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Summary Indian Philosophy encompasses the systems of thought and reflection that developed on the Indian subcontinent. They include philosophical systems generally classified as orthodox (astika, from the Sanskrit asti "there is") such as Nyāya ("Rule" or "Method"), Vaiśeṣika ("Particular"), Saṃkhya ("Enumeration" or "Number"), Yoga ("Union"), Purva Mīmāṃsā (or Mīmāṃsā, "Reflection" or "Critical Investigation") and Vedanta ("conclusion of the Veda"). They are classified as orthodox because they rely on the authority of the Vedas (an ancient collection of hymns of religio-philosophical nature). In contrast, the heterodox (nāstika) systems of thought reject the authority of the Vedas and the superiority of Brahmins in matters of philosophical reflection. Besides Buddhism, the other heterodox schools include the Jainas ("Followers of Conquerors" from the Sanskrit verb ji "to conquer"), the ascetic Ājīvikas, and the physicalist Cārvākas. Given the diversity of views, theories, and systems espoused by Indian philosophers, there is no unifying thread or single characteristic that would be common to all. Although all the orthodox systems of thought profess some allegiance to the Vedas, they range widely in their interpretations of Vedic statements and pursue their speculative ventures unhindered by tradition (the acceptance of the Vedas is often just a convenient device for a philosopher to gain acceptance in orthodox circles). Among the key concepts of the Indian philosophical vocabulary are such notions of karma ("action," which addresses the moral efficiency of human actions), atman ("self," which stands for the sense of an absolute or transcendental spirit or self) and its negation in Buddhism in the doctrine of anatta ("not-self"), and mokṣa ("liberation," conceived as the highest ideal of moral and spiritual cultivation) and the similarly formed ideal of nirvāṇa ("cessation") in Buddhism. A great deal of Indian thought is concerned with establishing reliable modes of knowing (pramāṇas), such that metaphysical concerns about the nature of reality are seldom pursued apart from logical and epistemological concerns about the nature of knowledge and its sources. Indian philosophy is comparable in the range and scope of its metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical theories with Western philosophy, though Indian philosophers have also pursued problems that their Western counterparts never did. Examples include such matters as the source (utpatti) and apprehension (jñapti) of reliable cognitions (prāmāṇya). Bu there are also problems central to Western philosophy like the question of whether knowledge arises from experience or from reason, and such distinctions as that between analytic and synthetic judgments that Indian philosophers did not pursue.  
Key works Refer to the subcategories
Introductions The vast and broad scope of Indian philosophy defies an easy introduction. However, a broad surveys of key concepts, figures, and areas of Indian philosophy can be found in Potter 1970.
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  1. A. C. H. A. C. H. (1907). Reed, E. A. -Hindu Literature. [REVIEW] Mind 16:289.
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  2. Nārāyaṇa Ācārya (2008). Advaitavedānte Ānandasvarūpam. Sāmvidī Prakāśanam.
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  3. Diwakar Acharya (2014). On the Śaiva Concept of Innate Impurity (Mala) and the Function of the Rite of Initiation. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (1):9-25.
    This paper tries to trace the roots of the Śaiva Mantramārga concept of innate impurity. Since innate impurity is regarded as one of the three bonds fettering bound individual souls, this paper begins with the Pāśupata and early Śaiva views on these bonds. It examines the Buddhist logician Dharmakīrti’s criticism of the Śaiva idea that initiation removes sin, and discusses the Pāśupata concept of sin-cleansing and two different concepts of innate impurity found in two early Śaiva scriptures: the Sarvajñānottaratantra and (...)
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  4. Andrea Acri (2012). Yogasūtra 1.10, 1.21–23, and 2.9 in the Light of the Indo-Javanese Dharma Pātañjala. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (3):259-276.
    . Besides a philosophical exposition of the tenets of a form of Śaiva Siddhānta, the Dharma Pātañjala contains a long presentation of the yoga system that apparently follows the first three chapters of Patañjal’s Yogasūtra , either interweaving Sanskrit excerpts from an untraced versified version of the latter text with an Old Javanese commentary, or directly rendering into Old Javanese what appears to be an original Sanskrit commentary. Although the Old Javanese prose often bears a strong resemblance with the arrangement (...)
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  5. Hariprasāda Adhikārī (2007). Bhāratīya-Tattvamīmāṃsā. Navaśakti Prakāśana.
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  6. Swami Adiswarananda (1977). Philosophy of History, the Hindu View. In T. M. P. Mahadevan & Grace E. Cairns (eds.), Contemporary Indian Philosophers of History. World Press.
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  7. Ādiveṅkaṭayogi (2007). Brahmavinnidhiḥ =. Abhiṣekaprakāśanam.
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  8. Vishwa P. Adluri (2011). Pride and Prejudice: Orientalism and German Indology. [REVIEW] International Journal of Hindu Studies 15 (3):253-292.
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  9. Sp Agarwal (1991). Lokasamgraha and Ahimsa in The'bhagavad Gita'. Journal of Dharma 16 (3):255-268.
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  10. M. Shabbir Ahsen (2012). Iqbal's Conception of God (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (4):602-604.
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  11. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar (1961). The Concept of Freedom: An Indian Reaction. [REVIEW] Philosophy East and West 11 (3):153 - 160.
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  12. Rajam Aiyar & R. B. (1908/1973). Rambles in Vehanta. Madras,Ezhutthu Prachuram.
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  13. Ramaswami Aiyar & P. C. (1959). Fundamentals of Hindu Faith and Culture. Madras, Ganesh.
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  14. Swami Akhilananda (1948). Hindu Psychology. Its Meaning for the West. Journal of Philosophy 45 (9):251-252.
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  15. Shenkottai Avudai Akkal (2012). Transgressing Boundaries: The Advaitic Songs of Shenkottai Avudai Akkal. Zubaan.
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  16. Ashok Aklujkar (1989). Sa Bandha and Abhisa Bandha. Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
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  17. Ashok Aklujkar (1989). Sa $$Dot M$$ Bandha and Abhisa $$Dot M$$ Bandha. Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (3):299-307.
    The few abbreviations employed in the body of the article are explained in the bibliography.
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  18. A. Akumatsu (1999). The Two Kinds of Anumana in Bhartrhari's' Vakyapadiya'. Journal of Indian Philosophy 27 (1-2):17-22.
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  19. John M. Alexander & Jane Buckingham (2011). Common Good Leadership in Business Management: An Ethical Model From the Indian Tradition. Business Ethics 20 (4):317-327.
    While dominant management thinking is steered by profit maximisation, this paper proposes that sustained organisational growth can best be stimulated by attention to the common good and the capacity of corporate leaders to create commitment to the common good. The leadership thinking of Kautilya and Ashoka embodies this principle. Both offer a common good approach, emphasising the leader's moral and legal responsibility for people's welfare, the robust interaction between the business community and the state, and the importance of moral training (...)
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  20. Daud Ali (2011). Padmaśrī's Nāgarasarvasva and the World of Medieval Kāmaśāstra. Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):41-62.
    This essay focuses on a neglected and important text, the Nāgarasarvasva of Padmaśrī, as an index to the changing contours of kāmaśāstra in the early second millennium (1000-1500) CE. Focusing on a number of themes which linked Padmaśrī’s work with contemporary treatises, the essay argues that kāmaśāstra incorporated several new conceptions of the body and related para-technologies as well as elements of material and aesthetic culture which had become prominent in the cosmopolitan, courtly milieu. Rather than seeing this development as (...)
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  21. Daud Ali (2011). Rethinking the History of the Kāma World in Early India. Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (1):1-13.
    This essay introduces a special issue on the history of kāmaśāstra in medieval India. It briefly reviews the secondary scholarship on the subject from the publication of the first translations of the genre at the end of the nineteenth century. It highlights the relatively unexplored history of later kāmaśāstra, and stresses the need for contexualized and detailed studies of the many kāmaśāstra treatises produced in the second millennium CE. The introduction, and the essays that follow, also argue for an expanded (...)
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  22. N. J. Allen (2005). Bhıs Ma and Hesiod's Succession Myth'. International Journal of Hindu Studies 8 (2004).
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  23. Patrick Mc Allister (2014). Ratnakīrti and Dharmottara on the Object of Activity. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (2-3):309-326.
    This article examines two Buddhist explanations of how a conceptual cognition, whose object is a universal, can give rise to activity that leads to a particular. In both theories, that of Dharmottara and that of Ratnakīrti, this activity is due to a kind of error. A detailed investigation of how this error happens shows that there were big differences in the two underlying epistemological models.
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  24. Patrick Mc Allister (2014). Ratnakīrti and Dharmottara on the Object of Activity. Journal of Indian Philosophy 42 (2-3):309-326.
    This article examines two Buddhist explanations of how a conceptual cognition, whose object is a universal, can give rise to activity that leads to a particular. In both theories, that of Dharmottara and that of Ratnakīrti, this activity is due to a kind of error. A detailed investigation of how this error happens shows that there were big differences in the two underlying epistemological models.
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  25. Recep Alpyagil (2012). Sufism and Deconstruction: A Comparative Study of Derrida and IbnʿArabi (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (2):270-273.
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  26. Recep Alpyağil (2012). Engaging with Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: A Model of Interfaith Dialogue (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (4):604-605.
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  27. M. A. Alwar (2010). Pratyaksam: Bharatiyadarsana-Ganakayantravijnanayordrstya Samiksa. Rastriyasamskrtavidyapitham.
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  28. S. Ambirajan (1995). Human Values and Consciousness: Towards a New Social Order in the Light of Sri Aurobindo (Part II). Journal of Human Values 1 (2):249-264.
    In the first part of his paper, published in the previous issue of this journal, the author dwelt on Sri Aurobindo's social, economic, political and nationalistic writings in Aurobindo's pre-Pondicherry days . In this second part, the paper crystallizes Sri Aurobindo's ideas and writings during the four decades he spent in Pondicherry. This paper looks at Aurobindo's metaphysical search for answers to the most fundamental questions of existence. The future that Sri Aurobindo was seeking out was not a particular future (...)
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  29. S. Ambirajan (1995). Human Values and Consciousness: Towards a New Social Order in the Light of Sri Aurobindo: (Part I). Journal of Human Values 1 (1):127-138.
    In the first part of his paper, published in the previous issue of this journal, the author dwelt on Sri Aurobindo's social, economic, political and nationalistic writings in Aurobindo's pre-Pondicherry days . In this second part, the paper crystallizes Sri Aurobindo's ideas and writings during the four decades he spent in Pondicherry. This paper looks at Aurobindo's metaphysical search for answers to the most fundamental questions of existence. The future that Sri Aurobindo was seeking out was not a particular future (...)
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  30. William L. Ames (1994). Bh?Vaviveka's Praj�?Prad?Pa. Journal of Indian Philosophy 22 (2):93-135.
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  31. Mulk Raj Anand (1962). Kama Kala Some Notes on the Philosophical Basis of Hindu Erotic Sculpture. Nagel.
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  32. Amana Ānanda (2008). Jogiā More Ghara Āyo Re!: Pr̥thvīnā Mahāna Sadguru Ashṭāvakrajīnuṃ Ākharī Satya. Gūrjara Grantharatna Kāryālaya.
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  33. Ānandānubhava (2007). Padārthatattvanirṇaya. Rāṣṭrīyasaṃskr̥tasaṃsthānam.
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  34. Anantarāmadeva (2009). Vedāntatattvabodhaḥ. Caukhambhā Saṃskr̥ta Bhavana.
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  35. Joshua Anderson (2012). An Investigation of Moksha in the Advaita Vedanta of Shankara and Gaudapada. Asian Philosophy 22 (3):275-287.
    In this article, I suggest that moksha (liberation or enlightenment) in Advaita Vedanta is best understood psychologically. A psychological understanding is not only consistent with the Advaita Vedanta articulated by Shankara and Gaudapada, but avoids what will be called the problem of jivan mukti. This article will consist of three main parts. First, I will briefly discuss the metaphysics and ontology of Advaita Vedanta. Next, I will present the problem of jivan mukti, and the Advaitin response to the problem. The (...)
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  36. Joshua Anderson (2012). Sen and the Bhagavad Gita: Lessons for a Theory of Justice. Asian Philosophy 22 (1):63-74.
    In The Idea of Justice, Amartya Sen, among other things, discusses certain qualities any adequate theory of justice ought to incorporate. Two important qualities a theory of justice should account for are impartiality/objectivity and sensitivity to consequences. In order to motivate his discussion of sensitivity to consequences, Sen discusses the debate between Krishna and Arjuna from the religio-philosophical Hindu text the Bhagavad Gita. According to Sen, Arjuna represents a sensitivity to consequences while Krishna is an archetypal deontologist. In this paper (...)
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  37. Ivan Andrijanić (2015). Quotations and Commentaries in Advaita Vedānta: Some Philological Notes on Bhartṛprapañca’s “Fragments. Journal of Indian Philosophy 43 (2-3):257-276.
    The oldest preserved commentary on the Br̥hadāraṇyaka-Upaniṣad was composed by Śaṅkara. Sureśvara composed a sub-commentary on this commentary, while Ānandagiri composed commentaries both on Śaṅkara’s commentary and on Sureśvara’s sub-commentary. All these four books contain a number of passages from earlier works which are not preserved. Sureśvara and Ānandagiri attributed some of these passages to a commentator named Bhartr̥prapañca. The aim of this article is to present a philological method which will establish which of the passages might be paraphrases and (...)
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  38. Ivan Andrijanić (2011). Parallels Between Ancient Tradition of Philosophical Commentaries and Indian Vedāntic Philosophy. Filozofska Istrazivanja 31 (3):575-586.
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  39. Ivan Andrijanić (2009). Tumačenje Maitreyī-brahmane iz Brhadāranyaka-upanišadi u ranoj vedānti. Filozofska Istrazivanja 28 (3):697-714.
    Ovaj članak predstavlja tragove ranoga vedāntskog tumačenja Maitreyī-brāhmane, jednog od najpoznatijih dijelova Brhadāranyaka-upanišadi u Brahma-sūtrama, temeljnom tekstu filozofske škole vedānte. Predmet diskusije je egzegeza Maitreyī-brāhmane prema trima starodrevnim komentatorima Āśmarathyi, Audulomiu i Kāśakrtsni. Cilj je ovog rada pokazati kakve se metode tumačenja upanišadskih tekstova koriste u različitim vedāntskim školama. Također možemo vidjeti tehnike tumačenja preuzete iz pūrva-mīmāmse, škole tumačenja vedskih tekstova, koje su preoblikovane za tumačenje upanišadi. Članak također pokazuje kako filozofsko stajalište o odnosu sopstva i apsoluta služi egzegetskoj svrsi (...)
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  40. Añjanā (2006). Viveka-Cuḍāmaṇi Śaṅkara Kā Advaita Darśana. Parimala Pablikeśansa.
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  41. Annambhaṭṭa (2010). Tarkasaṅgraha of Annambhaṭṭa: English Translation with Notes. Chinmaya International Foundation Shodha Sansthan.
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  42. Annambhaṭṭa (2007). Tarkasaṅgrahaḥ: Svopajña-Dīpikāsahitaḥ. Motilāla Banārasīdāsa.
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  43. Annambhaṭṭa (2006). Tarka-Saṅgrahaḥ: Svopajñaṭīkā Tarkadīpikā Tathā Candrajasiṃhaviracita Padakr̥tya Ṭīkā Sahitaḥ ; Hindībhāṣāyām Āśā Ṭīkāsamanvitaḥ. Haṃsā Prakāśana.
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  44. Āpadeva (2004). Mīmāṃsānyāyaprakāśaḥ. Śrī Uttamūr Vīrarāghavācāryār Seṇṭineri Ṭrasṭa.
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  45. James Apple (2003). Twenty Varieties of the Samgha: A Typology of Noble Beings (ĀRya) in Indo-Tibetan Scholasticism (Part I). [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 31 (5/6):503-592.
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  46. James B. Apple (forthcoming). An Early Bka’-Gdams-Pa Madhyamaka Work Attributed to Atiśa Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna. Journal of Indian Philosophy:1-107.
    Although Atiśa is famous for his journey to Tibet and his teaching there, his teachings of Madhyamaka are not extensively commented upon in the works of known and extant indigenous Tibetan scholars. Atiśa’s Madhyamaka thought, if even discussed, is minimally acknowledged in recent modern scholarly overviews or sourcebooks on Indian Buddhist thought. The following annotated translation provides a late eleventh century Indo-Tibetan Madhyamaka teaching on the two realities attributed to Atiśa Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna entitled A General Explanation of, and Framework for Understanding, (...)
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  47. James B. Apple (2013). An Early Tibetan Commentary on Atiśa's Satyadvayāvatāra. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 41 (3):263-329.
    Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna (982–1054 c.e.), more commonly known under his honorific title of Atiśa, is a renowned figure in Tibetan Buddhist cultural memory. He is famous for coming to Tibet and revitalizing Buddhism there during the early eleventh century. Of the many works that Atiśa composed, translated, and brought to Tibet one of the most well-known was his “Entry to the Two Realities” (Satyadvayāvatāra). Recent scholarship has provided translations and Tibetan editions of this work, including Lindtner’s English translation (1981) and Ejima’s Japanese (...)
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  48. James B. Apple (2013). An Early Tibetan Commentary on Atiśa's Satyadvayāvatāra: Diplomatic Edition with Introduction and Notes. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 41 (5):501-533.
    An earlier article (Apple, J Indian Philos 41(3): 263–329, 2013) identified for the first time a brief Tibetan commentary to Atiśa Dīpaṃkaraśrījñāna’s (982–1054 c.e.) well-known “Entry to the Two Realities” (Satyadvayāvatāra) and provided an annotated translation of the work. This article provides an annotated diplomatic edition of the Tibetan commentary. The manuscript of the commentary is a facsimile reprint located in the recently published “Collected Works of the Bka’-gdams-pas” (bka’ gdams gsung ’bum). The early Tibetan commentary to Atiśa’s Satyadvayāvatāra provides (...)
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  49. Alan Arkin (1984). Halfway Through the Door: First Steps on a Path Toward Enlightenment. Harper & Row.
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  50. Latimah-Parvin Peerwani Arlington (2012). Mullā Ṣadrā and Metaphysics: Modulation of Being (Review). Philosophy East and West 62 (2):278-280.
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