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  1. Nicholas Agar (1995). Valuing Species and Valuing Individuals. Environmental Ethics 17 (4):397-415.
    My goal in this paper is to account for the value of species in terms of the value of individual organisms that make them up. Many authors have pointed to an apparent conflict between a species preservationist ethic and moral theories that place value on individuals. I argue for an account of the worth of individual organisms grounded in the representational goals of those organisms. I claim thatthis account leads to an acceptably extensive species preservationist ethic.
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  2. Arun Agrawal (1996). The Community Vs. The Market and the State: Forest Use Inuttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):1-15.
    Most writers on resource management presume that local populations, if they act in their self-interest, seldom conserve or protect natural resources without external intervention or privatization. Using the example of forest management by villagers in the Indian Himalayas, this paper argues that rural populations can often use resources sustainably and successfully, even under assumptions of self-interested rationality. Under a set of specified social and environmental conditions, conditions that prevail in large areas of the Himalayas and may also exist in other (...)
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  3. James C. Anderson (1991). Moral Planes and Intrinsic Values. Environmental Ethics 13 (1):49-58.
    In his book, Earth and Other Ethics, Christopher Stone attempts to account for the moral dimension of our lives insofar as it extends to nonhuman animals, plants, species, ecosystems, and even inanimate objects. In his effort to do this, he introduces a technical notion, the moral plane. Moral planes are defined both by the ontological commitments they make and by the governance mIes (moral maxims) that pertain to the sorts of entities included in the plane. By introducing these planes, Stone (...)
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  4. Jennifer Baker (2002). The Environmental Crisis: Understanding the Value of Nature. Environmental Ethics 24 (3):321-324.
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  5. Jennifer Bates (2003). An Inquiry Into the Nature of Environmentally Sound Thinking. Environmental Ethics 25 (2):183-197.
    Many philosophers advocate a change in our thinking in order to move beyond an anthropocentric view of the environment. In order to achieve the kind of thinking that makes for sound environmental thinking, we have to look more deeply into the nature of thought and to revise the relation between thought directed outward to the world and thought directed inwardly to thought itself. Only with such insight can we begin to think soundly about the environment. Thought exhibits a characteristic that (...)
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  6. Mark Bernstein (2006). Animal Pragmatism: Rethinking Human-Nonhuman Relationships. Environmental Ethics 28 (1):107-110.
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  7. Curl E. Braaten (1974). Caring for the Future: Where Ethics and Ecology Meet. Zygon 9 (4):311-322.
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  8. Evelyn Brister (2011). Environmental Values. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):123-125.
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  9. J. Baird Callicott (1979). Elements of an Environmental Ethic: Moral Considerability and the Biotic Community. Environmental Ethics 1 (1):71-81.
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  10. Kristian Skagen Ekeli (2004). Environmental Risks, Uncertainty and Intergenerational Ethics. Environmental Values 13 (4):421-448.
    The way our decisions and actions can affect future generations is surrounded by uncertainty. This is evident in current discussions of environmental risks related to global climate change, biotechnology and the use and storage of nuclear energy. The aim of this paper is to consider more closely how uncertainty affects our moral responsibility to future generations, and to what extent moral agents can be held responsible for activities that inflict risks on future people. It is argued that our moral responsibility (...)
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  11. I. T. Frolov (1974). Interaction of the Natural, Technological, and Social Sciences in Ecology. Russian Studies in Philosophy 13 (2):155-157.
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  12. Anca Gheaus (2012). The Role of Love in Animal Ethics. Hypatia 27 (3):583-600.
    Philosophers working on animal ethics have focused, with good reason, on the wrongness of cruelty toward animals and of devaluing their lives. I argue that the theoretical resources of animal ethics are far from exhausted. Moreover, reflection on what makes animals ethically significant is relevant for thinking about the roots of morality and therefore about ethical relationships between human beings. I rely on a normative approach to animal ethics grounded in the importance of meeting needs in general and, in particular, (...)
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  13. Roger S. Gottlieb (1996). Book Review:Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity. Michael E. Zimmerman. [REVIEW] Ethics 106 (3):650-.
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  14. Howard P. Kainz (1973). Philosophy and Ecology. New Scholasticism 47 (4):516-519.
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  15. Wendy Lynne Lee & Laura M. Dow (2001). Queering Ecological Feminism: Erotophobia, Commodification, Art, and Lesbian Identity. Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):1-21.
    : Utilizing examples from recent art, we critique Greta Gaard's argument that an inclusive ecofeminism must account for the role played by erotophobia in oppression. We suggest that while Gaard offers valuable insight into how fear of the erotic contributes to maintaining heteropatriarchal institutions, it fails to account for forms of oppression specific to lesbians. Moreover, Gaard's analysis unwittingly reinforces the conceptual, hence political, economic, and social invisibility of lesbians that, following Marilyn Frye, we argue is not merely consequent to (...)
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  16. Hans Schwarz (1974). The Eschatological Dimension of Ecology. Zygon 9 (4):323-338.
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  17. William O. Stephens (1994). Stoic Naturalism, Rationalism, and Ecology. Environmental Ethics 16 (3):275-286.
    Cheney’s claim that there is a subtextual affinity between ancient Stoicism and deep ecology is historically unfounded, conceptually unsupported, and misguided from a scholarly viewpoint. His criticisms of Stoic thought are thus merely ad hominem diatribe. A proper examination of the central ideas of Stoic ethics reveals the coherence and insightfulness of Stoic naturalism and rationalism. While not providing the basis for a contemporary environmental ethic, Stoicism, nonetheless, contains some very fruitful ethical concepts.
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  18. William O. Stephens (1994). Stoic Naturalism, Rationalism, and Ecology. Environmental Ethics 16 (3):275-286.
    Cheney’s claim that there is a subtextual affinity between ancient Stoicism and deep ecology is historically unfounded, conceptually unsupported, and misguided from a scholarly viewpoint. His criticisms of Stoic thought are thus merely ad hominem diatribe. A proper examination of the central ideas of Stoic ethics reveals the coherence and insightfulness of Stoic naturalism and rationalism. While not providing the basis for a contemporary environmental ethic, Stoicism, nonetheless, contains some very fruitful ethical concepts.
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  19. Mary Anne Warren (2000). Book Reviews:On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. [REVIEW] Ethics 111 (1):160-162.
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  20. Kerry H. Whiteside (2004). Beyond the Nature-Culture Dualism: The Ecology of Earth-Homeland. World Futures 60 (5 & 6):357 – 369.
    Morin's thoughts on environmental destruction flow from the perspective of a metatheorist of political ecology. His early writings emphasize the interaction of nature and culture; his "acentric" interpretations of systems theory challenge ecological theorists who overemphasize centralized programming as a remedy for destructive patterns of subsystem interaction. Morin also criticizes defenders of "sustainable development" who fail to see system-renewing potential in cultural diversity. As an environmental metatheorist, he offers not rules for a new green ethic, but a way of thinking (...)
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  21. Jeffrey S. Wicken (1989). Toward an Evolutionary Ecology of Meaning. Zygon 24 (2):153-184.
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Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis
  1. Robin Attfield (2011). Nolt, Future Harm and Future Quality of Life. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):11-13.
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  2. Mark H. Bernstein (1998). On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  3. Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  4. Benjamin Hale (2009). What's so Moral About the Moral Hazard? Public Affairs Quarterly 23 (1):1-26.
    A "moral hazard" is a market failure most commonly associated with insurance, but also associated by extension with a wide variety of public policy scenarios, from environmental disaster relief, to corporate bailouts, to natural resource policy, to health insurance. Specifically, the term "moral hazard" describes the danger that, in the face of insurance, an agent will increase her exposure to risk. If not immediately clear, such terminology invokes a moral notion, suggesting that changing one's exposure to risk after becoming insured (...)
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  5. Benjamin Hale (2008). Takings. In Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  6. Lauren Hartzell (2011). Responsibility for Emissions: A Commentary on John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):15-17.
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  7. Avram Hiller (2011). Morally Significant Effects of Ordinary Individual Actions. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):19-21.
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  8. Marion Hourdequin & David G. Havlick (2011). Ecological Restoration in Context: Ethics and the Naturalization of Former Military Lands. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):69-89.
  9. Donald C. Hubin (1994). The Moral Justification of Benefit/Cost Analysis. Economics and Philosophy 10 (02):169-.
    Some have attempted to justify benefit/ cost analysis by appealing to a moral theory that appears to directly ground the technique. This approach is unsuccessful because the moral theory in question is wildly implausible and, even if it were correct, it would probably not endorse the unrestricted use of benefit/ cost analysis. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that a carefully restricted use of benefit/ cost analysis will be justifiable from a wide variety of plausible moral perspectives. From this, it (...)
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  10. Donald C. Hubin (1993). Book Review:Thoughtful Economic Man: Essays on Rationality, Moral Rules and Benevolence. Gay Meeks. [REVIEW] Ethics 103 (3):572-.
    Some have attempted to justify benefit/ cost analysis by appealing to a moral theory that appears to directly ground the technique. This approach is unsuccessful because the moral theory in question is wildly implausible and, even if it were correct, it would probably not endorse the unrestricted use of benefit/ cost analysis. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that a carefully restricted use of benefit/ cost analysis will be justifiable from a wide variety of plausible moral perspectives. From this, it (...)
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  11. Jason Kawall (2011). Future Harms and Current Offspring. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):23-26.
    By providing an explicit estimate of the harms caused by personal greenhouse gas emissions, John Nolt (in his “How Harmful are the Average American’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions?”) hopes to undermine tendencies to downplay these emissions and their impacts on global climate change. He estimates that an average American would be responsible for one two-billionth of the suffering or death of two billion people (over 1000 years). He treats this as equivalent to being responsible for the suffering or death of one (...)
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  12. John Nolt (2011). How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions? Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):3-10.
    It has sometimes been claimed (usually without evidence) that the harm caused by an individual's participation in a greenhouse-gas-intensive economy is negligible. Using data from several contemporary sources, this paper attempts to estimate the harm done by an average American. This estimate is crude, and further refinements are surely needed. But the upshot is that the average American is responsible, through his/her greenhouse gas emissions, for the suffering and/or deaths of one or two future people.
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  13. Jay Odenbaugh (2011). This American Life. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):27-29.
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  14. Ronald Sandler (2011). Beware of Averages: A Response to John Nolt's 'How Harmful Are the Average American's Greenhouse Gas Emissions?'. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):31-33.
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  15. Tomasz Żuradzki (2010). Granice troski o przyszłe pokolenia. Diametros 26:206-225.
    W artykule rozważam następujący problem: czy powinniśmy przykładać taką samą wagę do interesów i dobrobytu ludzi istniejących w przyszłości, jak do interesów i dobrobytu jednostek żyjących obecnie? Staram się wykazać, że traktowanie wymiaru czasowego analogicznie do przestrzennego jest problematyczne, zarówno jeśli chodzi o wymogi moralne, jak i o zasady sprawiedliwości, którymi powinny kierować się instytucje społeczne. Analizuję problem społecznej stopy dyskontowej, a także wskazuję na ograniczenia, jakie napotyka w związku z nim konsekwencjalistyczny rachunek zysków i strat w kontekście sprawiedliwości międzypokoleniowej.
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Environmental Diversity
  1. J. Barkmann & R. Marggraf (2004). The Long-Term Protection of Biological Diversity—Lessons From Market Ethics. Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):3-21.
    Economic markets are not morally free zones. Contrary to popular misconceptions, market functioning rests on the ethical principles of fairness and voluntariness. This ethical foundation can be traced back at least to moral philosopher Adam Smith, one of the founders of modern economics. In the inconspicuous form of microeconomic axioms, these moral foundations are preserved. Thus, virtually all “neo-classic” economic concepts presuppose a market ethics of fairness and voluntariness. In a world of pervasive uncertainty on the long-term development of the (...)
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Intrinsic Environmental Value
  1. Mark H. Bernstein (1998). On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters. Oxford University Press.
    In this fresh and powerfully argued book, Mark Bernstein identifies the qualities that make an entity deserving of moral consideration. It is frequently assumed that only (normal) human beings count. Bernstein argues instead for "experientialism"--the view that having conscious experiences is necessary and sufficient for moral standing. He demonstrates that this position requires us to include many non-human animals in our moral realm, but not to the extent that many deep ecologists champion.
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  2. Thomas H. Birch (1993). Moral Considerability and Universal Consideration. Environmental Ethics 15 (4):313-332.
    One of the central, abiding, and unresolved questions in environmental ethics has focused on the criterion for moral considerability or practical respect. In this essay, I call that question itself into question and argue that the search for this criterion should be abandoned because (1) it presupposes the ethical legitimacy of the Western project of planetary domination, (2) the philosophical methods that are andshould be used to address the question properly involve giving consideration in a root sense to everything, (3) (...)
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  3. Andrew Brennan & Y. S. Lo (2010). Understanding Environmental Philosophy. Acumen.
    Key ideas of environmental philosophy are explained and placed in their broader cultural, religious, historical, political ad philosophical context.
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  4. Roman Briggs (2009). The Greening of Heart and Mind: A Love Story. Environmental Ethics 31 (2):155-168.
    Some environmentalists have argued that an effective ecological conscience may be rooted in a perspective that is either anthropocentric or sentiocentric. But, neither seems to have had any substantial effect on the ways in which our species treats nature. In looking to successfully awaken the ecological conscience, the focus should be on extending moral consideration to the land (wherein doing so includes all of the soils, waters, plants, animals, and the collectivity of which these things comprise) by means of coming (...)
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  5. J. Baird Callicot (1992). Rolston on Intrinsic Value: A Deconstruction. Environmental Ethics 14 (2):129-143.
    Central to Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics is the theoretical quest of most enviromnental philosophers for a defensible concept of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and nature as a whole. Rolston’s theory is similar to Paul Taylor’s in rooting intrinsic value in conation, but dissimilar in assigning value bonuses to consciousness and self-consciousness and value dividends to organic wholes andelemental nature. I argue that such a theory of intrinsic value flies in the face of the subject/object and fact/value dichotomies of (...)
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  6. J. Baird Callicott (1992). Rolston on Intrinsic Value. Environmental Ethics 14 (2):129-143.
    Central to Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics is the theoretical quest of most enviromnental philosophers for a defensible concept of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and nature as a whole. Rolston’s theory is similar to Paul Taylor’s in rooting intrinsic value in conation, but dissimilar in assigning value bonuses to consciousness and self-consciousness and value dividends to organic wholes andelemental nature. I argue that such a theory of intrinsic value flies in the face of the subject/object and fact/value dichotomies of (...)
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  7. J. Baird Callicott (1992). Rolston on Intrinsic Value. Environmental Ethics 14 (2):129-143.
    Central to Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics is the theoretical quest of most enviromnental philosophers for a defensible concept of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and nature as a whole. Rolston’s theory is similar to Paul Taylor’s in rooting intrinsic value in conation, but dissimilar in assigning value bonuses to consciousness and self-consciousness and value dividends to organic wholes andelemental nature. I argue that such a theory of intrinsic value flies in the face of the subject/object and fact/value dichotomies of (...)
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  8. Antoine C. Dussault (2013). In Search of Ecocentric Sentiments: Insights From the CAD Model in Moral Psychology. Environmental Ethics 35 (4):419-437.
    One aspect of J. Baird Callicott’s foundational project for ecocentrism consists in explaining how moral consideration for ecological wholes can be grounded in moral sentiments. Some critics of Callicott have objected that moral consideration for ecological wholes is impossible under a sentimentalist conception of ethics because, on both Hume and Smith’s views, sympathy is our main moral sentiment and it cannot be elicited by holistic entities. This conclusion is premature. The relevant question is not whether such moral consideration is compatible (...)
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  9. Richard J. Evanoff (2007). Communicative Ethics and Moral Considerability. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):247-266.
    Although nonhuman entities are indeed incapable of entering into contractual relations with humans or of participating in social dialogue on ethical norms, they can nonetheless become the objects of moral consideration on the part of humans. Moral consideration need not be extended universally to all nonnatural entities, but only to those entities with which humans interact. Rather than regard some or all of the natural world as having “intrinsic value,” considered judgments must be made regarding which parts of nature can (...)
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  10. Richard J. Evanoff (2007). Communicative Ethics and Moral Considerability. Environmental Ethics 29 (3):247-266.
    Although nonhuman entities are indeed incapable of entering into contractual relations with humans or of participating in social dialogue on ethical norms, they can nonetheless become the objects of moral consideration on the part of humans. Moral consideration need not be extended universally to all nonnatural entities, but only to those entities with which humans interact. Rather than regard some or all of the natural world as having “intrinsic value,” considered judgments must be made regarding which parts of nature can (...)
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  11. Ishtiyaque Haji (2001). On Moral Considerability. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):730-733.
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  12. Benjamin Hale (2008). Technology, the Environment, and the Moral Considerability of Artifacts. In Evan Selinger, Jan Kyrre Berg Olson & Soren Riis (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Technology. Palgrave Macmillan.
  13. Benjamin Hale (2006). The Moral Considerability of Invasive Transgenic Animals. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (4):337-366.
    The term moral considerability refers to the question of whether a being or set of beings is worthy of moral consideration. Moral considerability is most readily afforded to those beings that demonstrate the clearest relationship to rational humans, though many have also argued for and against the moral considerability of species, ecosystems, and “lesser” animals. Among these arguments there are at least two positions: “environmentalist” positions that tend to emphasize the systemic relations between species, and “liberationist” positions that tend to (...)
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