Research from behavioural sciences shows that people reach decisions in a much less rational and well-considered way than was often assumed. The doctrine of informed consent, which is an important ethical principle and legal requirement in medical practice, is being challenged by these insights into decision-making and real-world choice behaviour. This article discusses the implications of recent insights of research on decision-making behaviour for the informed consent doctrine. It concludes that there is a significant tension between the often non-rational choice (...) behaviour and the traditional theory of informed consent. Responsible ways of dealing with or solving these problems are considered. To this end, patient decisions aids are discussed as suitable interventions to support autonomous decision-making. However, current PDAs demand certain improvements in order to protect and promote autonomous decision-making. Based on a conception of autonomy, we will argue which type of improvements are needed. (shrink)
Attempts to extend the classical Hausdorff difference hierarchy to the case of partitions of a space to k > 2 subsets lead to non-equivalent notions. In a hope to identify the right extension we consider the extensions appeared in the literature so far: the limit-, level-, Boolean and Wadge hierarchies of k -partitions. The advantages and disadvantages of the four hierarchies are discussed. The main technical contribution of this paper is a complete characterization of the Wadge degrees of [ ¿ (...) ] º 2-measurable k -partitions of the Baire space. (shrink)
Drawing on a close reading of Pierre Bourdieu’s works, I offer five lessons for a science of crime and punishment: always historicize; dissect symbolic categories; produce embodied accounts; avoid state thought; and embrace commitment. I offer illustrative examples and demonstrate the practical implications of Bourdieu’s ideas, and I apply the lessons to a critique of orthodox criminology.
Despite extensive research and a multitude of computer systems, there is no viable computerized system that is even remotely capable of approaching the skill of an expert human physician. Minor obstacles in the design of a practical system include imprecise medical terminology, the use of nonindependent clinical parameters, incorrect or inaccurate information supplied to the computer, and static representation of a patient's medical history. Major problems that go beyond computer manipulation of data include the requirement for a massive data base, (...) representation of medical knowledge in general rather than specific terms, and physician fallibility in the design of a computer system. CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this? (shrink)
Society Semantics, introduced by W. Carnielli and M. Lima-Marques, is a method for obtaining new logics from the combination of agents of a given logic. The goal of this paper is to present several generalizations of this method, as well as to show some applications to many-valued logics. After a reformulation of Society Semantics in a wider setting, we develop in detail two examples of application of the new formalism, characterizing a hierarchy of paraconsistent logics called Pn and a hierarchy (...) of paracomplete logics In. We also propose three further generalizations, obtaining Society Semantics for several many-valued logics, including a hierarchy of logics called In Pk which are both paraconsistent and paracomplete. (shrink)
We establish some results on the Borel and difference hierarchies in φ-spaces. Such spaces are the topological counterpart of the algebraic directed-complete partial orderings. E.g., we prove analogs of the Hausdorff Theorem relating the difference and Borel hierarchies and of the Lavrentyev Theorem on the non-collapse of the difference hierarchy. Some of our results generalize results of A. Tang for the space Pω. We also sketch some older applications of these hierarchies and present a new application to the question of (...) characterizing the ω-ary Boolean operations generating a given level of the Wadge hierarchy from the open sets. (shrink)
It is well known that any finitary operation is recursive in a suitable total numeration. A. Orlicki showed that there is an ω-operation not recursive in any total numeration. We will show that any ω-operation is recursive in a partial numeration.
In his late lectures, Foucault developed the ancient Greek concept of parrhesia, a courage to speak the truth in the face of danger. While not entirely uncritical of the notion, Foucault seemed to find something of an ideal in the political and aesthetic ideal of franc-parler, of speaking freely and courageously. Simultaneously, the post-1968 political valorized the ideal of parrhesia, or “speaking truth to power”: parrhesia seemed inherently progressive, the sole preserve of the left. But a cursory inspection of the (...) annals of Nazism and fascism shows that these movements also aligned themselves with parrhesiastical modes of expression. The fragmented, disparate strands of today’s neo-fascist revival, too, are closely imbricated with the notion of speaking valiantly in the face of supposed orthodoxies: in many ways, the preeminent parrhesiasts today are found on the neo-fascist side. This points to an essential weakness in the concept of parrhesia, particularly in terms of its value and valence as a strategy for the political left. Perhaps it matters less how we speak—being caught up in language games—than what policies and programs we enact. Žižek’s plea for a renewed dogmatic orthodoxy and Chesterton’s criticism of heresy offer ways out of the parrhesiastical trap. (shrink)
The text of Ephesians 6:10–20 reframes the sectors of what we know as ‘spiritual warfare’ to tackle demons that menace and disturb people’s daily life. Reading this text from an African perspective helps to understand the text as well as believers in Africa to efficiently use the proposed weapons.Contribution: An approach such as an intercultural criticism with the aid of a four-legged stool model in this research proved to be appropriate.
Business Ethics for Future Leaders presents students with contemporary readings in the discipline that highlight the changing dynamics of ethics in today's business world and challenge readers to transcend the traditional leadership mindset. In Section I, students read articles that address how ethical behavior can contribute to organizational success, why individuals view ethical behavior differently, and how leaders can incorporate ethical principles into their decision making. Section II focuses on ethical challenges in the multigenerational workplace. In Sections III and IV, (...) students learn about the ideal mindset for ethical leaders and ethical challenges related to cyber security and the internet. Additional sections discuss the ethics of business decision making, sustainable environmental management, and ethical climate and safety performance. The final section speaks to ethical public affairs, issues, and crisis management. Featuring highly accessible readings, Business Ethics for Future Leaders is an ideal supplemental textbook for courses in business and leadership. (shrink)
In this work we define, in a general way, an algebraic semantics for the logics of the hierarchy InPk. This semantics is defined by means of an alternative construction, with respect to the usual algebraic semantics, and it is known in the literature as Twist-structures semantics. Besides that, we modify such construction, defining the so-called ω-Twist-structures here. This adaptation allows us to prove adequacy theorems for every logic of the hierarchy InPk.
We prove that for any k≥3 each element of the h-quasiorder of finite k-labeled forests is definable in the ordinary first order language and, respectively, each element of the h-quasiorder of countable k-labeled forests is definable in the language Lω1ω, in both cases provided that the minimal non-smallest elements are allowed as parameters. As corollaries, we characterize the automorphism groups of both structures and show that the structure of finite k-forests is atomic. Similar results hold true for two other relevant (...) structures: the h-quasiorder of finite k-labeled trees and of finite k-labeled trees with a fixed label of the root element. (shrink)
Le présent article offre une nouvelle interprétation du concept aristotélicien d' « imagination » ou phantasia par les moyens d'une lecture attentive du Traité de l'âme, III, 3, tout particulièrement de son début. Aristote soutient que ses prédécesseurs ne peuvent expliquer comment l'erreur se produit. Mais c'est également une difficulté pour sa propre explication des formes de base de la perception et de la pensée, et Aristote introduit la phantasia précisément pour répondre à cette question. Il soutient qu'elle ne peut (...) être réduite aux autres états mentaux et offre donc une nouvelle explication causale du contenu, laquelle explique comment un état mental peut être aussi bien vrai que faux. The present article offers a new interpretation of Aristotle's concept of « imagination » or phantasia through a close reading of On the Soul, 3. 3, with special attention to the chapter's opening. Aristotle argues that his predecessors cannot explain how error can ever occur. But it is equally a difficulty for his own account of the most basic types of perception and thought, and Aristotle introduces phantasia precisely to answer this problem. He argues that it cannot be reduced to other mental states and then offers a new causal account of content which explains how a mental state can be either true or false. (shrink)
This field survey in a fast food restaurant setting tested the hypothesized influences of two social context variables (role responsibility and interests of group members) and justice evaluations (distributive, procedural, and retributive) on respondents' inclination to report theft and their theft reporting behavior. The results provided mixed support for the hypotheses. Inclination to report a peer for theft was associated with role responsibility, the interests of group members, and procedural justice perceptions. Actual reporting behavior was associated with the inclination to (...) report and with retributive justice evaluations. Implications for future research and for management are discussed. (shrink)
Cet ouvrage propose une approche globale des reconstructions érudites et des utilisations polémiques de la philosophie de la Renaissance dans la France du XIX e siècle en centrant l’attention sur une relecture politique de la pratique historiographique à l’époque de Victor Cousin. This book offers a comprehensive approach to scholarly reconstructions and polemical uses of Renaissance philosophy in nineteenth-century France by focusing on the political implications of historiographical practice in Victor Cousin’s time.
L'esprit philosophique de l'Allemagne et la pensee francaise / par Victor Delbos,...Date de l'edition originale: 1915Collection: Pages actuelles; 40Ce livre est la reproduction fidele d'une oeuvre publiee avant 1920 et fait partie d'une collection de livres reimprimes a la demande editee par Hachette Livre, dans le cadre d'un partenariat avec la Bibliotheque nationale de France, offrant l'opportunite d'acceder a des ouvrages anciens et souvent rares issus des fonds patrimoniaux de la BnF.Les oeuvres faisant partie de cette collection ont ete (...) numerisees par la BnF et sont presentes sur Gallica, sa bibliotheque numerique.En entreprenant de redonner vie a ces ouvrages au travers d'une collection de livres reimprimes a la demande, nous leur donnons la possibilite de rencontrer un public elargi et participons a la transmission de connaissances et de savoirs parfois difficilement accessibles.Nous avons cherche a concilier la reproduction fidele d'un livre ancien a partir de sa version numerisee avec le souci d'un confort de lecture optimal. Nous esperons que les ouvrages de cette nouvelle collection vous apporteront entiere satisfaction.Pour plus d'informations, rendez-vous sur www.hachettebnf.frhttp: //gallica.bnf.fr/ark: /12148/bpt6k5608386g. (shrink)
To show how the case of Mary Shelley’s Victor Frankenstein brings light to the ethical and moral issues raised in Institutional Review Board protocols, we nest an imaginary IRB proposal dated August 1790 by Victor Frankenstein within a discussion of the importance and function of the IRB. Considering the world of science as would have appeared in 1790 when Victor was a student at Ingolstadt, we offer a schematic overview of a fecund moment when advances in comparative (...) anatomy, medical experimentation and theories of life involving animalcules and animal electricity sparked intensive debates about the basic principles of life and the relationship between body and soul. Constructing an IRB application based upon myriad speculations circulating up to 1790, we imagine how Victor would have drawn upon his contemporaries’ scientific work to justify the feasibility of his project, as well as how he might have outlined the ethical implications of his plan to animate life from “dead” tissues. In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, Victor failed to consider his creature’s autonomy, vulnerability, and welfare. In this IRB proposal, we show Victor facing those issues of justice and emphasize how the novel can be an important component in courses or workshops on research ethics. Had Victor Frankenstein had to submit an IRB proposal tragedy may have been averted, for he would have been compelled to consider the consequences of his experiment and acknowledge, if not fulfill, his concomitant responsibilities to the creature that he abandoned and left to fend for itself. (shrink)
RÉSUMÉ Cet article met en lumière la formation des valeurs esthétiques entendues au sens de la philosophie de Roman Ingarden. L'auteur présente et commente trois notions essentielles de cette pensée : il s'agit de la concrétisation, de la valeur esthétique et du noyau de l'objet esthétique. Bien que la critique s'intéresse depuis longtemps à l'axiologie ingardénienne, la perspective de l'auteur, mettant en valeur la notion de noyau esthétique, indique clairement que la pensée d'Ingarden chevauche deux approches différentes en ce qui (...) concerne la formation des valeurs. Lorsqu'il s'agit de la création de nouvelles valeurs, par exemple, la soi-disant objectivité de la philosophie d'Ingarden semble masquer le côté subjectif de leur formation. ABSTRACT The objective of this article isfirst to present the major notions of Ingarden's philosophy with respect to axiology : concretization, aesthetic value and the core of the aesthetic object, and second, to show that Ingarden's so-called objective aesthetics covers up or masks the more subjective elements of value theory. Critics have long been interested in Ingarden's aesthetics, but the author's perspective, insisting on the importance of the core of the aesthetic objet, clearly reveals that Ingarden's thought actually involves two different approaches in aesthetic value theory, an empirical approach, and a more subjective, relative one which seems to remain hidden. (shrink)
Informed decision-making (IDM) is considered an important ethical and legal requirement for population-based screening. Governments offering such screening have a duty to enable invitees to make informed decisions regarding participation. Various views exist on how to define and measure IDM in different screening programmes. In this paper we first address the question which components should be part of IDM in the context of cancer screening. Departing from two diverging interpretations of the value of autonomy—as a right and as an ideal—we (...) describe how this value is operationalized in the practice of informed consent in medicine and translate this to IDM in population-based cancer screening. Next, we specify components of IDM, which is voluntariness and the requirements of disclosure and understanding. We argue that whereas disclosure should contain all information considered relevant in order to enable authentic IDM, understanding of basic information is sufficient for a valid IDM. In the second part of the paper we apply the capability approach in order to argue for the responsibility of the government to warrant equal and real opportunities for invitees for IDM. We argue that additional conditions beyond mere provision of information are needed in order to do so. (shrink)
Ces etudes debordent le probleme du temps chez les Stoiciens et se proposent d'etablir que cette question, en apparence modeste, permet d'eclairer, et en meme temps commande l'ensemble du systeme. Au premier abord en effet, la theorie du temps se presente comme une simple section d'un chapitre de la Physique, celui qui traite des Incorporels. Mais deja la simple interpretation des textes transmis fait voir que cette theorie tient etroitement a d'autres theories, comme celle des incorporels en general, des categories, (...) de la substance. Abordant ensuite les theses majeures de la logique et de l'ethique, on s'apercoit qu'a leur tour elles sont solidaires de la conception du temps qui, dans bien des cas, fait evanouir leur apparence de paradoxe. A cela meme, il n'y a rien d'etrange, si l'on se souvient que le stoicisme, plus que tout autre philosophie antique, constitue un systeme coherent. Mais plus particulierement, le probleme du temps a du former comme le noeud de la reflexion stoicienne qui vise, contre les lourdes autorites de Platon et d'Aristote, a retablir dans sa realite et dans sa dignite, le concret, le sensible, disqualifie comme sujet a la generation et a la corruption, c'est-a-dire, en un mot, comme l'etre dans le temps. (shrink)