This study investigates the effect of socio-ecological networks on the willingness to communicate in English among Japanese people. Previous studies have shown that relational mobility, which is defined as the availability of opportunities to choose new relationship partners, positively affects the WTC in English for Japanese people. However, the network structure of the variables of relational mobility and its effects have not been revealed yet. The present study conducted network analysis with 474 Japanese university students and found the two clusters (...) that correspond to the dimensions of relational mobility in the partial correlation network. Three variables regarding opportunities to meet new people and leave current relationships positively affected the WTC in English; one had a negative effect. Centrality indices, such as nodes strength, betweenness, and closeness, revealed the centrality of several variables in the network. Bootstrapping methods showed the trustworthiness of the estimated network structure and centrality indices as well as edges and variables whose effects differed significantly from that of others. Contrary to the regression analysis results, the network analysis findings can help us understand the in-depth effect of relational mobility on the WTC in a second language, which will prove useful for intervention studies. (shrink)
q-derivatives are part of so called quantum calculus. In this paper we investigate how such derivatives can possibly be used in Itô’s lemma. This leads us to consider how such derivatives can be used in a social science setting. We conclude that in a Itô Lemma setting we cannot use a macroscopic version of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle with q-derivatives.
Die neuere Naturwissenschaft trat im 17. Jahrhundert zuerst als “Physik” auf. Man soll sich an die Gründung der modernen Dynamik von Galileo und Newton erinnern.Die methodisch-allgemeine Grundlegung dieser neuen Wissenschaft wird in der Cartesischen Philosophie am klarsten ausgedrückt.
This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 . Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that (...) samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families. (shrink)
Understanding consciousness is a truly multidisciplinary project, attracting intense interest from researchers and theorists from diverse backgrounds. Thus, we now have computational scientists, neuroscientists, and philosophers all engaged in the same effort. This book draws together the work of leading researchers around the world, providing insights from these three general perspectives. The work is highlighted by a rare look at work being conducted by Japanese researchers.
Aphasia is a language disorder that occurs after a stroke and impairs listening, speaking, reading, writing, and calculation skills. Patients with post-stroke aphasia in Japan are increasing due to population aging and the advancement of medical treatment. Opportunities for adequate speech therapy in chronic stroke are limited due to time constraints. Recent studies have reported that intensive speech therapy for a short period of time or continuous speech therapy using high-tech equipment, including speech applications regions of interest to ROI analysis (...) to determine changes in the related brain network. Two patients with chronic stroke participated in this study. They used the independent speech therapy system to perform eight sets of 20 randomly presented words/time, for 8 consecutive weeks. Their language, higher cognitive functions including attention function, and rs-fMRI, were evaluated before and after the rehabilitation intervention using the speech support app. Both patients had improved pronunciation, daily conversational situations, and attention. The rs-fMRI analysis showed increased functional connectivity of brain regions associated with language and attention related areas. Our results show that intensive speech therapy using this speech support app can improve language and attention functions even in the chronic stage of stroke, and may be a useful tool for patients with aphasia. In the future, we will conduct longitudinal studies with larger numbers of patients, which we hope will continue the trends seen in the current study, and provide even stronger evidence for the usefulness of this new speech support app. (shrink)
Drawing on theories of institutional evolution, this article contends that despite the centrality of occupationally based social insurance in postwar Korea and Taiwan, the welfare state has in fact deepened considerably. The analysis is structured around three distinct eras of social policy reform in Korea and Taiwan: the developmental state, democratic transition, and postindustrialism. The authors contend that during each of these eras, the institutional purposes of social policy were altered to meet certain socioeconomic objectives. New institutional purposes were grafted (...) onto the prevailing social insurance model, changing the outcomes of social policy. The developmental state era was productivist in purpose, democratic reform during the 1980s reoriented social insurance toward universalist and redistributive principles, and the post-1997 era refocused social insurance to meet the imperatives of flexible labor markets, demographic shifts, and economic globalization. (shrink)
This study examines Itō Jinsai’s 伊藤仁斎 criticisms of the Great Learning. Three primary sources are considered: Jinsai’s Shigi sakumon私擬策問 ; the Daigaku teihon大學定本 ; and his essay, “Daigaku wa Kōshi no isho ni arazaru no ben” 大學非孔氏之遺書辨, appended to his Gomō jigi語孟字義. The study suggests that Jinsai’s critical inclinations grew from his acceptance of Zhu Xi’s views about the value of doubt for progress in learning. The study also suggests that Jinsai’s thinking on the Great Learning had political implications derived (...) in many respects from Jinsai’s overall approach to philosophizing via analysis of words and their meanings. (shrink)
BackgroundProblematic pornography use is considered an addictive behavior, which is an important clinical issue. Despite considerable research interest in problematic pornography use worldwide, to the best of our knowledge, there are no extant studies on the subject in Japan. Therefore, despite the fact that many people in Japan use pornography, the difference between problematic and non-problematic users among Japanese people is not known.ObjectiveThis study aimed to identify the characteristics of problematic pornography use among Japanese students, to the best of our (...) knowledge. Specifically, we examined general psychopathological symptoms, sexual compulsivity, depression, anxiety, and low effortful control.MethodsThe participants were 150 college students aged 20–26 years at a university in midland Japan. An online questionnaire was administered that included items on pornography usage patterns, impaired control of pornography use, sexual compulsivity, depression, anxiety, and effortful control.ResultsMost men and approximately one-third of women used pornography at least once in the past month. Some users reported significant daily-life problems due to difficulty in controlling pornography use. Participants with impaired control of pornography use had higher depression, anxiety, and sexual compulsivity, and lower effortful control than pornography users without impaired control.ConclusionSome Japanese students reported significant daily-life problems due to impaired control of pornography use. The characteristics of individuals with impaired control are consistent with previous studies. The results of this study suggest that individuals with impaired control may have poor mental health, and that there is need for further research and development of treatment systems to manage this issue in Japan. Further research exploring a more varied sample in Japan is required to effectively examine problematic pornography use. (shrink)