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  1. Edward Abplanalp, Background Environmental Justice: An Extension of Rawls's Political Liberalism.
    This dissertation extends John Rawls’s mature theory of justice out to address the environmental challenges that citizens of liberal democracies now face. Specifically, using Rawls’s framework of political liberalism, I piece together a theory of procedural justice to be applied to a constitutional democracy. I show how citizens of pluralistic democracies should apply this theory to environmental matters in a four stage contracting procedure. I argue that, if implemented, this extension to Rawls’s theory would secure background environmental justice. I explain (...)
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  2. Hussein M. Adam, Elizabeth Bell, Robert D. Bullard, Robert Melchior Figueroa, Clarice E. Gaylord, Segun Gbadegesin, R. J. A. Goodland, Howard McCurdy, Charles Mills, Dr Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Peter S. Wenz & Daniel C. Wigley (2001). Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Through case studies that highlight the type of information that is seldom reported in the news, Faces of Environmental Racism exposes the type and magnitude of environmental racism, both domestic and international. The essays explore the justice of current environmental practices, asking such questions as whether cost-benefit analysis is an appropriate analytic technique and whether there are alternate routes to sustainable development in the South.
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  3. Janet S. Adams, Armen Tashchian & Ted H. Shore (2001). Social Costs of Environmental Justice Associated with the Practice of Green Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 29 (3):199-211.
    This study investigated effects of codes of ethics on perceptions of ethical behavior. Respondents from companies with codes of ethics (n = 465) rated role set members (top management, supervisors, peers, subordinates, self) as more ethical and felt more encouraged and supported for ethical behavior than respondents from companies without codes (n = 301). Key aspects of the organizational climate, such as supportiveness for ethical behavior, freedom to act ethically, and satisfaction with the outcome of ethical problems were impacted by (...)
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  4. Katherine Albert (2003). [Book Review][the Environmental Justice Reader]. [REVIEW] Ethics, Place and Environment 6 (2):167-169.
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  5. Robin Attfield (2011). Schmidtz on Species Egalitarianism. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (2):139 - 141.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 2, Page 139-141, June 2011.
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  6. Wilfred Beckerman & Joanna Pasek (2001). Justice, Posterity, and the Environment. OUP Oxford.
    This volume provides a thought-provoking critique the main, existing school of environmental ethics and seeks to build a more coherent and rigorous philosophical basis for future environmental policy.
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  7. Derek Bell (2004). Environmental Justice and Rawls' Difference Principle. Environmental Ethics 26 (3):287-306.
    It is widely acknowledged that low-income and minority communities in liberal democratic societies suffer a disproportionate burden of environmental hazards. Is “environmental injustice” a necessary feature of liberal societies or is its prevalence due to the failure of existing liberal democracies to live up to liberal principles of justice? One leading version of liberalism, John Rawls’ “justice as fairness,” can be “extended” to accommodate the concerns expressed by advocates of environmental justice. Moreover, Rawlsian environmental justice has some significant advantages over (...)
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  8. Derek Bell (2004). Environmental Justice and Rawls' Difference Principle. Environmental Ethics 26 (3):287-306.
    It is widely acknowledged that low-income and minority communities in liberal democratic societies suffer a disproportionate burden of environmental hazards. Is “environmental injustice” a necessary feature of liberal societies or is its prevalence due to the failure of existing liberal democracies to live up to liberal principles of justice? One leading version of liberalism, John Rawls’ “justice as fairness,” can be “extended” to accommodate the concerns expressed by advocates of environmental justice. Moreover, Rawlsian environmental justice has some significant advantages over (...)
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  9. Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (2004). Mining in Irian Jaya: How Citizens Should Think About Environmental Justice. South Pacific Journal of Philosophy and Culture 8.
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  10. Brian Berkey (2014). State Action, State Policy, and the Doing/Allowing Distinction. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):147-149.
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  11. Keith Bosak (2010). Ecotourism as Environmental Justice? Discourse and the Politics of Scale in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. Environmental Philosophy 7 (2):49-74.
    This paper uses the case of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve to illustrate how ecotourism can be a vehicle for environmental justice. I use discourse analysis and the politics of scale to argue that an expanded notion of environmental justice does account for the myriad movements for resource rights occurring all over the world. In this case, framing the struggle through ecotourism with a focus on social justice provided local people a way to engage the mainstream environmental movement and address (...)
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  12. Michel Bourban (2014). Climate Change, Human Rights and the Problem of Motivation. de Ethica. A Journal of Philosophical, Theological and Applied Ethics 1 (1):37-52.
    In this paper, I discuss some of the human rights that are threatened by the impact of global warming and the problem of motivation to comply with the duties of climate justice. I explain in what sense human rights can be violated by climate change and try to show that there are not only moral reasons to address this problem, but also more prudential motives, which I refer to as quasi-moral and non-moral reasons. I also assess some implications of potentially (...)
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  13. Andrew Brook (2011). Spent Fuel An Extra Problem: A Canadian Initiative. Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):301 - 306.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 301-306, October 2011.
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  14. Thom Brooks, Climate Change and Negative Duties.
    It is widely accepted by the scientific community and beyond that human beings are primarily responsible for climate change and that climate change has brought with it a number of real problems. These problems include, but are not limited to, greater threats to coastal communities, greater risk of famine, and greater risk that tropical diseases may spread to new territory. In keeping with J. S. Mill's 'Harm Principle', green political theorists often respond that if we are contributing a harm to (...)
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  15. J. Baird Callicott (1989). Book Review:Environmental Justice. Peter S. Wenz. [REVIEW] Ethics 100 (1):197-.
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  16. W. S. K. Cameron (2005). Can We Afford the Tough Love of Liberals? Environmental Philosophy 2 (1):30-43.
    In two shocking articles that appeared in 1968 and 1974, Garrett Hardin argued that the population explosion was producing a “tragedy of the commons.” Since we lack an effective method of sharing common resources, the strong incentive for individuals to appropriate them selfishly would soon lead to their collapse. To mitigate this danger, Hardin proposed a “lifeboat ethic”: less populated and -polluted Western countries should deny food aid to developing nations, where it would save lives only to increase population pressure, (...)
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  17. Simon Caney (2014). Climate Change, Intergenerational Equity and the Social Discount Rate. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (4):320-342.
    Climate change is projected to have very severe impacts on future generations. Given this, any adequate response to it has to consider the nature of our obligations to future generations. This paper seeks to do that and to relate this to the way that inter-generational justice is often framed by economic analyses of climate change. To do this the paper considers three kinds of considerations that, it has been argued, should guide the kinds of actions that one generation should take (...)
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  18. Simon Caney (2014). Two Kinds of Climate Justice: Avoiding Harm and Sharing Burdens. Journal of Political Philosophy 21 (4):125-149.
  19. Simon Caney (2012). Just Emissions. Philosophy and Public Affairs 40 (4):255-300.
    This paper examines what would be a fair distribution of the right to emit greenhouse gases. It distinguishes between views that treat the distribution of this right on its own (Isolationist Views) and those that treat it in conjunction with the distribution of other goods (Integrationist Views). The most widely held view treats adopts an Isolationist approach and holds that emission rights should be distributed equally. This paper provides a critique of this 'equal per capita' view, and the isolationist assumptions (...)
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  20. Simon Caney (2011). Justice and the Duties of the Advantaged: A Defence. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (4):543-552.
    In a recent paper in this journal I argued that the distribution of the burdens involved in combating climate change should be determined by a combination of a particular version of the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) and a particular version of the Ability to Pay Principle. Carl Knight has presented three objections to my analysis. In what follows, I argue that he largely misinterprets my arguments.
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  21. Simon Caney (2009). Climate Change and the Future: Discounting for Time, Wealth, and Risk. Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (2):163-186.
    This paper examines explore the issues of intergenerational equity raised by climate change. A number of different reasons have been suggested as to why current generations may legitimately favor devoting resources to contemporaries rather than to future generations. These - either individually or jointly - challenge the case for combating climate change. In this paper, I distinguish between three different kinds of reason for favoring contemporaries. I argue that none of these arguments is persuasive. My answer in each case appeals (...)
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  22. Peter F. Cannavó (2008). Defining Environmental Justice: Theories, Movements, and Nature - by David Schlosberg. Ethics and International Affairs 22 (3):336-338.
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  23. Avner de-Shalit (2004). Book Review: Kristin Shrader-Frechette. Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. [REVIEW] Ethics and the Environment 9 (1):140-144.
  24. Avner de-Shalit (2004). Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy (Review). Ethics and the Environment 9 (1):140-144.
  25. Geert Demuijnck (2004). Environmental Free-Riding and the Limited Scope of Interactive Justice A Comment on Axel Gosseries. Ethical Perspectives 11 (1):61.
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  26. Geert Demuijnck (2004). Environmental Free-Riding and the Limited Scope of Interactive Justice. Ethical Perspectives 11 (1):61-71.
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  27. Michael D. Doan (2014). Climate Change and Complacency. Hypatia 29 (3):634-650.
    In this paper I engage interdisciplinary conversation on inaction as the dominant response to climate change, and develop an analysis of the specific phenomenon of complacency through a critical-feminist lens. I suggest that Chris Cuomo's discussion of the “insufficiency” problem and Susan Sherwin's call for a “public ethics” jointly point toward particularly promising harm-reduction strategies. I draw upon and extend their work by arguing that extant philosophical accounts of complacency are inadequate to the task of sorting out what it means (...)
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  28. Shane Epting (2015). The Limits of Environmental Remediation Protocols for Environmental Justice Cases: Lessons From Vieques, Puerto Rico. Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice 19.
    The United States Federal Government has repeatedly put the people of Vieques, Puerto Rico in harm’s way due to the injurious after-effects of air-to-ground weapons testing. Most of the harm happened during the Navy’s 70 years on the island. Yet, the harm continues today considering that aspects of the cleanup count as continued acts of environmental injustice, viewed within the context of the island’s colonial history. Usually, this harm deals with public health issues, but the remediation protocols do not account (...)
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  29. Robert Melchior Figueroa & Gordon Waitt (2010). Climb. Environmental Philosophy 7 (2):135-163.
    Recent decades have brought environmental justice studies to a much broader analysis and new areas of concern. We take this increased depth and breadth of environmental justice further by considering restorative justice, with a particular emphasis on reconciliation efforts between indigenous and non-indigenous citizens. Our focus is on the reconciliation efforts taken by the indigenous/non-indigenous jointmanagement structure of Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park. Usinga framework of restorative justice within a bivalent environmental justice approach, we consider the current management policies at the (...)
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  30. Robert Melchior Figueroa & Gordon Waitt (2008). Cracks in the Mirror: (Un)Covering the Moral Terrains of Environmental Justice at Ulu R U-Kata Tju T a National Park. Ethics, Place and Environment 11 (3):327 – 349.
    The authors' aim is to provide a more complete picture of a non-anthropocentric relational ethics by addressing the failure to account for environmental justice. They argue that environmental ethics is always more than how discourses are layered over place, by situating moral agency through the body's affective repertoire of being-in-the-world. Empirical evidence for their argument is drawn from self-reflexive accounts of young Americans travelling to Ulu r u-Kata Tju t a National Park, Northern Territory, Australia as part of a study-group. (...)
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  31. Greta Gaard (2010). Reproductive Technology, or Reproductive Justice?: An Ecofeminist, Environmental Justice Perspective on the Rhetoric of Choice. Ethics and the Environment 15 (2):103-129.
    When I opened the Minneapolis StarTribune one Sunday morning, hoping for thirty (or even ten) minutes of quiet reading before my toddler woke up, the headline “Miracles for Sale” caught my eye (2007). Introduced by a photo of a mother and baby, and followed by the story of that same happy “older” (age 36) mother who now has two children by egg donation, the article profiled a 24-year-old artist and antique dealer who feels “one of her eggs goes to waste (...)
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  32. Stephen M. Gardiner, Simon Caney, Dale Jamieson & Henry Shue (2010). Climate Ethics: Essential Readings. OUP Usa.
    This collection gathers a set of central papers from the emerging area of ethics and climate change.
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  33. James Garvey (2011). Climate Change and Causal Inefficacy: Why Go Green When It Makes No Difference? Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 69:157-174.
    Reflection on personal choices and climate change can lead to the thought that nothing an individual does can possibly make a difference to the planet’s future. So why bother going green? This is a version of the problem of causal inefficacy, and it is a particular problem for those with consequentialist leanings. Voters and vegetarians are consulted for help, and a suggestive thought about consistency is pursued. Consequentialist arguments for governmental action are shored up with reflection on consistency, and, hopefully, (...)
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  34. James Garvey (2010). Climate Change. The Philosophers' Magazine 50 (50):50-51.
    If it’s correct to think that the West does wrong by doing nothing despite having the room to reduce emissions and the capacity to do so, then it’s correct to think that we’re doing wrong too, in our everyday lives. Your emissions might be as much as 20 times more than others in the world; you might be doing as much as 20 times the damage to the planet compared to other people. The bulbs are not enough.
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  35. Axel Gosseries (1998). L'éthique environnementale aujourd'hui. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 96 (3):395-426.
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  36. Larry O. Gostin (2007). Global Climate Change: The Roberts Court and Environmental Justice. Hastings Center Report 37 (5):10-11.
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  37. Troy W. Hartley (1995). Environmental Justice: An Environmental Civil Rights Value Acceptable to All World Views. Environmental Ethics 17 (3):277-289.
    In accordance with environmental injustice, sometimes called environmental racism, minority communities are disproportionately subjected to a higher level of environmental risk than other segments of society. Growing concern over unequal environmental risk and mounting evidence of both racial and economic injustices have led to a grass-roots civil rights campaign called the environmental justice movement. The environmental ethics aspects of environmental injustice challenge narrow utilitarian views and promote Kantian rights and obligations. Nevertheless, an environmentaljustice value exists in all ethical world views, (...)
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  38. Mick Hillman (2004). The Importance of Environmental Justice in Stream Rehabilitation. Ethics, Place and Environment 7 (1 & 2):19 – 43.
    New forms of river management have emerged following widespread recognition of the environmental damage caused by attempts to harness and control rivers for navigation, consumptive water use and power generation. A dominant top-down engineering-based paradigm is being challenged by catchment-framed, ecosystem-based approaches which claim to place greater emphasis on participation and equity. However, there has been limited attention given to examining these claims, and principles of justice are frequently left unarticulated or embedded in what is still presented as an essentially (...)
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  39. Vittorio Hösle (2012). Why Does the Environmental Problem Challenge Ethics and Political Philosophy? Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):279-292.
    This essay discusses the challenges that the problem of environmental destruction represents for both ethics and political philosophy. It defends universalism as the only ethical theory capable of dealing adequately with the issue, but recognizes three limitations of it: First, its strong anthropocentrism (as in Kant); second, the meta-ethics of rational egoism (Spinoza and Hobbes); and, third, the reduction of ethics to symmetric relations in the mores of modernity. With regard to political philosophy, universalism rejects the idea that consensus is (...)
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  40. Ramona Cristina Ilea (2009). Intensive Livestock Farming: Global Trends, Increased Environmental Concerns, and Ethical Solutions. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2):153-167.
    By 2050, global livestock production is expected to double—growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector—with most of this increase taking place in the developing world. As the United Nation’s four-hundred-page report, Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options , documents, livestock production is now one of three most significant contributors to environmental problems, leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions, land degradation, water pollution, and increased health problems. The paper draws on the UN report as well as a flurry of other (...)
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  41. Christine James (2005). Sonar Technology and Shifts in Environmental Ethics. Essays in Philosophy 6 (1).
    The history of sonar technology provides a fascinating case study for philosophers of science. During the first and second World Wars, sonar technology was primarily associated with activity on the part of the sonar technicians and researchers. Usually this activity is concerned with creation of sound waves under water, as in the classic “ping and echo”. The last fifteen years have seen a shift toward passive, ambient noise “acoustic daylight imaging” sonar. Along with this shift a new relationship has begun (...)
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  42. Tvrtko Jolic (2014). Climate Change and Human Moral Enhancement. In Mladen Domazet & Dinka Marinovic Jerolimov (eds.), Sustainability Perspectives from the European Semi-periphery. Institute for Social Research 79-91.
    In this article I discuss a recent proposal according to which human beings are in need of moral enhancement by novel biomedical means in order to reduce the risk of catastrophes that could threaten the very possibility of continued human existence on this planet. I raise two objections to this proposal. The first objection claims that the idea that human beings could be morally enhanced by altering our emotional psychological inclinations, such as altruism, is misguided. In the line with Kantian (...)
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  43. Leonard Kahn (2012). Voluntary Human Engineering, Climate Change, and N-Person Prisoners Dilemmas. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (2):241 - 243.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 15, Issue 2, Page 241-243, June 2012.
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  44. Alice Kaswan, Environmental Justice and Domestic Climate Change Policy.
    This article argues that, except in California, environmental justice considerations have not received sufficient attention in climate change policy debates. It explores the environmental justice implications of emerging domestic climate change policies and provides policymakers with specific suggestions on how to integrate environmental justice concerns. The article begins by introducing the environmental justice movement and its central principles, and then explores the limited integration of environmental justice concerns in existing climate change policies. The article then clarifies existing debates about the (...)
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  45. Eric Katz (1989). Peter Wenz: Environmental Justice. Environmental Ethics 11 (3):269-275.
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  46. Robert Kirkman (2001). Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism: The Challenge of Difference for Environmentalism. Environmental Ethics 23 (1):109-110.
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  47. Robert Kirkman (2001). Environmental Justice and the New Pluralism. Environmental Ethics 23 (1):109-110.
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  48. Carl Knight (2014). Moderate Emissions Grandfathering. Environmental Values 23 (5):571-592.
    Emissions grandfathering holds that a history of emissions strengthens an agent’s claim for future emission entitlements. Though grandfathering appears to have been influential in actual emission control frameworks, it is rarely taken seriously by philosophers. This article presents an argument for thinking this an oversight. The core of the argument is that members of countries with higher historical emissions are typically burdened with higher costs when transitioning to a given lower level of emissions. According to several appealing views in political (...)
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  49. Carl Knight (2013). What is Grandfathering? Environmental Politics 22 (3):410-427.
    Emissions grandfathering maintains that prior emissions increase future emission entitlements. The view forms a large part of actual emission control frameworks, but is routinely dismissed by political theorists and applied philosophers as evidently unjust. A sympathetic theoretical reconsideration of grandfathering suggests that the most plausible version is moderate, allowing that other considerations should influence emission entitlements, and be justified on instrumental grounds. The most promising instrumental justification defends moderate grandfathering on the basis that one extra unit of emission entitlements from (...)
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  50. Carl Knight (2011). Climate Change and the Duties of the Disadvantaged: Reply to Caney. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (4):531-542.
    Discussions of where the costs of climate change adaptation and mitigation should fall often focus on the 'polluter pays principle' or the 'ability to pay principle'. Simon Caney has recently defended a 'hybrid view', which includes versions of both of these principles. This article argues that Caney's view succeeds in overcoming several shortfalls of both principles, but is nevertheless subject to three important objections: first, it does not distinguish between those emissions which are hard to avoid and those which are (...)
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