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  1. Nicholas Agar (1995). Valuing Species and Valuing Individuals. Environmental Ethics 17 (4):397-415.
    My goal in this paper is to account for the value of species in terms of the value of individual organisms that make them up. Many authors have pointed to an apparent conflict between a species preservationist ethic and moral theories that place value on individuals. I argue for an account of the worth of individual organisms grounded in the representational goals of those organisms. I claim thatthis account leads to an acceptably extensive species preservationist ethic.
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  2. Arun Agrawal (1996). The Community Vs. The Market and the State: Forest Use Inuttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):1-15.
    Most writers on resource management presume that local populations, if they act in their self-interest, seldom conserve or protect natural resources without external intervention or privatization. Using the example of forest management by villagers in the Indian Himalayas, this paper argues that rural populations can often use resources sustainably and successfully, even under assumptions of self-interested rationality. Under a set of specified social and environmental conditions, conditions that prevail in large areas of the Himalayas and may also exist in other (...)
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  3. James C. Anderson (1991). Moral Planes and Intrinsic Values. Environmental Ethics 13 (1):49-58.
    In his book, Earth and Other Ethics, Christopher Stone attempts to account for the moral dimension of our lives insofar as it extends to nonhuman animals, plants, species, ecosystems, and even inanimate objects. In his effort to do this, he introduces a technical notion, the moral plane. Moral planes are defined both by the ontological commitments they make and by the governance mIes (moral maxims) that pertain to the sorts of entities included in the plane. By introducing these planes, Stone (...)
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  4. Jennifer Baker (2002). The Environmental Crisis: Understanding the Value of Nature. Environmental Ethics 24 (3):321-324.
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  5. Jennifer Bates (2003). An Inquiry Into the Nature of Environmentally Sound Thinking. Environmental Ethics 25 (2):183-197.
    Many philosophers advocate a change in our thinking in order to move beyond an anthropocentric view of the environment. In order to achieve the kind of thinking that makes for sound environmental thinking, we have to look more deeply into the nature of thought and to revise the relation between thought directed outward to the world and thought directed inwardly to thought itself. Only with such insight can we begin to think soundly about the environment. Thought exhibits a characteristic that (...)
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  6. Mark Bernstein (2006). Animal Pragmatism: Rethinking Human-Nonhuman Relationships. Environmental Ethics 28 (1):107-110.
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  7. Curl E. Braaten (1974). Caring for the Future: Where Ethics and Ecology Meet. Zygon 9 (4):311-322.
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  8. Evelyn Brister (2011). Environmental Values. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):123-125.
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  9. J. Baird Callicott (1979). Elements of an Environmental Ethic: Moral Considerability and the Biotic Community. Environmental Ethics 1 (1):71-81.
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  10. Kristian Skagen Ekeli (2004). Environmental Risks, Uncertainty and Intergenerational Ethics. Environmental Values 13 (4):421-448.
    The way our decisions and actions can affect future generations is surrounded by uncertainty. This is evident in current discussions of environmental risks related to global climate change, biotechnology and the use and storage of nuclear energy. The aim of this paper is to consider more closely how uncertainty affects our moral responsibility to future generations, and to what extent moral agents can be held responsible for activities that inflict risks on future people. It is argued that our moral responsibility (...)
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  11. Susanne Foster (2003). Colloquium 3: Aristotle on Moral Considerability. Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 18 (1):75-94.
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  12. I. T. Frolov (1974). Interaction of the Natural, Technological, and Social Sciences in Ecology. Russian Studies in Philosophy 13 (2):155-157.
    We do not usually draw conclusions and summarize the results of our round table meetings. The speakers share their ideas, divergent viewpoints are discussed, and a certain level of approach to the problems under discussion is formulated. Therefore, today I will also not attempt to draw a conclusion.
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  13. Anca Gheaus (2012). The Role of Love in Animal Ethics. Hypatia 27 (3):583-600.
    Philosophers working on animal ethics have focused, with good reason, on the wrongness of cruelty toward animals and of devaluing their lives. I argue that the theoretical resources of animal ethics are far from exhausted. Moreover, reflection on what makes animals ethically significant is relevant for thinking about the roots of morality and therefore about ethical relationships between human beings. I rely on a normative approach to animal ethics grounded in the importance of meeting needs in general and, in particular, (...)
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  14. Roger S. Gottlieb (1996). Book Review:Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. Michael E. Zimmerman. [REVIEW] Ethics 106 (3):650-.
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  15. Howard P. Kainz (1973). Philosophy and Ecology. New Scholasticism 47 (4):516-519.
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  16. Wendy Lynne Lee & Laura M. Dow (2001). Queering Ecological Feminism: Erotophobia, Commodification, Art, and Lesbian Identity. Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):1-21.
    : Utilizing examples from recent art, we critique Greta Gaard's argument that an inclusive ecofeminism must account for the role played by erotophobia in oppression. We suggest that while Gaard offers valuable insight into how fear of the erotic contributes to maintaining heteropatriarchal institutions, it fails to account for forms of oppression specific to lesbians. Moreover, Gaard's analysis unwittingly reinforces the conceptual, hence political, economic, and social invisibility of lesbians that, following Marilyn Frye, we argue is not merely consequent to (...)
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  17. Hans Schwarz (1974). The Eschatological Dimension of Ecology. Zygon 9 (4):323-338.
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  18. William O. Stephens (1994). Stoic Naturalism, Rationalism, and Ecology. Environmental Ethics 16 (3):275-286.
    Cheney’s claim that there is a subtextual affinity between ancient Stoicism and deep ecology is historically unfounded, conceptually unsupported, and misguided from a scholarly viewpoint. His criticisms of Stoic thought are thus merely ad hominem diatribe. A proper examination of the central ideas of Stoic ethics reveals the coherence and insightfulness of Stoic naturalism and rationalism. While not providing the basis for a contemporary environmental ethic, Stoicism, nonetheless, contains some very fruitful ethical concepts.
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  19. William O. Stephens (1994). Stoic Naturalism, Rationalism, and Ecology. Environmental Ethics 16 (3):275-286.
    Cheney’s claim that there is a subtextual affinity between ancient Stoicism and deep ecology is historically unfounded, conceptually unsupported, and misguided from a scholarly viewpoint. His criticisms of Stoic thought are thus merely ad hominem diatribe. A proper examination of the central ideas of Stoic ethics reveals the coherence and insightfulness of Stoic naturalism and rationalism. While not providing the basis for a contemporary environmental ethic, Stoicism, nonetheless, contains some very fruitful ethical concepts.
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  20. H. Upton (2000). BERNSTEIN, MH-On Moral Considerability. Philosophical Books 41 (3):199-200.
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  21. Mary Anne Warren (2000). Book Reviews:On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. [REVIEW] Ethics 111 (1):160-162.
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  22. Kerry H. Whiteside (2004). Beyond the Nature-Culture Dualism: The Ecology of Earth-Homeland. World Futures 60 (5 & 6):357 – 369.
    Morin's thoughts on environmental destruction flow from the perspective of a metatheorist of political ecology. His early writings emphasize the interaction of nature and culture; his "acentric" interpretations of systems theory challenge ecological theorists who overemphasize centralized programming as a remedy for destructive patterns of subsystem interaction. Morin also criticizes defenders of "sustainable development" who fail to see system-renewing potential in cultural diversity. As an environmental metatheorist, he offers not rules for a new green ethic, but a way of thinking (...)
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  23. Jeffrey S. Wicken (1989). Toward an Evolutionary Ecology of Meaning. Zygon 24 (2):153-184.
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Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis
  1. Chrisoula Andreou (2012). Add to Cart: Environmental ‘Amenities’ and Cost-Benefit Analysis. In Michael O'Rourke and Matthew H. Slater William P. Kabasenche (ed.), The Environment, vol. 9 of Topics in Contemporary Philosophy.
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  2. Crosbey Archery (2015). Indoor Air Quality - American Association. Environmental Values 1.
    furnace filters, hvac, air filtration, ac filter, lennox, airbear, carrier, electrostatic, pleated, replacement, merv ratings,.
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  3. Robin Attfield (2011). Nolt, Future Harm and Future Quality of Life. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):11-13.
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  4. Mark H. Bernstein (1998). On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  5. Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  6. Benjamin Hale (2009). What's so Moral About the Moral Hazard? Public Affairs Quarterly 23 (1):1-26.
    A "moral hazard" is a market failure most commonly associated with insurance, but also associated by extension with a wide variety of public policy scenarios, from environmental disaster relief, to corporate bailouts, to natural resource policy, to health insurance. Specifically, the term "moral hazard" describes the danger that, in the face of insurance, an agent will increase her exposure to risk. If not immediately clear, such terminology invokes a moral notion, suggesting that changing one's exposure to risk after becoming insured (...)
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  7. Benjamin Hale (2008). Takings. In Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  8. Lauren Hartzell (2011). Responsibility for Emissions: A Commentary on John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):15-17.
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  9. Avram Hiller (2011). Morally Significant Effects of Ordinary Individual Actions. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):19-21.
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  10. Marion Hourdequin & David G. Havlick (2011). Ecological Restoration in Context: Ethics and the Naturalization of Former Military Lands. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):69-89.
  11. Donald C. Hubin (1994). The Moral Justification of Benefit/Cost Analysis. Economics and Philosophy 10 (02):169-.
    Some have attempted to justify benefit/ cost analysis by appealing to a moral theory that appears to directly ground the technique. This approach is unsuccessful because the moral theory in question is wildly implausible and, even if it were correct, it would probably not endorse the unrestricted use of benefit/ cost analysis. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that a carefully restricted use of benefit/ cost analysis will be justifiable from a wide variety of plausible moral perspectives. From this, it (...)
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  12. Donald C. Hubin (1993). Book Review:Thoughtful Economic Man: Essays on Rationality, Moral Rules and Benevolence. Gay Meeks. [REVIEW] Ethics 103 (3):572-.
    Some have attempted to justify benefit/ cost analysis by appealing to a moral theory that appears to directly ground the technique. This approach is unsuccessful because the moral theory in question is wildly implausible and, even if it were correct, it would probably not endorse the unrestricted use of benefit/ cost analysis. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that a carefully restricted use of benefit/ cost analysis will be justifiable from a wide variety of plausible moral perspectives. From this, it (...)
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  13. Tersagh Ichor (2014). Molecular Characterization of Aerobic Heterohophic Bacteria Isolated From Petroleum Hydrocarbon Polluted Brackish Waters of Bodo Creeks, Rivers State Nigeria. Open Journal of Ecology 4:715-722.
    Surface water sources in the oil producing Niger Delta region of Nigeria are highly susceptible to pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons and so it is important to understand the microbial diversity of such ecosystems. Water and sediment samples were collected between April-August, 2013 from Bodo creeks and taken to Environmental Microbiology laboratory of University of Portharcourt for analysis. A total of thirty aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated ranged from 3.0 - 7.0 × 104 cfu for surface water and 1.6 - 5.6 (...)
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  14. Jason Kawall (2011). Future Harms and Current Offspring. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):23-26.
    By providing an explicit estimate of the harms caused by personal greenhouse gas emissions, John Nolt (in his “How Harmful are the Average American’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions?”) hopes to undermine tendencies to downplay these emissions and their impacts on global climate change. He estimates that an average American would be responsible for one two-billionth of the suffering or death of two billion people (over 1000 years). He treats this as equivalent to being responsible for the suffering or death of one (...)
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  15. John Nolt (2011). How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions? Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):3-10.
    It has sometimes been claimed (usually without evidence) that the harm caused by an individual's participation in a greenhouse-gas-intensive economy is negligible. Using data from several contemporary sources, this paper attempts to estimate the harm done by an average American. This estimate is crude, and further refinements are surely needed. But the upshot is that the average American is responsible, through his/her greenhouse gas emissions, for the suffering and/or deaths of one or two future people.
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  16. Jay Odenbaugh (2011). This American Life. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):27-29.
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  17. Ronald Sandler (2011). Beware of Averages: A Response to John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):31-33.
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  18. Tomasz Żuradzki (2010). Granice troski o przyszłe pokolenia. Diametros 26:206-225.
    W artykule rozważam następujący problem: czy powinniśmy przykładać taką samą wagę do interesów i dobrobytu ludzi istniejących w przyszłości, jak do interesów i dobrobytu jednostek żyjących obecnie? Staram się wykazać, że traktowanie wymiaru czasowego analogicznie do przestrzennego jest problematyczne, zarówno jeśli chodzi o wymogi moralne, jak i o zasady sprawiedliwości, którymi powinny kierować się instytucje społeczne. Analizuję problem społecznej stopy dyskontowej, a także wskazuję na ograniczenia, jakie napotyka w związku z nim konsekwencjalistyczny rachunek zysków i strat w kontekście sprawiedliwości międzypokoleniowej.
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Environmental Diversity
  1. Crosbey Archery (2015). Indoor Air Quality - American Association. Environmental Values 1.
    furnace filters, hvac, air filtration, ac filter, lennox, airbear, carrier, electrostatic, pleated, replacement, merv ratings,.
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  2. Rosangela Barcaro (1995). S. Bartolommei, Etica E Natura. Una “Rivoluzione Copernicana” in Etica?, Roma-Bari, Laterza,1995, Pp. XI-172, ISBN 8842045756. [REVIEW] Epistemologia 18:368-370.
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  3. J. Barkmann & R. Marggraf (2004). The Long-Term Protection of Biological Diversity—Lessons From Market Ethics. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):3-21.
    Economic markets are not morally free zones. Contrary to popular misconceptions, market functioning rests on the ethical principles of fairness and voluntariness. This ethical foundation can be traced back at least to moral philosopher Adam Smith, one of the founders of modern economics. In the inconspicuous form of microeconomic axioms, these moral foundations are preserved. Thus, virtually all “neo-classic” economic concepts presuppose a market ethics of fairness and voluntariness. In a world of pervasive uncertainty on the long-term development of the (...)
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  4. Saurabh Chandra (2013). Water Conservation & the National Water Policy (2012). SOCRATES 1 (1):58-79.
    Earth and every living organism on this planet require water for survival and without water there would be no life. Drinking water should be clean that means it should be free from micro-organisms, free from harmful chemical and other pollutants. Consuming unsafe drinking water may lead to several water borne diseases, and other long term and chronic health problems. Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource to protect the water environment and (...)
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  5. Sanjay Kumar Dwivedi (2013). India's Efforts in Coping the Threats of Climate Change. SOCRATES 1 (1):43-57.
    The global Climate Change has unprecedented consequences in terms of scale and severity over human life. The accumulation of greenhouse gases and CFCs has increased environmental deterioration which is called global warming. Erratic changes in weather, brutal blizzards and floods, vicious heat wave etc. are only some of the effects of climate change. But the most dangerous effect of climate change is the melting of ice caps on the poles due to which sea levels are rising dangerously and life at (...)
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  6. Gesine Schepers (2014). Protection of Biodiversity for the Sake of Science? In Dirk Lanzerath & Minou Friele (eds.), Concepts and Values in Biodiversity. Routledge. 329-348.
    Should biodiversity be protected also for the sake of science, as is sometimes suggested? I argue that it should not. First, I explain the “science argument”, as I call it, which says that biodiversity should be protected for scientific purposes, as an object of science. Second, I give reasons against this argument. I argue that the science argument contradicts our understanding of the natural sciences. In addition, I show that science does not depend on biodiversity. However, since biodiversity research depends (...)
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Intrinsic Environmental Value
  1. David Abram (2010). Becoming Animal: An Essay on Wonder. Pantheon Books.
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  2. Paweł Bernat, A Way Out From the Wrongful Environmental Mindset: The Origins and Possible Solutions to the Tragedy of the Commons. Philosophy and Practice of Sustainable Development.
    The paper indicates and discusses three phenomena identified as the main origins of the mindset responsible for the tragedy of the global commons, namely (1) Cornucopianism, (2) rationality of self-interest and egoism, and (3) the presupposed instrumental value of nature. It is demonstrated that all those theses can be philosophically and ethically dismissed and thus, the wrongful environmental mindset built around them should be rejected. It is further argued that the up-to-date solutions to the tragedy are unsatisfactory. Moreover, the tragedy (...)
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  3. Mark H. Bernstein (1998). On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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