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  1. Mashhad Al-Allaf (2006). Al-Ghazālī on Logical Necessity, Causality, and Miracles. Journal of Islamic Philosophy 2 (1):37-52.
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  2. Hamid Reza Alavi (2007). Al-Ghazali on Moral Education. Journal of Moral Education 36 (3):309-319.
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  3. Vernon J. Bourke (1988). Averroes and the Metaphysics of Causation. By Barry S. Kogan. The Modern Schoolman 65 (4):285-286.
  4. Therese Scarpelli Cory (2012). Some Thoughts on Transcendence and the Vetula. Comparative Philosophy 3 (2):19-28.
  5. Blake D. Dutton (2001). Al-Ghazālī on Possibility and the Critique of Causality. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 10 (1):23-46.
    One of the most striking features of speculative theology (kalaam) as it developed within the Ash'arite tradition of Islam is its denial of causal power to creatures. Much like Malebranche in the seventeenth century, the Ash'arites saw this denial as a natural extension of monotheism and were led as a result to embrace an occasionalist account of causality. According to their analysis, causal power is identical with creative power, and since God is the sole and sovereign creator, God is the (...)
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  6. George Giacaman & Raja Bahlul (2000). Ghazali on Miracles and Necessary Connection. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 9 (1):39-50.
    The paper offers a critical examination of Ghazali’s main arguments against the views of the philosophers on causation. The authors argue that Ghazali’s definition of miracles as "departure from the usual course of events" carries at least two meanings, only one of which is in conflict with necessary causal relations. The authors also argue that Ghazali’s desire to uphold the possibility of miracles need not constrain him to repudiate the idea of necessary connection, since he is able to explain miracles (...)
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  7. Ali Hasan (2013). Al-Ghazali and Ibn Rush (Averroes) on Creation and the Divine Attributes. In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Alternative Ultimate Realities. Springer. 141-156.
    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was concerned that early Islamic philosophers were leaning too heavily and uncritically on Aristotelian and Neoplatonic ideas in developing their models of God and His relation to the world. He argued that their views were not only irreligious, but philosophically problematic, and he defended an alternative view aimed at staying closer to the Qur’an and the beliefs of the ordinary Muslim. Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) responded to al-Ghazali’s critique and developed a sophisticated Aristotelian view. The present chapter explores their (...)
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  8. Taneli Kukkonen (2010). Al-Ghazai on the Signification of Names. Vivarium 48 (1-2):55-74.
    Al-Ghazālī's most detailed explanation of how signification works occurs in his treatise on The Beautiful Names of God. Al-Ghazālī builds squarely on the commentary tradition on Aristotle's Peri hermeneias : words signify things by means of concepts and correspondingly, existence is laid out on three levels, linguistic, conceptual, and particular (i.e. extramental). This framework allows al-Ghazālī to put forward what is essentially an Aristotelian reading of what happens when a name successfully picks out a being: when a quiddity is named (...)
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  9. Henrik Lagerlund (2010). Al-Ghazali on the Form and Matter of the Syllogisms. Vivarium 48 (1-2):193-214.
    Al-Ghazālī's Maqāsid al-falāsifa is an intelligent reworking of Avicenna's Dānesh-name (Book of Science). It was assumed by Latin scholastics that the Maqāsid contained the views of Al-Ghazālī himself. Very well read in Latin translation, it was the basic text from which the Latin authors gained their knowledge of Arabic logic. This article examines the views on the form and matter of the syllogism given in the Maqāsid and considers how they would have been viewed by a Latin reader in the (...)
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