In rapidly evolving medical fields where the standard of care or prevention changes frequently, guidelines are increasingly likely to conflict with what participants receive in research. Although guidelines typically set the standard of care, there are some cases in which research can justifiably deviate from guidelines. When guidelines conflict with research, an ethical issue only arises if guidelines are rigorous and should be followed. Next, it is important that the cumulative evidence and the conclusions reached by the guidelines do not (...)
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  11.  82
    Following the Giant’s Paces-Governance Issues and Bioethical Reflections in China.Zhaochen Wang, Vincent H. di ZhangNg, Reidar K. Lie & Xiaomei Zhai - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):79.
    China has become a global player in the field of biosamples research and analysis of genetic data. The Beijing Genomics Institute is a genetics factory where enormous amounts of biosamples/data from all over the world are being analyzed. Most of the global bioethics discussions focused on research conducted by scientists from industrialized countries with subjects from poorer countries. Today, however, samples from industrialized nations are being analyzed in China on an unprecedented scale. This means that one should not just focus (...)
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  12.  15
    Bioethical Implications of Globalization: An International Consortium Project of the European Commission.Thomas E. Novotny, Emilio Mordini, Ruth Chadwick, J. Martin Pedersen, Fabrizio Fabbri, Reidar K. Lie, Natapong Thanachaiboot, Elias Mossialos & Govin Permanand - 2006 - PLoS Med 3 (2):e43.
    The term “globalization” was popularized by Marshall McLuhan in War and Peace in the Global Village. In the book, McLuhan described how the global media shaped current events surrounding the Vietnam War [1] and also predicted how modern information and communication technologies would accelerate world progress through trade and knowledge development. Globalization now refers to a broad range of issues regarding the movement of goods and services through trade liberalization, and the movement of people through migration. Much has also been (...)
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  13.  49
    Eugenics and Mandatory Informed Prenatal Genetic Testing: A Unique Perspective From China.Vincent H. di ZhangNg, Zhaochen Wang, Xiaomei Zhai & Reidar K. Lie - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (2):107-115.
    The application of genetic technologies in China, especially in the area of prenatal genetic testing, is rapidly increasing in China. In the wealthy regions of China, prenatal genetic testing is already very widely adopted. We argue that the government should actively promote prenatal genetic testing to the poor areas of the country. In fact, the government should prioritize resources first to make prenatal genetic testing a standard routine care with an opt-out model in these area. Healthcare professions would be required (...)
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  14.  5
    Ethical Issues in Human Germline Gene Editing: A Perspective From China.Reidar K. Lie & Di Zhang - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 36 (1-4):23-35.
    The ethical issues associated with germline gene modification and embryo research are some of the most contentious in current international science policy debates. In this paper, we argue that new genetic techniques, such as CRISPR, demonstrate that there is an urgent need for China to develop its own regulatory and ethical framework governing new developments in genetic and embryo research. While China has in place a regulatory framework, it needs to be strengthened to include better compliance oversight and explicit criteria (...)
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  15.  25
    Reassessing Diagrams of Cardiac Mechanics: From Otto Frank and Ernest Starling to Hiroyuki Suga.Johann-Peter Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Reidar K. Lie, Jochen Schaefer & Nicolaus Wilder - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (4):471-490.
    The main topic of this article is Otto Frank's forgotten notion of the pressure-volume diagram of the cardiac ventricle as a means to assess the external mechanical work of the heart. Developed by Frank at the end of the 19th century, this idea was reenvisioned as pressure-volume area about 70 to 80 years later by Hiroyuki Suga. This notion now serves as a perspective for defining cardiac contractility and thus enabling the controlled clinical application of cardiac assist devices. We begin (...)
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  16. The 'Borderzone Zone' Controversy a Study of Theory Structure in Biomedicine.Reidar Krummradt Lie - 1986 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 7 (3).
    This paper gives an account of theory structure in the biomedical sciences with particular emphasis on cardiology. Rather than regarding theories as axiomatizable sets of statements (the so-called received view), theories are regarded as answers to questions which are accepted as legitimate and interesting by scientists within a field of investigation at a given time. This account of theory structure is used to distinguish between theories which are quite liable to be revised during the course of scientific investigation, here called (...)
     
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  17.  27
    Obligations of Low Income Countries in Ensuring Equity in Global Health Financing.John Barugahare & Reidar K. Lie - unknown
    Background. Despite common recognition of joint responsibility for global health by all countries particularly to ensure justice in global health, current discussions of countries’ obligations for global health largely ignore obligations of developing countries. This is especially the case with regards to obligations relating to health financing. Bearing in mind that it is not possible to achieve justice in global health without achieving equity in health financing at both domestic and global levels, our aim is to show how fulfilling the (...)
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  18. The Use of Interval Estimators as a Basis for Decision-Making in Medicine.Reidar K. Lie - 1984 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (3).
    Decision analysts sometimes use the results of clinical trials in order to evaluate treatment alternatives. I discuss some problems associated with this, and in particular I point out that it is not valid to use the estimates from clinical trials as the probabilities of events which are needed for decision analysis. I also attempt to show that an approach based on objective statistical theory may have advantages over commonly used methods based on decision theory. These advantages include the recognition of (...)
     
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  19.  37
    An Examination and Critique of Harsanyi's Version of Utilitarianism.Reidar K. Lie - 1986 - Theory and Decision 21 (1):65-83.
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  20. Reviews. [REVIEW]Wolfgang U. Eckart, Marion Weber, Reidar Krummradt Lie & Reidar K. Lie - 1988 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 9 (3).
     
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  21. The Importance of Epistemology for Clinical Practice.Paola Cuzzani & Reidar K. Lie - 1991 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (1):87-90.
     
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  22.  18
    Understanding the Futility of Countries’ Obligations for Health Rights: Realising Justice for the Global Poor.John Barugahare & Reidar K. Lie - unknown
    Background: Although health is a right of all individuals without any distinction, the realisation of this right has remained very difficult for the marginalised populations of poor countries. Inequitable distribution of health opportunities globally is a major factor in explaining why this is the case. Whereas the Protection, Promotion and Fulfilment of the health rights of poor country citizens are a joint responsibility of both domestic and external governments, most governments flout their obligations. So far disproportionate effort has been dedicated (...)
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  23.  36
    Patterns of Theory Change in Biomedicine: A Case Study From Cardiology.Reidar K. Lie - 1991 - Synthese 89 (1):75 - 88.
    This article presents a case study from the history of cardiology, namely, the development towards the acceptance of the coronary theory of angina pectoris. I show that the arguments which were considered decisive against the theory were not answered at the time the theory was accepted. I also point out that the experimental and practical success of the theory cannot be used to support the initial choice because, in the subsequent development, the field researchers became preoccupied with new questions and (...)
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  24.  4
    Should a Country Follow WHO’s Guidelines on the Pathway to Universal Health Coverage? A Case Illustration with the Chinese Healthcare System.Chunshui Wang, Vincent H. Ng & Reidar K. Lie - 2018 - Asian Bioethics Review 10 (3):171-187.
    The WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage published a comprehensive report titled “Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage” detailing strategies that countries should adopt when moving towards providing healthcare coverage to the entire population. The report provides detailed guidelines on how to expand coverage to more people, what services should be covered, and how to prioritize these healthcare resources in achieving universal healthcare coverage. The main goal of this WHO report is to ensure (...)
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  25. Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Reidar K. Lie & John Root Stone - 1989 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 10 (3).
     
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  26. Review. [REVIEW]Reidar K. Lie - 1987 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2).
     
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  27.  9
    Ezekiel J. Emanuel.Reidar K. Lie - 2008 - In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 3.
  28.  12
    Healthy Thoughts: European Perspectives on Health Care Ethics.Reidar Krummradt Lie (ed.) - 2002 - Peeters.
    This book, edited by a team of leading European bioethicists, is in all respects an innovative publication.
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  29. The HIV Perinatal Transmission Studies and the Debate About the Revision of the Helsinki Declaration.Reidar K. Lie - 2002 - In Reidar Krummradt Lie (ed.), Healthy Thoughts: European Perspectives on Health Care Ethics. Peeters. pp. 189--206.
     
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