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Epistemology

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  1. Jean-Claude Gardin (1997). Le questionnement logiciste et les conflits d’interprétation. Enquête. Anthropologie, Histoire, Sociologie 5 (Débats et controverses):35-54.
    L’analyse logiciste des constructions savantes a pour but de mettre à nu leurs composantes symboliques : une base de données (observations et présuppositions) et un ensemble d’opérations de réécriture exprimant le raisonnement qui relie cette base aux thèses de la construction. Les travaux inspirés de ce programme depuis une vingtaine d’années soulèvent des questions intéressantes dans les perspectives d’une épistémologie pratique maintes fois exposées. L’étude des conflits d’interprétation y tient une large place ; elle s’apparente à l’analyse des controverses scientifiques (...)
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    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
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  2. Jean-Claude Gardin (1989). Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Semiotics: An Archaeological Perspective. Semiotica 77 (1-3):5-26.
    " The encounter of semiotics with artificial intelligence should not have surprised me: for over twenty-five years I have been teaching a course on. 'Semiotics and Computers'1 in connection with a research program that always had something to do with artificial intelligence, even before the expression was used. And yet, I must confess that I did feel surprised when I learned that a special issue of "Semiotica" was being planned on that very subject, and that I was invited to take (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

    Or:

    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
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  3. Luís Lóia (2012). Miguel RealeMiguel Reale: The Knowledge of Possibility or the Possibility of Knowledge. Cultura 29:91-98.
    Select appropriate categories:

    Or:

    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
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  4. L. P. Steffe (2010). Consequences of Rejecting Constructivism: “Hold Tight and Pedal Fast”. Commentary on Slezak's “Radical Constructivism: Epistemology, Education and Dynamite”. Constructivist Foundations 6 (1):112-119.
    Purpose: One of my goals in the paper is to investigate why realists reject radical constructivism (RC) as well as social constructivism (SC) out of hand. I shall do this by means of commenting on Peter Slezak’s critical paper, Radical Constructivism: Epistemology, Education and Dynamite. My other goal is to explore why realists condemn the use of RC and SC in science and mathematics education for no stated reason, again by means of commenting on Slezak’s paper. Method: I restrict my (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

    Or:

    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
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  5. Nico Stehr & Reiner Grundmann (eds.) (2005). Knowledge: Critical Concepts. Routledge.
    This five volume collection brings together a carefully selected array of contributions from a variety of disciplines. Featuring essays from philosophers who have investigated the foundations of knowledge, and addressing different forms of knowledge in society such as common sense and practical knowledge, this collection also discusses the role of knowledge in economic process and gives attention to the role of expert knowledge in political decision making. Including a collection of articles from the sociology of knowledge and science, the set (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

    Or:

    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list |
     
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    Export citation  
  6. Warren E. Steinkraus (1984). Berkeley, Epistemology, and Science. Idealistic Studies 14 (3):183-192.
    Select appropriate categories:

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    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
     Sociology of Science
     Judgment Aggregation
     Testimony
     Disagreement
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
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  7. Harald Stelzer (2008). Challenging Cultural Relativism From a Critical-Rationalist Ethical Perspective. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:401-407.
    This paper is based on the assumption that critical rationalism represents a middle position between absolutist and relativistic positions because it rejects all attempts of ultimate justification as well as basic relativistic claims. Even though the critical-rationalist problem-solving-approach based on the method of trial and error leads to an acknowledgment of the plurality of theories and moral standards, it must not be confused with relativism. The relativistic claims of the incommensurability of cultures and the equality of all views of the (...)
    Select appropriate categories:

    Or:

    Select a category by name

    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
     Defining Knowledge
     Varieties of Knowledge
     Theories of Knowledge
     Principles of Knowledge
     Knowledge, Miscellaneous
    Skepticism
     Varieties of Skepticism
     Replies to Skepticism
     History: Skepticism
     Skepticism, Misc
    Social Epistemology
     Epistemic Relativism
     Collective Mentality
     Collective Epistemology
     Feminist Epistemology
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Social Choice Theory
     Social Epistemology, Misc
     Trust
     Sociology of Knowledge
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  8. Nathan Stemmer (1987). The Hempel and Goodman Paradoxes: A Reply to Adler. Behaviorism 15 (2):165-166.
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  9. Stig Stenholm (2011). The Quest for Reality: Bohr and Wittgenstein, Two Complementary Views. Oxford University Press.
    The content of this book is essentially one argument. The aim of this book is to consider the breakdown of a certain world view during the twentieth century. This is mirrored in the treatment of both science and philosophy. As these form the foundation for the human position in the world, a major reorganization of the body of knowledge had to take place. Bohr and Wittgenstein have been chosen as the main actors to represent this revision. Each one had to (...)
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  10. Dermot Moran Stephen Voss (ed.) (2007). Epistemology. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy. Vol. 6. The Philosophical Society of Turkey.
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  11. Matthias Steup (2013). Is Epistemic Circularity Bad? Res Philosophica 90 (2):215-235.
    Is it possible to argue that one’s memory is reliable without using one’s memory? I argue that it is not. Since it is not, it is impossible to defend the reliability ofone’s memory without employing reasoning that is epistemically circular. Hence, if epistemic circularity is vicious, it is impossible to succeed in producing a cogent argument for the reliability of one’s memory. The same applies to any other one of one’s cognitive faculties. I further argue that, if epistemic circularity is (...)
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  12. Matthias Steup (2012). Belief Control and Intentionality. Synthese 188 (2):145-163.
    In this paper, I argue that the rejection of doxastic voluntarism is not as straightforward as its opponents take it to be. I begin with a critical examination of William Alston's defense of involuntarism and then focus on the question of whether belief is intentional.
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  13. Matthias Steup (1999). Virtues of the Mind: An Inquiry Into the Nature of Virtue and the Ethical Foundations of the Mind Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski New York: Cambridge University Press, 1966, Xvi + 365 Pp., $64.95, $19.95 Paper. [REVIEW] Dialogue 38 (03):619-.
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  14. Todd Stewart (2007). Topical Epistemologies. Metaphilosophy 38 (1):23–43.
    What is the point of developing an epistemology for a topic—for example, morality? When is it appropriate to develop the epistemology of a topic? For many topics—for example, the topic of socks—we see no need to develop a special epistemology. Under what conditions, then, does a topic deserve its own epistemology? I seek to answer these questions in this article. I provide a criterion for deciding when we are warranted in developing an epistemological theory for a topic. I briefly apply (...)
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  15. Todd Stewart (2004). Review: The Concept of Belief and Evidentialism. [REVIEW] Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):269 - 272.
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  16. S. Stich (2006). Review: Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgement. [REVIEW] Mind 115 (458):390-393.
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  17. Kenneth W. Stikkers (2003). Transaction, Development, and Capacity: Commentary on 'Toward a Transactional Theory of Decision Making'. Journal of Economic Methodology 10 (2):157-160.
    The author fundamentally agrees with Mousavi's and Garrison's criticisms of Herbert Simon's version of rational choice theory, underscoring three central points of their analysis: 1) rational choice theory's naïve assumption that consumer preferences are given and fixed, rather than transactionally formed; 2) the truncated notion of 'rationality' assumed by Simon, and other rational choice theories generally; and 3) the impoverished philosophical anthropology assumed by Simon, and the notion of homo economicus generally. The author's only significant disagreement with Mousavi and Garrison (...)
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  18. Fredrik Stjernberg (2009). Restricting Factiveness. Philosophical Studies 146 (1):29 - 48.
    In discussions of Fitch’s paradox, it is usually assumed without further argument that knowledge is factive, that if a subject knows that p, then p is true. It is argued that this common assumption is not as well-founded as it should be, and that there in fact are certain reasons to be suspicious of the unrestricted version of the factiveness claim. There are two kinds of reason for this suspicion. One is that unrestricted factiveness leads to paradoxes and unexpected results, (...)
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  19. Peter Stockinger (1990). 13 Logicist Analysis and Conceptual Inferences L'analyse Logiciste Et les Inferences Conceptuelles. In Tadeusz Buksiński (ed.), Interpretation in the Humanities. Uniwersytet Im. Adama Mickiewicza W Poznaniu. 71--284.
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  20. Peter Stockinger (1990). On Gardin's Logicist Analysis. In Tadeusz Buksiński (ed.), Interpretation in the Humanities. Uniwersytet Im. Adama Mickiewicza W Poznaniu. 284--304.
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  21. P. F. Strawson (1957). Professor Ayer's "The Problem of Knowledge". Philosophy 32 (123):302 - 314.
    Professor Ayer's new book 1 is of very great interest. All the discussion is skilful, much of it is ingenious; the arguments ramify, but never get out of control; the prose is pleasant, the presentation polished and civilized. Once before, Professor Ayer investigated the foundations of empirical knowledge; and the central topics of his new book are, to a large extent, the same as those of his earlier one. These are topics which have been much discussed since 1940. Ayer takes (...)
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  22. Avrum Stroll (1984). Some Different Ways That Things Stand Fast for Us. Grazer Philosophische Studien 22:69-89.
    Foundationalism, the idea that there is a basic kind of knowledge which is ground-level and hence beyond proof or justification, is one of the oldest themes in philosophy. It has been held by such great philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Wittgenstein and Moore inter alia\ but exactly what they mean by "foundationalism" is seldom carefully or fully articulated. This paper attempts to give such an explication. It holds that a foundationalist theory must satisfy at least nine conditions, vagueness, stratification, (...)
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  23. Avrum Stroll (1967). Epistemology. New York, Harper & Row.
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  24. Barry Stroud (2011). Epistemology, the History of Epistemology, Historical Epistemology. Erkenntnis 75 (3):495-503.
    A brief discussion of the ways in which awareness of and sensitivity to the history of philosophy can contribute to epistemology even if epistemology is understood as a distinctively philosophical and not primarily historical enterprise.
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  25. Herlinde Studer (1981). Conditions of Knowledge. Grazer Philosophische Studien 14:97-111.
    Since Edmund L. Gettier's famous paper a series of counterexamples has been raised against the traditional analysis of knowledge in terms of justified true belief. Some of these (not only Gettier-type) counterexamples can be ruled out by adding a fourth condition to the traditional account which demands a causal connection between the belief of a person and the fact the person believes. This causal connection is specified in a particular way so that counterexamples put forward against causal accounts of knowledge (...)
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  26. Karsten R. Stueber (2012). Understanding Versus Explanation? How to Think About the Distinction Between the Human and the Natural Sciences. Inquiry 55 (1):17 - 32.
    Abstract This essay will argue systematically and from a historical perspective that there is something to be said for the traditional claim that the human and natural sciences are distinct epistemic practices. Yet, in light of recent developments in contemporary philosophy of science, one has to be rather careful in utilizing the distinction between understanding and explanation for this purpose. One can only recognize the epistemic distinctiveness of the human sciences by recognizing the epistemic centrality of reenactive empathy for our (...)
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  27. David J. Stump (2003). Defending Conventions as Functionally a Priori Knowledge. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1149-1160.
    Recent defenses of a priori knowledge can be applied to the idea of conventions in science in order to indicate one important sense in which conventionalism is correct-some elements of physical theory have a unique epistemological status as a constitutive part of our physical theory. I will argue that the former a priori should be treated as empirical in a very abstract sense, but still conventional. Though actually coming closer to the Quinean position than the standard treatments of conventionalism, the (...)
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  28. Edward J. N. Stupple, Linden J. Ball & Daniel Ellis (2012). Matching Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning: Evidence for a Dual-Process Account From Response Times and Confidence Ratings. Thinking and Reasoning 19 (1):54 - 77.
    (2013). Matching bias in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a dual-process account from response times and confidence ratings. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 54-77. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2012.735622.
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  29. Nicholas L. Sturgeon (1980). Book Review. Hume's Moral Epistemology. Jonathan Harrison. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 89 (1):124-29.
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     Epistemology of Phil
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     Evidence and Proof in Law
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     Feminist Epistemology
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    Epistemic Normativity
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  30. Scott Sturgeon (1991). Truth in Epistemology. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (1):99 - 108.
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    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
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     Evidence
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     Justification
     Knowledge
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     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
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     Epistemic Relativism
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     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
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     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
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    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
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     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
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     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
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  31. Thomas Sturm (2011). Historical Epistemology or History of Epistemology? The Case of the Relation Between Perception and Judgment. Erkenntnis 75 (3):303-324.
    This essay aims to sharpen debates on the pros and cons of historical epistemology, which is now understood as a novel approach to the study of knowledge, by comparing it with the history of epistemology as traditionally pursued by philosophers. The many versions of both approaches are not always easily discernable. Yet, a reasoned comparison of certain versions can and should be made. In the first section of this article, I argue that the most interesting difference involves neither the subject (...)
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    Epistemological Sources
     The A Priori
     Intuition
     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons
     Understanding
     Warrant
     Wisdom
     Epistemological States and Properties, Misc
    Epistemological Theories
     Coherentism
     Dogmatism
     Epistemic Constructivism
     Epistemic Contextualism
     Epistemic Fallibilism
     Epistemic Internalism and Externalism
     Epistemic Relativism
     Empiricism
     Evidentialism
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Foundationalism
     Infinitism
     Pragmatic Encroachment
     Rationalism
     Reliabilism
     Virtue Epistemology
     Epistemological Theories, Misc
    Epistemology of Specific Domains
     Aesthetic Knowledge
     Epistemology of Mathematics
     Epistemology of Logic
     Epistemology of Phil
     Epistemology of Religion
     Epistemology of Specific Domains, Misc
     Evidence and Proof in Law
     Knowledge of Consciousness
     Knowledge of Language
     Modal Epistemology
     Moral Epistemology
     The Problem of Other Minds
     Self-Knowledge
    Epistemology, Miscellaneous
     Epistemic Injustice
     Epistemic Luck
     Epistemic Paradoxes
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemologies of Ignorance
     Feminist Epistemology
     Evolutionary Epistemology
     Metaepistemology
     Naturalized Epistemology
     Epistemology, General Works
     Epistemology, Misc
    Epistemic Normativity
     Doxastic Voluntarism
     Epistemic Normativity, Misc
     Epistemic Norms
     Epistemic Responsibility
     Epistemic Value
     Epistemic Virtues
     Ethics of Belief
     Norms of Assertion
    Formal Epistemology
     Belief Revision
     Causal Reasoning
     Scientific Method
     Epistemic Logic
     Formal Social Epistemology
     Formal Epistemology, Misc
     Probabilistic Reasoning
    Knowledge
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     Varieties of Skepticism
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    Social Epistemology
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  32. Joachim P. Sturmberg & Carmel M. Martin (2008). Knowing – in Medicine. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):767-770.
    In this paper we argue that knowledge in health care is a multidimensional dynamic construct, in contrast to the prevailing idea of knowledge being an objective state. Polanyi demonstrated that knowledge is personal, that knowledge is discovered, and that knowledge has explicit and tacit dimensions. Complex adaptive systems science views knowledge simultaneously as a thing and a flow, constructed as well as in constant flux. The Cynefin framework is one model to help our understanding of knowledge as a personal construct (...)
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     Memory
     Perceptual Knowledge
     Reasoning
     Self-Knowledge
     Seemings
     Testimony
     Epistemological Sources, Misc
    Epistemological States and Properties
     Belief
     The Basing Relation
     Defeat
     Entitlement
     Epistemic Possibility
     Epistemic Luck
     Evidence
     Ignorance
     Justification
     Knowledge
     Rationality
     Reasons