Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) was one of the greatest physicists of the past century. He played a leading role in the development of modern physics and was known for his ruthless intellectual integrity. Pauli first became famed through the publication of his encyclopaedia article on the theory of relativity (Pauli, 1921) when he was still a student of Sommerfeld's. Einstein much admired this article, which remained a classic.
There is hardly another principle in physics with wider scope of applicability and more far-reaching consequences than Pauli's exclusion principle. This book explores the principle's origin in the atomic spectroscopy of the early 1920s, its subsequent embedding into quantum mechanics, and later experimental validation with the development of quantum chromodynamics. The reconstruction of this crucial historic episode provides an excellent foil to reconsider Kuhn's view on incommensurability. The author defends the prospective rationality of the revolutionary transition from the old (...) to the new quantum theory around 1925 by focusing on the way Pauli's principle emerged as a phenomenological rule 'deduced' from some anomalous phenomena and theoretical assumptions of the old quantum theory. The subsequent process of validation is historically reconstructed and analysed within the framework of 'dynamic Kantianism'. (shrink)
This article analyses an episode in the earlyhistory of quantum theory: the controversy betweenPauli and Heisenberg about the anomalous Zeemaneffect, which was a main stumbling block for the oldquantum theory of Bohr. It is argued that theindividual philosophical views of both Pauli andHeisenberg directed their attempts to solve theanomaly and decisively influenced the solutions theyproposed. The results of this case study arecompared with the assertions of four theories ofscientific change, namely those of Kuhn, Lakatos,Laudan and Giere.
Despite its importance to Chemistry, the Pauli Exclusion Principle appears as a rather ad hoc addition to quantum mechanics. In this paper a description of its origin is given together with a critical discussion of its use and significance in Chemistry and Quantum Physics.
Descartes argued that productivity, namely our ability to generate an unlimited number of new thoughts or ideas from previous ones, derives from a single undividable source in the human soul. Cognitive scientists, in contrast, have viewed productivity as a modular phenomenon. According to this latter view, syntactic, semantic, musical or visual productivity emerges each from their own generative engines in the human brain. Recent evidence has, however, led some authors to revitalize the Cartesian theory. According to this view, a single (...) source or a single mechanism in the human brain produces productivity in every cognitive domain, whether in the domain of music, semantics or syntax. In this article, we will address recent evidence concerning the single source hypothesis from brain-imaging studies, linguistics, cognitive theories of music perception, biology of cognition and cognitive development, along with several objections that have been presented against this hypothesis. We formulate two versions of the Cartesian theory which combine the more recent computational theory of cognition with Descartes' view on productivity. (shrink)
This article presents a Pauli-Dirac matrix approach to Clifford Algebras. It is shown that the algebra C2 is generated by two Pauli matrices iσ2 and iσ3; C3 is generated by the three Pauli matrices σ1, σ2, σ3; C4 is generated by four Dirac matrices γ0, γ1, γ2, γ3 and C5 is generated by five Dirac matrices iγ0, iγ1, iγ2, iγ3, iγ5. The higher dimensional anticommuting matrices which generate arbitrarily high order Clifford algebras are given in closed form. (...) The results obtained with this Clifford algebra approach are compared with the vector product method which was described in a recent article [Found. Phys. 10, 531–553 (1980) by Poole, Farach and Aharonov] and with the Dirac, Rashevskii and Ramakrishnan methods of matrix generation. (shrink)
ZusammenfassungOhne einen speziellen philosophischen 〈ismus〉 zu akzeptieren und zu bevorzugen, werden die Begriffe 〈Phänomen〉 und 〈Realität〉 vom Stand‐punkt der täglichen Praxis des Physikers analysiert. Die logische Struktur der physikalischen Theorien, einschliesslich ihre charakteristischen Bezie‐hungen zu Beobachtung und Experiment, wird kurz aufgezeigt an Hand der klassischen Mechanik, der klassischen relativistischen Feldtheorie und Quantenmechanik als Beispiele. Es wird nachdrücklich betont, dass die Physiker ihre Wissenschaft als in Entwicklung begriffen ansehen. Das Problem stellt sich deshalb nie so, ob die gegenwärtigen Theorien gleich bleiben (...) werden, wie sie jetzt sind oder nicht, sondern vielmehr, in welcher Richtung sie sich ändern werden. (shrink)
In this paper, we discuss various aspects of Heisenberg’s thought on hidden variables in the period 1927–1935. We also compare Heisenberg’s approach to others current at the time, specifically that embodied by von Neumann’s impossibility proof, but also views expressed mainly in correspondence by Pauli and by Schroedinger. We shall base ourselves mostly on published and unpublished materials that are known but little-studied, among others Heisenberg’s own draft response to the EPR paper. Our aim will be not only to (...) clarify Heisenberg’s thought on the hidden-variables question, but in part also to clarify how this question was understood more generally at the time. (shrink)
A visible role in the theoretical discourses on education has been played in the last couple of decades by the constructivist epistemologies, which have questioned the basic assumptions of realist epistemologies. The increased popularity of interpretative approaches especially has put the realist epistemologies on the defensive. Basing itself on critical realism, this article discusses the ontological and epistemological commitments of educational research and its consequences for text interpretation. The article defends ontological realism and the semantic conception of truth against radical (...) constructivist ontology and the epistemic conceptions of truth. (shrink)
Humans grasp discrete infinities within several cognitive domains, such as in language, thought, social cognition and tool-making. It is sometimes suggested that any such generative ability is based on a computational system processing hierarchical and recursive mental representations. One view concerning such generativity has been that each of the mind’s modules defining a cognitive domain implements its own recursive computational system. In this paper recent evidence to the contrary is reviewed and it is proposed that there is only one supramodal (...) computational system with recursion in the human mind. A recursion thesis is defined, according to which the hominin cognitive evolution is constituted by a recent punctuated genetic mutation that installed the general, supramodal capacity for recursion into the human nervous system on top of the existing, evolutionarily older cognitive structures, and it is argued on the basis of empirical evidence and theoretical considerations that the recursion thesis constitutes a plausible research program for cognitive science. (shrink)
SummaryIn this article I was guided outside my special branch of science, by coincidences of the sense of the ideas occuring almost simultaneously in different sciences : correspondence, complementary pairs of opposites and wholeness appear independently both in physics as well as in the ideas of the unconscious. The unconscious t itself has a certain analogy to the field in physics and both are shifted by an observational problem, outside the range of visualibility into the paradoxical. Although in physics one (...) does not speak of archetypes which reproduce themselves, but of statistical laws of nature with primary probabilities, both formulations meet in the tendency to amplify the older more narrow idea of causality to a more general form of connections in nature, toward which the psycho‐physical problem also points. This way of consideration leads me to the expectation, that the ideas on the unconscious will not be developed further in the narrow frame of its therapeutic applications, but that their junction with the general stream of the natural sciences of the phenomena of life will be decisive for them. (shrink)
The Pauli exclusion principle is interpreted using a geometrical theory of electrons. Spin and spatial motion are described together in an eight dimensional spinor coordinate space. The field equation derives from the assumption of conformal waves. The Dirac wave function is a gradient of the scalar wave in spinor space. Electromagnetic and gravitational interactions are mediated by conformal transformations. An electron may be followed through a sequence of creation and annihilation processes. Two electrons are branches of a single particle. (...) Each satisfies a Dirac equation, but together they are a solution of the curvature condition. As two so identified electrons approach each other, the exclusion principle develops from the boundary conditions in spinor space. The gradient motion does not allow the particles to overlap. Since the spinor-gradient of the scalar wave function is odd in the coordinates, the sign of the wave function must change at the electron-electron boundary. The exclusion principle becomes geometry intrinsic and all electrons are combined into one field. Further applications are proposed including the possibility of improved numerical calculations in atomic and molecular systems. There also may be extensions to nuclear or particle physics. Implications are expected for the properties of rotating objects in a gravitational field. (shrink)
The modern state of the Pauli exclusion principle studies is discussed. The Pauli exclusion principle can be considered from two viewpoints. On the one hand, it asserts that particles with half-integer spin (fermions) are described by antisymmetric wave functions, and particles with integer spin (bosons) are described by symmetric wave functions. This is a so-called spin-statistics connection. The reasons why the spin-statistics connection exists are still unknown, see discussion in text. On the other hand, according to the (...) class='Hi'>Pauli exclusion principle, the permutation symmetry of the total wave functions can be only of two types: symmetric or antisymmetric, all other types of permutation symmetry are forbidden; although the solutions of the Schrödinger equation may belong to any representation of the permutation group, including the multi-dimensional ones. It is demonstrated that the proofs of the Pauli exclusion principle in some textbooks on quantum mechanics are incorrect and, in general, the indistinguishability principle is insensitive to the permutation symmetry of the wave function and cannot be used as a criterion for the verification of the Pauli exclusion principle. Heuristic arguments are given in favor that the existence in nature only the one-dimensional permutation representations (symmetric and antisymmetric) are not accidental. As follows from the analysis of possible scenarios, the permission of multi-dimensional representations of the permutation group leads to contradictions with the concept of particle identity and their independence. Thus, the prohibition of the degenerate permutation states by the Pauli exclusion principle follows from the general physical assumptions underlying quantum theory. (shrink)
Dual-aspect monism and neutral monism offer interesting alternatives to mainstream positions concerning the mind-matter problem. Both assume a domain underlying the mind-matter distinction, but they also differ in definitive ways. In the twentieth century, variants of both positions have been advanced by a number of protagonists. One of these variants, the dual-aspect monism due toWolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung, will be described and commented on in detail. As a unique feature in the Pauli-Jung conception, the duality of (...) mental and material aspects is specified in terms of a complementarity. This sounds innocent, but entails a number of peculiarities distinguishing their conjecture from other approaches. (shrink)
Wolfgang Pauli is known as one of the most famous physicists of the 20th century. Next to an intensive treatment of physics, his impressive correspondence with fellow physicists also demonstrates a vivid interest in psychology and biology. Reflections on the mind-brain problem and on topics such as causality and evolutionary theory are readily present. In this paper, some central passages in this correspondence are discussed and linked to more current debates in philosophy of science and philosophy of biology. It (...) is shown how Pauli speculatively explored how evolutionary theory can find inspiration in quantum theory and in its related concept of observer-dependency. Contra Kalervo Laurikainen's interpretation, it is argued that Pauli's criticism remains true to a naturalistic view on science and biology. (shrink)
We analyze the correspondence between a five-dimensional U(1)gauge invariant theory and four-dimensional scalar QED, where the fifth dimension (τ)is an invariant parameter of evolution of the manifestly covariant one-particle sector as well as for the full Fock space. The correspondence is represented by the limit in which the width of the photon mass distribution Δs tends to zero and large τ correlations occur. In the limiting procedure, calculation of a twopoint diagram shows that the PauliVillars regularization is intrinsically related to (...) these longrange correlations. (shrink)
The dual-aspect monist conjecture launched by Pauli and Jung in the mid-20th century will be couched in somewhat formal terms to characterize it more concisely than by verbal description alone. After some background material situating the Pauli–Jung conjecture among other conceptual approaches to the mind–matter problem, the main body of this paper outlines its general framework of a basic psychophysically neutral reality with its derivative mental and physical aspects and the nature of the correlations that connect these aspects. (...) Some related approaches are discussed to identify key similarities to and deviations from the Pauli–Jung framework that may be useful for cross-fertilization. (shrink)
Schrödinger’s equation says that the Hamiltonian is the generator of time translations. This seems to imply that any reasonable definition of time operator must be conjugate to the Hamiltonian. Then both time and energy must have the same spectrum since conjugate operators are unitarily equivalent. Clearly this is not always true: normal Hamiltonians have lower bounded spectrum and often only have discrete eigenvalues, whereas we typically desire that time can take any real value. Pauli concluded that constructing a general (...) a time operator is impossible. Here we show how the Pauli argument fails when one uses an external system to track time, so that time arises as correlations between the system and the clock. In this case, the time operator is conjugate to the clock Hamiltonian and not to the system Hamiltonian, but its eigenvalues still satisfy the Schrödinger equation for arbitrary system Hamiltonians. (shrink)
A dynamic systemS P described by the Pauli equation for nonrelativistic electron is investigated merely as a distributed dynamic system. No quantum principles are used. This system is shown to be a statistical ensemble of nonrelativistic stochastic pointlike particles. The electron spin is shown to have a classical analog which is a collective (statistical) property of the ensemble (not a property of a single electron). The magnetic moment of the electron is a quantum property which has no classical analog. (...) The magnetic moment is parallel to the spin only in the stationary state. In the arbitrary state the magnetic moment is not connected with the spin direction. (shrink)
We strengthen nonstructure theorems for almost free Abelian groups by studying long Ehrenfeucht–Fraı̈ssé games between a fixed group of cardinality λ and a free Abelian group. A group is called ε -game-free if the isomorphism player has a winning strategy in the game of length ε ∈ λ . We prove for a large set of successor cardinals λ = μ + the existence of nonfree -game-free groups of cardinality λ . We concentrate on successors of singular cardinals.
In this paper I argue that demonstrative induction can deal with the problem ofthe underdetermination of theory by evidence. I present the historical case studyof spectroscopy in the early 1920s, where the choice among different theorieswas apparently underdetermined by spectroscopic evidence concerning the alkalidoublets and their anomalous Zeeman effect. By casting this historical episodewithin the methodological framework of demonstrative induction, the localunderdetermination among Bohr's, Heisenberg's, and Pauli's rival theories isresolved in favour of Pauli's theory of the electron's spin.
The aim of this study was to identify the ethical problems that nurse managers encounter in their work and the role of codes of ethics in the solutions to these difficulties. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed statistically. The target sample included all nurse managers in 21 specialized health care or primary health care organizations in two hospital districts in Finland (N = 501; response rate 41%). The most common ethical problems concerned resource allocation as well (...) as providing and developing high quality care. This was the case in different managerial positions as well as in types of organization. Professional codes of ethics were used more often for problems related to patients’ care compared with issues of resource allocation. Nurse managers at middle or strategic management levels used codes of ethics more often than those in charge of a ward. More research is required to investigate ethical decision making in nursing management, especially with regard to problem solving. In addition, new guidelines and continuing education in ethics are important for management personnel. (shrink)
Contract cheating – outsourcing student assignments for a fee – presents a growing threat to the integrity of higher education. As contract cheating is based on students purchasing assignments that are original, traditional plagiarism detection tools remain insufficient to detect contract cheating. Part of the problem is that proving contract cheating is difficult. As a result, instructors may find it hard to prosecute students. To help address the problem, this conceptual paper builds upon extant scholarship on contract cheating and argues (...) that a novel evidence-based approach is needed. Such an approach should allow instructors to detect and prosecute cases of contract cheating effectively and efficiently. The paper then presents an outline of such an approach and calls it the “Doping Test” approach as it mimics some aspects of doping testing in professional sport. (shrink)
There is compelling linguistic evidence that many words are derived from phrasal sources. Among causation, typical semantic primitives composing word meanings are becoming, having and getting. While linguists have argued that word meanings contain semantic knowledge that we can grasp but cannot express linguistically, Fodor and his colleagues maintain that words express primitive, semantically unanalysable concepts. Under this view, putative linguistic semantic decompositions express nonsemantic metaphysical regularities. After reviewing the debate, it is suggested in this article that semantic features that (...) are linguistically salient and unspeakable emerge neither from the analytical connections between words, nor from the metaphysical structure of the world, but from the logical syntax of the grammar. (shrink)