Philosophy Compass

ISSN: 1747-9991

31 found

View year:

  1. Early modern women philosophers and politics: Accommodating sphere restrictions.Sandrine Bergès - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (6):e13004.
    In his Politics, Aristotle decreed that human beings needed to take part in politics to flourish, but that women, despite being human, needed to stay at home and away from politics. This paper offers an overview of how early modern women philosophers worked to makes their lives more political despite being constricted to the domestic sphere. Lucrezia Marinella argued that the home was like a small city, requiring quasi political skill to run, Cavendish believed that politics should cover the home (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Data Over Dogma: A Brief Introduction to Experimental Philosophy of Religion.Ian M. Church - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (6):1-13.
    Experimental philosophy of religion is the project of taking the tools and resources of the human sciences—especially psychology and cognitive science—and bringing them to bear on issues within philosophy of religion toward explicit philosophical ends. This paper introduces readers to experimental philosophy of religion. §1 explores the contours of experimental philosophy of religion by contrasting it with a few related fields: the psychology of religion and cognitive science of religion, on the one hand, and natural theology, on the other. §2 (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. Past materials, past minds: The philosophy of cognitive paleoanthropology.Adrian Currie, Anton Killin, Mathilde Lequin, Andra Meneganzin & Ross Pain - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (6):e13001.
    The philosophy of cognitive paleoanthropology involves three related tasks: (1) asking what inferences might be drawn from the paleontological and archaeological records to past cognition, behavior and culture; (2) constructing synthetic accounts of the evolution of distinctive hominin capacities; (3) exploring how results from cognitive paleoanthropology might inform philosophy. We introduce some distinctive cognitive paleoanthropological inferences and discuss their epistemic standing, before considering how attention to the material records and the practice of paleoanthropology can inform and transform philosophical approaches.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Symmetries and Measurements.Sebastián Murgueitio Ramírez - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (6):e13006.
    According to the orthodox view, one can appeal to the symmetries of a theory in order to show that it is impossible to measure the properties that are not invariant under such symmetries. For example, it is widely believed that the fact that boosts are symmetries of Newtonian mechanics entails that it is impossible to measure states of absolute motion in a Newtonian world (these states vary under boosts). This paper offers an overview of the various ways by which philosophers (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. Kant and Overdemandingness I: The Demandingness of Imperfect Duties.Joe Saunders, Joe Slater & Martin Sticker - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (6):e12998.
    The Overdemandingness Objection maintains that an ethical theory or principle that demands too much should be rejected, or at least moderated. Traditionally, overdemandingness is considered primarily a problem for consequentialist ethical theories. Recently, Kant and Kantian ethics have also become part of the debate. This development helps us better understand both overdemandingness and problems with Kant's ethics. In this, the first of a pair of papers, we introduce the distinction between perfect and imperfect duties as well as a framework for (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. The extended evolutionary synthesis: An integrated historical and philosophical examination.Yafeng Shan - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (6):e13002.
    Among biologists and philosophers, there is an ongoing debate over the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Some argue that our current evolutionary biology is in need of (at least) some substantial revision or nontrivial extension, while others maintain that the Modern Synthesis remains the foundational framework for evolutionary biology. It has been widely debated whether the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis provides a more promising framework than the Modern Synthesis. The nature and methodological implications of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis were (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Transformative Experience.Daniel Villiger - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (6):e13000.
    Since its publication in 2014, L. A. Paul's book Transformative Experience has sparked many discussions in philosophy and beyond. Her main argument is that experiences we have not had before can transform us epistemically (i.e., we learn something we could not learn without the experience) and personally (i.e., our point of view changes radically). This has implications for decision theory in particular, but also for other fields. The present paper provides an overview of how transformative experiences are thought to challenge (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  14
    Which is More Important? Moral Virtue or Life itself?: An Exploration of a Confucian Theme.Sihao Chew - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12973.
    This paper examines a dilemma within the Confucian tradition wherein one is forced to choose between upholding moral virtue and preserving one's own life. The mainstream view valorises and exalts the act of sacrificing one's life in order to uphold moral virtue. There are many supporters of this view, spanning across different periods, including but not limited to Confucius, Mencius, the Cheng brothers, Zhu Xi, and so on. There is, however, an opposing voice within the Confucian tradition. Wang Gen, a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Reliability in Machine Learning.Thomas Grote, Konstantin Genin & Emily Sullivan - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12974.
    Issues of reliability are claiming center-stage in the epistemology of machine learning. This paper unifies different branches in the literature and points to promising research directions, whilst also providing an accessible introduction to key concepts in statistics and machine learning – as far as they are concerned with reliability.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. Rule-Following II: Recent Work and New Puzzles.Indrek Reiland - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12976.
    ‘Rule-following’ is a name for a cluster of phenomena where we seem both guided and “normatively” constrained by something general in performing particular actions. Understanding the phenomenon is important because of its connection to meaning, representation, and content. This article gives an overview of the philosophical discussion of rule-following with emphasis on Kripke’s skeptical paradox and recent work on possible solutions. Part I of this two-part contribution was devoted to the basic issues from Wittgenstein to Kripke. Part II is about (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  12
    Recent empirical work on religious experience: New directions.Wes Skolits - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12977.
    Novel developments in neuroscience, psychology, and anthropology have spawned a thriving empirical literature on religious experience. Previous literature in the cognitive science of religion has largely ignored empirical results from these fields, focusing narrowly on results from evolutionary psychology. Additionally, it has ignored the epistemological relevance of non-paradigmatic cases of religious experience discussed in the literature from these subspecialties. In this article I submit that philosophical research on religious experience should take empirical work outside of evolutionary psychology as its primary (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  19
    How to be a perspectival pluralist.Olla Solomyak - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12980.
    The temporal, first-personal, and modal domains in metaphysics involve a range of perspectives on reality: the perspective of the present as opposed to those of other times, the perspective of one's own self as opposed to those of other subjects, and the perspective of the actual world as opposed to those of other possible worlds. In each case, we can ask about the metaphysical standing of these various perspectives with respect to one another: Is one perspective privileged above the rest? (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Corrective Duties/Corrective Justice.Giulio Fornaroli - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (3):e12968.
    In this paper, I assess critically the recent debate on corrective duties across moral and legal philosophy. Two prominent positions have emerged: the Kantian rights-based view (holding that what triggers corrections is a failure to respect others' right to freedom) and the so-called continuity view (correcting means attempting to do what one was supposed to do before). Neither position, I try to show, offers a satisfactory explanation of the ground (why correct?) and content (how to correct?) of corrective duties. In (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Mental Files.Rachel Goodman - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (3).
    The so-called ‘mental files theory’ in the philosophy of mind stems from an analogy comparing object-concepts to ‘files’, and the mind to a ‘filing system’. Though this analogy appears in philosophy of mind and language from the 1970s onward, it remains unclear to many how it should be interpreted. The central commitments of the mental files theory therefore also remain unclear. Based on influential uses of the file analogy within philosophy, I elaborate three central explanatory roles for mental files. Next, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  9
    Symmetries and Representation Forthcoming in Philosophy Compass.Geoffrey Hall & Sebastián Murgueitio Ramírez - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (3):e12971.
    It is often said in physics that if two models of a theory are related by a symmetry, then the two models provide (or could provide) two different representations of the very same situation, alike the case of two maps of different color for the very same city. It is also said that the situations represented by two models of a theory are indiscernible in some ways when the models in question are related by a symmetry of the theory, just (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  24
    Justice and Housing.Daniel Halliday & Marco Meyer - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (3):e12966.
    This article surveys various topics that link questions about housing with considerations of economic justice. Housing has received increasing attention from philosophers within the last decade. In political philosophy, some aspects of a topic attract more attention than others. Presently, philosophical reflection focuses on the value of a home; homelessness; gentrification; segregation; and spatial justice, with a substantial body of literature developing on these interconnected themes. We highlight some of the recent contributions to the field of housing justice while also (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  20
    Teaching & Learning Guide for: Objectionable Commemorations: Ethical and Political Issues.Chong-Ming Lim & Ten-Herng Lai - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (3):e12970.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Imagination as a source of empirical justification.Joshua Myers - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (3):e12969.
    Traditionally, philosophers have been skeptical that the imagination can justify beliefs about the actual world. After all, how could merely imagining something give you any reason to believe that it is true? However, within the past decade or so, a lively debate has emerged over whether the imagination can justify empirical belief and, if so, how. This paper provides a critical overview of the recent literature on the epistemology of imagination and points to avenues for future research.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. Artificial Intelligence: Arguments for Catastrophic Risk.Adam Bales, William D'Alessandro & Cameron Domenico Kirk-Giannini - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (2):e12964.
    Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has drawn attention to the technology’s transformative potential, including what some see as its prospects for causing large-scale harm. We review two influential arguments purporting to show how AI could pose catastrophic risks. The first argument — the Problem of Power-Seeking — claims that, under certain assumptions, advanced AI systems are likely to engage in dangerous power-seeking behavior in pursuit of their goals. We review reasons for thinking that AI systems might seek power, that (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  20.  6
    A Feminist and Decolonial Approach to Kinship: An Ambiguous and Ambivalent Account.Ruthanne Soohee Crapo Kim - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (2):e12961.
    This article briefly traces newer kinship studies at the edges of kinship formations and argues that a feminist, decolonial examination of kinship interrupts cultural relatedness as a capital set of social relations meant to satiate the ache to belong to or progenerate a group. Examining the coordinated relationship between kinning and de-kinning, the author exposes the suffering the social contract fails to register but reinscribes. Central to this analysis is kinship's global colonizing matrix dominated by white-heteronormative ableism that shapes and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Objectionable Commemorations: Ethical and Political Issues.Chong-Ming Lim & Ten-Herng Lai - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (2):e12963.
    The term, "objectionable commemorations”, refers to a broad category of public artefacts – such as, and especially, memorials, monuments and statues – that are regarded as morally problematic in virtue of what or whom they honour. In this regard, they are a special class of public artefacts that are subject to public contestation. In this paper, we survey the general ethical and political issues on this topic. First, we categorise the arguments on offer in the literature, concerning the objectionable nature (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22.  7
    What is Philosophy of the Geosciences?Miguel Ohnesorge & Aja Watkins - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (2):e12962.
    The philosophy of the geosciences is an emerging subfield in philosophy of science. Although past and present geoscientific disciplines differ substantially, we argue that they frequently face common epistemological and ethical problems. We survey several of these problems that have already attracted sustained philosophical interest, related to the use of measurements, data, and models to study relatively inaccessible target phenomena, responses to (epistemic) injustices, and the management of epistemic risks.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Routes to relevance: Philosophies of relevant logics.Shawn Standefer - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (2):e12965.
    Relevant logics are a family of non-classical logics characterized by the behavior of their implication connectives. Unlike some other non-classical logics, such as intuitionistic logic, there are multiple philosophical views motivating relevant logics. Further, different views seem to motivate different logics. In this article, we survey five major views motivating the adoption of relevant logics: Use Criterion, sufficiency, meaning containment, theory construction, and truthmaking. We highlight the philosophical differences as well as the different logics they support. We end with some (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Eight Arguments for First‐Person Realism.David Builes - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (1):e12959.
    According to First-Person Realism, one's own first-person perspective on the world is metaphysically privileged in some way. After clarifying First-Person Realism by reference to parallel debates in the metaphysics of modality and time, I survey eight different arguments in favor of First-Person Realism.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. The Ontology and Aesthetics of Genre.Evan Malone - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (1):e12958.
    Genres inform our appreciative practices. What it takes for a work to be a good work of comedy is different than what it takes for a work to be a good work of horror, and a failure to recognize this will lead to a failure to appreciate comedies or works of horror particularly well. Likewise, it is not uncommon to hear people say that a film or novel is a good work, but not a good work of x (where x (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. Rule-Following I: The Basic Issues.Indrek Reiland - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (1):e12900.
    ‘Rule-following’ is a name for a cluster of phenomena where we seem both guided and “normatively” constrained by something general in performing particular actions. Understanding the phenomenon is important because of its connection to meaning, representation, and content. This article gives an overview of the philosophical discussion of rule-following with emphasis on Kripke’s skeptical paradox and recent work on possible solutions. Part I of this two-part contribution is devoted to the basic issues from Wittgenstein to Kripke. Part II will be (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  27.  23
    Proportionality in Causation, Part II: Applications and Challenges.Ezra Rubenstein - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (1):e12960.
    In ‘Proportionality in Causation, Part I: Theories’, I presented various ways of understanding the idea that causes which are ‘proportional’ to their effects are in some sense preferable. In this companion article, I discuss the principal applications of the resulting theories of proportionality, and the challenges they face.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  28.  22
    Proportionality in Causation, Part I: Theories.Ezra Rubenstein - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (1):e12957.
    A much-discussed idea in the causation literature is that it is preferable to invoke causes which are proportional to—neither too general nor too specific for—the effect. This article presents various ways of understanding this idea. In what sense are such causal claims ‘preferable’? And what is it for one event to be ‘proportional’ to another? In a companion article, ‘Proportionality in Causation, Part II: Applications and Challenges’, I discuss the principal applications of the resulting theories of proportionality, and the challenges (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29.  40
    Meritocracy in the Political and Economic Spheres.Benjamin Sachs-Cobbe & Alexander Douglas - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (1):e12955.
    The idea that our economic institutions should be designed meritocratically is back as a hot topic in western academic circles. At the same time political meritocracy is once again a subject of philosophical discussion, with some Western philosophers embracing epistocracy and Confucianism being revived among Eastern philosophers. This survey has the ambition, first, of putting differing strands of this literature into dialogue with each other: the economic with the political, and the Western with the Eastern. Second, we seek here to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30.  40
    Predictive coding I: Introduction.Mark Sprevak - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (1):e12950.
    Predictive coding – sometimes also known as ‘predictive processing’, ‘free energy minimisation’, or ‘prediction error minimisation’ – claims to offer a complete, unified theory of cognition that stretches all the way from cellular biology to phenomenology. However, the exact content of the view, and how it might achieve its ambitions, is not clear. This series of articles examines predictive coding and attempts to identify its key commitments and justification. The present article begins by focusing on possible confounds with predictive coding: (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  31. Symmetries and Representation.Sebastián Murgueitio Ramírez & Geoffrey Hall - 2024 - Philosophy Compass.
    It is often said in physics that if two models of a theory are related by a symmetry, then the two models provide (or could provide) two different representations of the very same situation, alike the case of two maps of different color for the very same city. It is also said that the situations represented by two models of a theory are indiscernible in some ways when the models in question are related by a symmetry of the theory, just (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues