Results for 'Mark J. Pallen'

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  1.  5
    The ‘Annie Hypothesis': Did the Death of His Daughter Cause Darwin to ‘Give Up Christianity’?John Van Wyhe & Mark J. Pallen - 2012 - Centaurus 54 (2):105-123.
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  2.  22
    The Rough Guide to Evolution.Mark J. Pallen - 2009 - Rough Guides.
    Presents an introduction to evolutionary theory and describes the impact of the works and ideas of Charles Darwin have had on science and society.
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  3.  36
    Engelhardt, H. Tristram Jr., and Mark J. Cherry, Eds. Allocating Scarce Medical Resources: Roman Catholic Perspectives. [REVIEW]Mark J. Seitz - 2003 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):417-418.
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  4.  18
    Medicalization in Psychiatry: The Medical Model, Descriptive Diagnosis, and Lost Knowledge.Mark J. Sedler - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (2):247-252.
    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the “atheoretical” (...)
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  5.  37
    Kidney for Sale by Owner.Mark J. Cherry - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):171-187.
    This paper defends an in principle understanding of the authority of persons over themselves and, in consequence, argues for significant limits on morally permissible state authority. It also defends an account of the limits of permissible state action that distinguishes between the ability of persons to convey authority to common projects and what may be judged virtuous, good, safe, or proper to do. In terms of organ transplantation policy, it concludes that it is morally acceptable, and should be legally permissible, (...)
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  6.  39
    State-Dependent Utilities.Mark J. Schervish, Teddy Seidenfeld & Joseph B. Kadane - unknown
    Several axiom systems for preference among acts lead to a unique probability and a state-independent utility such that acts are ranked according to their expected utilities. These axioms have been used as a foundation for Bayesian decision theory and subjective probability calculus. In this article we note that the uniqueness of the probability is relative to the choice of whatcounts as a constant outcome. Although it is sometimes clear what should be considered constant, in many cases there are several possible (...)
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  7.  46
    Informed Consent in Texas: Theory and Practice.Mark J. Cherry & H. Tristram Engelhardt - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (2):237 – 252.
    The legal basis of informed consent in Texas may on first examination suggest an unqualified affirmation of persons as the source of authority over themselves. This view of individuals in the practice of informed consent tends to present persons outside of any social context in general and outside of their families in particular. The actual functioning of law and medical practice in Texas, however, is far more complex. This study begins with a brief overview of the roots of Texas law (...)
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  8.  32
    Gapping as Constituent Coordination.Mark J. Steedman - 1990 - Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (2):207 - 263.
  9.  48
    The Institutional Review Board is an Impediment to Human Research: The Result is More Animal-Based Research.Mark J. Rice - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:12.
    Biomedical research today can be generally classified as human-based or nonhuman animal-based, each with separate and distinct review boards that must approve research protocols. Researchers wishing to work with humans or human tissues have become frustrated by the required burdensome approval panel, the Institutional Review Board. However, scientists have found it is much easier to work with the animal-based research review board, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Consequently, animals are used for investigations even when scientists believe these studies (...)
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  10.  12
    Contested Organ Harvesting From the Newly Deceased: First Person Assent, Presumed Consent, and Familial Authority.Mark J. Cherry - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (5):603-620.
    Organ procurement policy from the recently deceased recasts families into gatekeepers of a scarce medical resource. To the frustration of organ procurement teams, families do not always authorize organ donation. As a result, efforts to increase the number of organs available for transplantation often seek to limit the authority of families to refuse organ retrieval. For example, in some locales if a deceased family member has satisfied the legal conditions for first-person prior assent, a much looser and easier standard to (...)
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  11.  7
    Organ Vouchers and Barter Markets: Saving Lives, Reducing Suffering, and Trading in Human Organs.Mark J. Cherry - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (5):503-517.
    The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification (...)
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  12.  18
    F.C.S. Schiller and the Dawn of Pragmatism: The Rhetoric of a Philosophical Rebel.Mark J. Porrovecchio - 2011 - Lexington Books.
    Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller was the foremost first generation British pragmatist; he is also the most overlooked pragmatist. F. C. S. Schiller and the Dawn of Pragmatism: The Rhetoric of a Philosophical Rebel, by Mark J. Porrovecchio, provides the first comprehensive examination of his philosophical career, examining the rhetorical practices that gave rise to his pragmatic humanism and the ways those strategies led to his erasure from the intellectual history of pragmatism.
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  13. The Goals of Medicine the Forgotten Issue in Health Care Reform.Mark J. Hanson & Daniel Callahan - 1999
     
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  14. Ecologism: Towards Ecological Citizenship.Mark J. Smith - 1998 - University of Minnesota Press.
     
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  15.  4
    Designing Health Care: A Community Health Science Solution for Reducing Health Disparities by Integrating Social Determinants and the Effects of Place.Mark J. DeHaven, Nora A. Gimpel, Daniel Gutierrez, Heather Kitzman‐Carmichael & Keri Revens - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (5):1564-1572.
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  16.  86
    A Rate of Incoherence Applied to Fixed-Level Testing.Mark J. Schervish, Teddy Seidenfeld & Joseph B. Kadane - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S248-S264.
    It has long been known that the practice of testing all hypotheses at the same level , regardless of the distribution of the data, is not consistent with Bayesian expected utility maximization. According to de Finetti’s “Dutch Book” argument, procedures that are not consistent with expected utility maximization are incoherent and they lead to gambles that are sure to lose no matter what happens. In this paper, we use a method to measure the rate at which incoherent procedures are sure (...)
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  17.  27
    Re-Thinking the Role of the Family in Medical Decision-Making.Mark J. Cherry - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (4):451-472.
    This paper challenges the foundational claim that the human family is no more than a social construction. It advances the position that the family is a central category of experience, being, and knowledge. Throughout, the analysis argues for the centrality of the family for human flourishing and, consequently, for the importance of sustaining family-oriented practices within social policy, such as more family-oriented approaches to consent to medical treatment. Where individually oriented approaches to medical decision-making accent an ethos of isolated personal (...)
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  18.  18
    Adolescents Lack Sufficient Maturity to Consent to Medical Research.Mark J. Cherry - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (3):307-317.
    This study explores the ways in which adolescents, even so-called “mature minors”, lack adequate development of the intellectual, affective, and emotional capacities necessary morally to consent to medical research on their own behalf. The psychological and neurophysiological data regarding brain maturation supports the conclusion that adolescents are qualitatively different types of agents than mature adults. They lack full adult maturity and personal agency. As a result, in addition to the usual requirements for IRB approval, one or both parents, or a (...)
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  19.  44
    Sex, Abortion, and Infanticide: The Gulf Between the Secular and the Divine: Articles.Mark J. Cherry - 2011 - Christian Bioethics 17 (1):25-46.
    This paper critically explores key aspects of the gulf between traditional Christian bioethics and the secular moral reflections that dominate contemporary bioethics. For example, in contrast to traditional Christian morality, the established secular bioethics judges extramarital sex acts among consenting persons, whether of the same or different sexes, as at least morally permissible, affirms sexual freedom for children to develop their own sexual identity, and holds the easy availability of abortion and infanticide as central to the liberty interests of women. (...)
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  20.  14
    Two Measures of Incoherence: How Not to Gamble If You Must.Mark J. Schervish, Teddy Seidenfeld & Joseph B. Kadane - unknown
    The degree of incoherence, when previsions are not made in accordance with a probability measure, is measured by either of two rates at which an incoherent bookie can be made a sure loser. Each bet is considered as an investment from the points of view of both the bookie and a gambler who takes the bet. From each viewpoint, we define an amount invested (or escrowed) for each bet, and the sure loss of incoherent previsions is divided by the escrow (...)
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  21.  25
    Informed Consent: The Decisional Standing of Families.Mark J. Cherry & Ruiping Fan - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (4):363-370.
  22.  9
    Created in the Image of God: Bioethical Implications of the Imago Dei.Mark J. Cherry - 2017 - Christian Bioethics 23 (3):219-233.
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  23. Coherent Choice Functions Under Uncertainty.Teddy Seidenfeld, Mark J. Schervish & Joseph B. Kadane - 2010 - Synthese 172 (1):157-176.
    We discuss several features of coherent choice functions —where the admissible options in a decision problem are exactly those that maximize expected utility for some probability/utility pair in fixed set S of probability/utility pairs. In this paper we consider, primarily, normal form decision problems under uncertainty—where only the probability component of S is indeterminate and utility for two privileged outcomes is determinate. Coherent choice distinguishes between each pair of sets of probabilities regardless the “shape” or “connectedness” of the sets of (...)
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  24.  2
    Multimorbidity, Chronic Disease, and Community Health Science.Mark J. DeHaven - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (1):219-221.
  25.  6
    Is Language Production Planning Emergent From Action Planning? A Preliminary Investigation.Mark J. Koranda, Federica Bulgarelli, Daniel J. Weiss & Maryellen C. MacDonald - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  26.  8
    Family-Based Consent to Organ Transplantation: A Cross-Cultural Exploration.Mark J. Cherry, Ruiping Fan & Kelly Kate Evans - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (5):521-533.
    This special thematic issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy brings together a cross-cultural set of scholars from Asia, Europe, and North America critically to explore foundational questions of familial authority and the implications of such findings for organ procurement policies designed to increase access to transplantation. The substantial disparity between the available supply of human organs and demand for organ transplantation creates significant pressure to manipulate public policy to increase organ procurement. As the articles in this issue explore, (...)
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  27.  61
    Physician-Assisted Suicide and Voluntary Euthanasia: How Not to Die as a Christian.Mark J. Cherry - 2018 - Christian Bioethics 24 (1):1-16.
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  28.  25
    Climate Change From a Distance: An Analysis of Construal Level and Psychological Distance From Climate Change.Susie Wang, Mark J. Hurlstone, Zoe Leviston, Iain Walker & Carmen Lawrence - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  29. About de Re Belief.Mark J. Pastin - 1974 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 34 (4):569-575.
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  30.  29
    Forecasting with Imprecise Probabilities.Teddy Seidenfeld, Mark J. Schervish & Joseph B. Kadane - unknown
    We review de Finetti’s two coherence criteria for determinate probabilities: coherence1defined in terms of previsions for a set of events that are undominated by the status quo – previsions immune to a sure-loss – and coherence2 defined in terms of forecasts for events undominated in Brier score by a rival forecast. We propose a criterion of IP-coherence2 based on a generalization of Brier score for IP-forecasts that uses 1-sided, lower and upper, probability forecasts. However, whereas Brier score is a strictly (...)
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  31. The Unity of the Virtues and the Degeneration of Kallipolis.Mark J. Boone - 2011 - Apeiron 44 (2):131-146.
    Each of the degenerating constitutions in Book VIII of Plato's Republic is the result of the disappearance of one of the four cardinal virtues. The failure of wisdom creates a timocracy; the failure of courage, an oligarchy; the failure of moderation, a democracy; the failure of justice, a tyranny. The degeneration shows that the disunited virtues are imperfect, though they have some power to stave off vice. Thus Book VIII implies a unity of the virtues thesis according to which perfect (...)
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  32.  38
    The Effect of Exchange Rates on Statistical Decisions.Mark J. Schervish, Teddy Seidenfeld & Joseph B. Kadane - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (4):504-532.
    Statistical decision theory, whether based on Bayesian principles or other concepts such as minimax or admissibility, relies on minimizing expected loss or maximizing expected utility. Loss and utility functions are generally treated as unit-less numerical measures of value for consequences. Here, we address the issue of the units in which loss and utility are settled and the implications that those units have on the rankings of potential decisions. When multiple currencies are available for paying the loss, one must take explicit (...)
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  33.  12
    Dominating Countably Many Forecasts.Mark J. Schervish, Teddy Seidenfeld & Joseph B. Kadane - unknown
    We investigate differences between a simple Dominance Principle applied to sums of fair prices for variables and dominance applied to sums of forecasts for variables scored by proper scoring rules. In particular, we consider differences when fair prices and forecasts correspond to finitely additive expectations and dominance is applied with infinitely many prices and/or forecasts.
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  34.  58
    Traversing Boundaries: Clinical Ethics, Moral Experience, and the Withdrawal of Life Supports.Mark J. Bliton & Stuart G. Finder - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (3):233-258.
    While many have suggested that to withdraw medical interventions is ethically equivalent to withholding them, the moral complexity of actually withdrawing life supportive interventions from a patient cannot be ignored. Utilizing interplay between expository and narrative styles, and drawing upon our experiences with patients, families, nurses, and physicians when life supports have been withdrawn, we explore the changeable character of boundaries in end-of-life situations. We consider ways in which boundaries imply differences – for example, between cognition and performance – and (...)
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  35.  39
    Ethics Talk; Talking Ethics: An Example of Clinical Ethics Consultation. [REVIEW]Mark J. Bliton - 1999 - Human Studies 22 (1):7-24.
    This written account of a clinical encounter - depicting fragments of a more extensive array of events - attempts to exemplify many facets and associated complexities of clinical ethics consultation. Within the general telling, I provide more detailed portrayals of several key events. In secion 1, I document briefly my initial interactions at the beginning of the consultation, focusing on the information gained - in the context of those interactions - as I read the medical chart of Mrs. Rose. Next (...)
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  36.  36
    A Rate of Incoherence Applied to Fixed‐Level Testing.Mark J. Schervish, Teddy Seidenfeld & Joseph B. Kadane - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S248-S264.
    It has long been known that the practice of testing all hypotheses at the same level , regardless of the distribution of the data, is not consistent with Bayesian expected utility maximization. According to de Finetti’s “Dutch Book” argument, procedures that are not consistent with expected utility maximization are incoherent and they lead to gambles that are sure to lose no matter what happens. In this paper, we use a method to measure the rate at which incoherent procedures are sure (...)
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  37. A Conflict Between Finite Additivity and Avoiding Dutch Book.Teddy Seidenfeld & Mark J. Schervish - 1983 - Philosophy of Science 50 (3):398-412.
    For Savage (1954) as for de Finetti (1974), the existence of subjective (personal) probability is a consequence of the normative theory of preference. (De Finetti achieves the reduction of belief to desire with his generalized Dutch-Book argument for Previsions.) Both Savage and de Finetti rebel against legislating countable additivity for subjective probability. They require merely that probability be finitely additive. Simultaneously, they insist that their theories of preference are weak, accommodating all but self-defeating desires. In this paper we dispute these (...)
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  38.  21
    Thought Experiments in Physics Education: A Simple and Practical Example.Mark J. Lattery - 2001 - Science & Education 10 (5):485-492.
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  39.  19
    Biotechnology and Commodification Within Health Care.Mark J. Hanson - 1999 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (3):267 – 287.
    The biotechnology industry's intellectual property claims contribute to a subtle but not insignificant encroachment of commodification within health care. Drawing on the conceptual framework of Margaret Jane Radin, I argue that patent claims on human biological materials may commodify that with which our personhood and individuality is intertwined but that such commodification is broad and incomplete. Patents on nonhuman biological organisms contribute to a more materialistic understanding of them but do not significantly change our relationship to them. The systemic effects (...)
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  40.  90
    Hart and Raz on the Non-Instrumental Moral Value of the Rule of Law: A Reconsideration. [REVIEW]Mark J. Bennett - 2011 - Law and Philosophy 30 (5):603-635.
    HLA Hart and Joseph Raz are usually interpreted as being fundamentally opposed to Lon Fuller’s argument in The Morality of Law that the principles of the rule of law are of moral value. Hart and Raz are thought to make the ‘instrumental objection’, which says that these principles are of no moral value because they are actually principles derived from reflection on how to best allow the law to guide behaviour. Recently, many theorists have come to Fuller’s defence against Hart (...)
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  41.  43
    Non-Conglomerability for Countably Additive Measures That Are Not Κ-Additive.Teddy Seidenfeld, Mark J. Schervish & Joseph B. Kadane - 2014 - Review of Symbolic Logic 10 (2):284-300.
    Let κ be an uncountable cardinal. Using the theory of conditional probability associated with de Finetti and Dubins, subject to several structural assumptions for creating sufficiently many measurable sets, and assuming that κ is not a weakly inaccessible cardinal, we show that each probability that is not κ-­additive has conditional probabilities that fail to be conglomerable in a partition of cardinality no greater than κ. This generalizes our result, where we established that each finite but not countably additive probability has (...)
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  42.  84
    Barrett and Arntzenius's Infinite Decision Puzzle.Mark J. Machina - 2000 - Theory and Decision 49 (3):291-295.
    The Barrett and Arntzenius (1999) decision paradox involves unbounded wealth, the relationship between period-wise and sequence-wise dominance, and an infinite-period split-minute setting. A version of their paradox involving bounded (in fact, constant) wealth decisions is presented, along with a version involving no decisions at all. The common source of paradox in Barrett–Arntzenius and these other examples is the indeterminacy of their infinite-period split-minute setting.
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  43.  33
    Growing Edges of Just War Theory: Jus Ante Bellum, Jus Post Bellum, and Imperfect Justice.Mark J. Allman & Tobias L. Winright - 2012 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 32 (2):173-191.
    This essay addresses two growing edges of the just war tradition. First, theorists have been accused of focusing narrowly on justifying war and governing its conduct, neglecting wider considerations that encompass justice during the years prior to and after war. Second, calling a war "just" allegedly makes it seem "good" so that it is easier to fight a war and to bend or set aside the rules. Based on "imperfect justice," we argue for a "justified" war theory, taking all criteria (...)
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  44.  32
    Conscience Clauses, the Refusal to Treat, and Civil Disobedience—Practicing Medicine as a Christian in a Hostile Secular Moral Space.Mark J. Cherry - 2012 - Christian Bioethics 18 (1):1-14.
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  45.  6
    Publishing Research With Undergraduate Students Via Replication Work: The Collaborative Replications and Education Project.Jordan R. Wagge, Mark J. Brandt, Ljiljana B. Lazarevic, Nicole Legate, Cody Christopherson, Brady Wiggins & Jon E. Grahe - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
  46.  34
    Territories of Knowledge: The Deterritorialization and Reterritorialization of the Social Sciences.Mark J. Smith - 2005 - International Studies in Philosophy 37 (2):159-180.
  47. The Market and Medical Innovation: Human Passions and Medical Advancement.Mark J. Cherry - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (6):555 – 569.
  48.  37
    The Eclipse of the Individual in Policy.Mark J. Bliton & Stuart G. Finder - 1996 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (4):519.
    Several inquires about healthcare over the past several decades have shown that the evolution of healthcare practices exhibit their own microcosm of local and political influences. Likewise, other studies have shown clearly the ways in which both external and internal institutional factors establish the sectors within which healthcare is delivered. Although restrictions have always been present in some form, it seems obvious that whatever the precise form of healthcare delivery that results from current changes in its organization, there are going (...)
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  49. Is a Market in Human Organs Necessarily Exploitative?Mark J. Cherry - 2000 - Public Affairs Quarterly 14 (4):337--360.
    Creation of for-profit markets in organs for transplantation ignites in many deep moral repugnance. Proposals to broker organs have been denounced by the US Congress and professional groups alike. Financial incentives are believed to undermine consent, coercing the poor into selling their organs, violating human dignity, and improperly commodifying the human body; such concerns are held to trump the possibility of increasing life-sustaining transplants. While such views summarize the apparent global consensus which marks worldwide prohibition of the sale of human (...)
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  50.  35
    Strange, but Not Stranger: The Peculiar Visage of Philosophy in Clinical Ethics Consultation. [REVIEW]Mark J. Bliton & Stuart G. Finder - 1999 - Human Studies 22 (1):69-97.
    Baylis, Tomlinson, and Hoffmaster each raise a number of critiques in response to Bliton's manuscript. In response, we focus on three themes we believe run through each of their critiques. The first is the ambiguity between the role of ethics consultation within an institution and the role of the actual ethics consultant in a particular situation, as well as the resulting confusion when these roles are conflated. We explore this theme by revisiting the question of What's going on? in clinical (...)
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