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  1. Tom Addis, Jan Townsend Addis, Dave Billinge, David Gooding & Bart-Floris Visscher (2008). The Abductive Loop: Tracking Irrational Sets. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 13 (1):5-16.
    We argue from the Church-Turing thesis (Kleene Mathematical logic. New York: Wiley 1967) that a program can be considered as equivalent to a formal language similar to predicate calculus where predicates can be taken as functions. We can relate such a calculus to Wittgenstein’s first major work, the Tractatus, and use the Tractatus and its theses as a model of the formal classical definition of a computer program. However, Wittgenstein found flaws in his initial great work and he explored these (...)
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  2. Natasha Alechina, Piergiorgio Bertoli, Chiara Ghidini, Mark Jago, Brian Logan & Luciano Serafini (2007). Verifying Space and Time Requirements for Resource-Bounded Agents. In A. Lomuscio & S. Edelkamp (eds.), Model Checking and Artificial Intelligence. Springer.
    The effective reasoning capability of an agent can be defined as its capability to infer, within a given space and time bound, facts that are logical consequences of its knowledge base. In this paper we show how to determine the effective reasoning capability of an agent with limited memory by encoding the agent as a transition system and automatically verifying whether a state where the agent believes a certain conclusion is reachable from the start state. We present experimental results using (...)
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  3. Mark A. Bedau, Richard Crandall & Michael J. Raven, Cryptographic Hash Functions Based on ALife. PSIpress.
    There is a long history of cryptographic hash functions, i.e. functions mapping variable-length strings to fixed-length strings, and such functions are also expected to enjoy certain security properties. Hash functions can be effected via modular arithmetic, permutation-based schemes, chaotic mixing, and so on. Herein we introduce the notion of an artificial-life (ALife) hash function (ALHF), whereby the requisite mixing action of a good hash function is accomplished via ALife rules that give rise to complex evolution of a given system. Various (...)
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  4. Thomas Bittner & Barry Smith (2003). A Theory of Granular Partitions. In Foundations of Geographic Information Science. Taylor & Francis.
    We have a variety of different ways of dividing up, classifying, mapping, sorting and listing the objects in reality. The theory of granular partitions presented here seeks to provide a general and unified basis for understanding such phenomena in formal terms that is more realistic than existing alternatives. Our theory has two orthogonal parts: the first is a theory of classification; it provides an account of partitions as cells and subcells; the second is a theory of reference or intentionality; it (...)
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  5. Adam Bleckert & Rachel Ol Wong (2011). Identifying Roles for Neurotransmission in Circuit Assembly: Insights Gained From Multiple Model Systems and Experimental Approaches. Bioessays 33 (1):61-72.
  6. Robin Blume-Kohout, Carlton M. Caves & Ivan H. Deutsch (2002). Climbing Mount Scalable: Physical Resource Requirements for a Scalable Quantum Computer. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1641-1670.
    The primary resource for quantum computation is Hilbert-space dimension. Whereas Hilbert space itself is an abstract construction, the number of dimensions available to a system is a physical quantity that requires physical resources. Avoiding a demand for an exponential amount of these resources places a fundamental constraint on the systems that are suitable for scalable quantum computation. To be scalable, the effective number of degrees of freedom in the computer must grow nearly linearly with the number of qubits in an (...)
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  7. Gilles Brassard, Anne Broadbent & Alain Tapp (2005). Quantum Pseudo-Telepathy. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1877-1907.
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  8. Cameron Buckner, Mathias Niepert & Colin Allen (2011). From Encyclopedia to Ontology: Toward Dynamic Representation of the Discipline of Philosophy. Synthese 182 (2):205-233.
    The application of digital humanities techniques to philosophy is changing the way scholars approach the discipline. This paper seeks to open a discussion about the difficulties, methods, opportunities, and dangers of creating and utilizing a formal representation of the discipline of philosophy. We review our current project, the Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) project, which uses a combination of automated methods and expert feedback to create a dynamic computational ontology for the discipline of philosophy. We argue that our distributed, expert-based approach (...)
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  9. M. W. Bunder & R. M. Rizkalla (2009). Proof-Finding Algorithms for Classical and Subclassical Propositional Logics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 50 (3):261-273.
    The formulas-as-types isomorphism tells us that every proof and theorem, in the intuitionistic implicational logic $H_\rightarrow$, corresponds to a lambda term or combinator and its type. The algorithms of Bunder very efficiently find a lambda term inhabitant, if any, of any given type of $H_\rightarrow$ and of many of its subsystems. In most cases the search procedure has a simple bound based roughly on the length of the formula involved. Computer implementations of some of these procedures were done in Dekker. (...)
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  10. S. B. Cooper & Andrea Sorbi (eds.) (2011). Computability in Context: Computation and Logic in the Real World. World Scientific.
    Recent new paradigms of computation, based on biological and physical models, address in a radically new way questions of efficiency and challenge assumptions ...
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  11. U. Endriss & M. Baldoni (eds.) (2006). Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies 4. Springer.
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  12. William M. Farmer (1995). Reasoning About Partial Functions with the Aid of a Computer. Erkenntnis 43 (3):279 - 294.
    Partial functions are ubiquitous in both mathematics and computer science. Therefore, it is imperative that the underlying logical formalism for a general-purpose mechanized mathematics system provide strong support for reasoning about partial functions. Unfortunately, the common logical formalisms — first-order logic, type theory, and set theory — are usually only adequate for reasoning about partial functionsin theory. However, the approach to partial functions traditionally employed by mathematicians is quite adequatein practice. This paper shows how the traditional approach to partial functions (...)
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  13. Brent Gregory, Sue Gregory, Bogdanovych A., Jacobson Michael, Newstead Anne & Simeon Simoff and Many Others (2011). How Are Australian Higher Education Institutions Contributing to Innovative Teaching and Learning Through Virtual Worlds? In Gregory Sue (ed.), Proceedings of Ascilite 2011 (Australian Society of Computers in Tertiary Education). Ascilite.
    Over the past decade, teaching and learning in virtual worlds has been at the forefront of many higher education institutions around the world. The DEHub Virtual Worlds Working Group (VWWG) consisting of Australian and New Zealand higher education academics was formed in 2009. These educators are investigating the role that virtual worlds play in the future of education and actively changing the direction of their own teaching practice and curricula. 47 academics reporting on 28 Australian higher education institutions present an (...)
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  14. Stan Gudder (2006). Quantum Mechanics on Finite Groups. Foundations of Physics 36 (8):1160-1192.
    Although a few new results are presented, this is mainly a review article on the relationship between finite-dimensional quantum mechanics and finite groups. The main motivation for this discussion is the hidden subgroup problem of quantum computation theory. A unifying role is played by a mathematical structure that we call a Hilbert *-algebra. After reviewing material on unitary representations of finite groups we discuss a generalized quantum Fourier transform. We close with a presentation concerning position-momentum measurements in this framework.
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  15. Peter Hucklenbroich (1988). Problems of Nomenclature and Classification in Medical Expert Systems. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 9 (2).
    Medical expert systems (MES) are knowledge-based computer programs that are designed for advising physicians on diagnostical and therapeutical decision-making. They use heuristic methods developed by Artificial Intelligence researchers in order to retrieve from large knowledge-bases information needed in the situation. Constructing the knowledge-base of a MES embraces the problem of explicating and fixing the conceptual, causal and epistemic relations between a lot of medical objects. There is a number of preconditions which any adequate representation of such knowledge must fulfil, among (...)
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  16. Michael J. Jacobson, Charlotte Taylor, Anne Newstead, Wai Yat Wong, Deborah Richards, Meredith Taylor, Porte John, Kartiko Iwan, Kapur Manu & Hu Chun (2011). Collaborative Virtual Worlds and Productive Failure. In Proceedings of the CSCL (Computer Supported Cognition and Learning) III. University of Hong Kong.
    This paper reports on an ongoing ARC Discovery Project that is conducting design research into learning in collaborative virtual worlds (CVW).The paper will describe three design components of the project: (a) pedagogical design, (b)technical and graphics design, and (c) learning research design. The perspectives of each design team will be discussed and how the three teams worked together to produce the CVW. The development of productive failure learning activities for the CVW will be discussed and there will be an interactive (...)
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  17. Michael J. Jacobson, Charlotte Taylor, Anne Newstead, Wai Yat Wong, Deborah Richards, Meredith Taylor, Porte John, Kartiko Iwan, Kapur Manu & Hu Chun (2011). Proceedings of the CSCL (Computer Supported Cognition and Learning) III. University of Hong Kong.
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  18. Mark Jago (2006). Resource-Bounded Belief Revision and Contraction. In P. Torroni, U. Endriss, M. Baldoni & A. Omicini (eds.), Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies III. Springer. 141--154.
    Agents need to be able to change their beliefs; in particular, they should be able to contract or remove a certain belief in order to restore consistency to their set of beliefs, and revise their beliefs by incorporating a new belief which may be inconsistent with their previous beliefs. An influential theory of belief change proposed by Alchourron, G¨ardenfors and Makinson (AGM) [1] describes postulates which a rational belief revision and contraction operations should satisfy. The AGM postulates have been perceived (...)
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  19. Fred Johnson (1995). Apodeictic Syllogisms: Deductions and Decision Procedures. History and Philosophy of Logic 16 (1):1-18.
    One semantic and two syntactic decision procedures are given for determining the validity of Aristotelian assertoric and apodeictic syllogisms. Results are obtained by using the Aristotelian deductions that necessarily have an even number of premises.
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  20. Leonardo Lana de Carvalho, Franck Varenne & Elayne de Moura Bragra (2014). Ontologias para a Modelagem Multiagente de Sistemas Complexos em Ciências Cognitivas. Ciências and Cognição 19 (1):58-75.
    Cognitive sciences as an interdisciplinary field, involving scientific disciplines (such as computer science, linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, economics, etc.), philosophical disciplines (philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, analytic philosophy, etc.) and engineering (notably knowledge engineering), have a vast theoretical and practical content, some even conflicting. In this interdisciplinary context and on computational modeling, ontologies play a crucial role in communication between disciplines and also in a process of innovation of theories, models and experiments in cognitive sciences. We propose a model for (...)
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  21. Catherine Legg & Samuel Sarjant (2012). Bill Gates is Not a Parking Meter: Philosophical Quality Control in Automated Ontology Building. Proceedings of the Symposium on Computational Philosophy, AISB/IACAP World Congress 2012 (Birmingham, England, July 2-6).
    The somewhat old-fashioned concept of philosophical categories is revived and put to work in automated ontology building. We describe a project harvesting knowledge from Wikipedia’s category network in which the principled ontological structure of Cyc was leveraged to furnish an extra layer of accuracy-checking over and above more usual corrections which draw on automated measures of semantic relatedness.
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  22. Gregory Linshiz, Alex Goldberg, Tania Konry & Nathan J. Hillson (2013). The Fusion of Biology, Computer Science, and Engineering: Towards Efficient and Successful Synthetic Biology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (4):503-520.
    The integration of computer science, biology, and engineering has resulted in the emergence of rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields such as bioinformatics, bioengineering, DNA computing, and systems and synthetic biology. Ideas derived from computer science and engineering can provide innovative solutions to biological problems and advance research in new directions. Although interdisciplinary research has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, the scientists contributing to these efforts largely remain specialists in their original disciplines and are not fully capable of covering the many (...)
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  23. Brian Logan, Mark Jago & Natasha Alechina (2006). Modelling Communicating Agents in Timed Reasoning Logics. In U. Endriss & M. Baldoni (eds.), Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies 4. Springer.
    Practical reasoners are resource-bounded—in particular they require time to derive consequences of their knowledge. Building on the Timed Reasoning Logics (TRL) framework introduced in [1], we show how to represent the time required by an agent to reach a given conclusion. TRL allows us to model the kinds of rule application and conflict resolution strategies commonly found in rule-based agents, and we show how the choice of strategy can influence the information an agent can take into account when making decisions (...)
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  24. Olena Medelyan & Catherine Legg (2008). Integrating Cyc and Wikipedia: Folksonomy Meets Rigorously Defined Common-Sense. Proceedings of Wikipedia and AI Workshop at the AAAI-08 Conference. Chicago, US, July 12 2008.
    Integration of ontologies begins with establishing mappings between their concept entries. We map categories from the largest manually-built ontology, Cyc, onto Wikipedia articles describing corresponding concepts. Our method draws both on Wikipedia’s rich but chaotic hyperlink structure and Cyc’s carefully defined taxonomic and common-sense knowledge. On 9,333 manual alignments by one person, we achieve an F-measure of 90%; on 100 alignments by six human subjects the average agreement of the method with the subject is close to their agreement with each (...)
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  25. David Milne, Catherine Legg, Medelyan Olena & Witten Ian (2009). Mining Meaning From Wikipedia. International Journal of Human-Computer Interactions 67 (9):716-754.
    Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks. This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, relations, (...)
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  26. Matthias Müller-Hannemann & Stefan Schirra (eds.) (2010). Algorithm Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Algorithm Theory and Practice. Springer.
    Driven by concrete applications, Algorithm Engineering complements theory by the benefits of experimentation and puts equal emphasis on all aspects arising during a cyclic solution process ranging from realistic modeling, design, analysis, ...
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  27. Anne Newstead & Michael J. Jacobson, Collaborative Virtual Worlds for Enhanced Scientific Understanding.
    This is a copy of the presentation given at the Workshop on Agency and Distributed Cognition at Macquarie University, March 2012.
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  28. Antje Nowack (2005). A Guarded Fragment for Abstract State Machines. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (3):345-368.
    Abstract State Machines (ASMs) provide a formal method for transparent design and specification of complex dynamic systems. They combine advantages of informal and formal methods. Applications of this method motivate a number of computability and decidability problems connected to ASMs. Such problems result for example from the area of verifying properties of ASMs. Their high expressive power leads rather directly to undecidability respectively uncomputability results for most interesting problems in the case of unrestricted ASMs. Consequently, it is rather natural to (...)
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  29. Peter Purgathofer (2006). Is Informatics a Design Discipline? Poiesis and Praxis 4 (4):303-314.
    The article discusses the theory and practice of software development in the light of design theory. It tries to show that the design process cannot be forced into a predefined operational sequence. To underline this, the history of design methods is retraced, showing that such approaches were abolished not only in practice, but also the theory of design. The essay then discusses the cognitive framework of contemporary design theory and closes with the proposal that informatics should redefine itself as a (...)
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  30. Deborah Richards, Jacobson Michael, Taylor Charlotte, Taylor Meredith, Porte John, Newstead Anne & Hanna Nader, Evaluating the Models and Behaviour of 3D Intelligent Virtual Animals in a Predator-Prey Relationship. AAMAS 2012: 79-86. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Agent and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS).
    This paper presents the intelligent virtual animals that inhabit Omosa, a virtual learning environment to help secondary school students learn how to conduct scientific inquiry and gain concepts from biology. Omosa supports multiple agents, including animals, plants, and human hunters, which live in groups of varying sizes and in a predator-prey relationship with other agent types (species). In this paper we present our generic agent architecture and the algorithms that drive all animals. We concentrate on two of our animals to (...)
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  31. Yehoshua Sagiv (1979). An Algorithm for Inferring Multivalued Dependencies That Works Also for a Subclass of Propositional Logic. Dept. Of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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  32. Samuel Sarjant, Catherine Legg, Olena Medelyan & Michael Robinson (2009). “All You Can Eat” Ontology-Building: Feeding Wikipedia to Cyc. IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI-09), 15 – 18 September 2009 Università Degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    In order to achieve genuine web intelligence, building some kind of large general machine-readable conceptual scheme (i.e. ontology) seems inescapable. Yet the past 20 years have shown that manual ontology-building is not practicable. The recent explosion of free user-supplied knowledge on the Web has led to great strides in automatic ontology building, but quality-control is still a major issue. Ideally one should automatically build onto an already intelligent base. We suggest that the long-running Cyc project is able to assist here. (...)
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  33. Jörg R. J. Schirra (2005). Foundation of Computational Visualistics. Deutscher Universitätsverlag.
    Images in Computer Science: Clarifications Required. The Age of the Images Images take a rather prominent place in contemporary life in the western ...
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  34. Robert Stepp (1979). The Uniclass Inductive Program AQ7UNI: Program Implementation and User's Guide. Dept. Of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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  35. Robert Stepp (1979). Learning Without Negative Examples Via Variable-Valued Logic Characterizations: The Uniclass Inductive Program AQ7UNI. Dept. Of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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  36. P. Torroni, U. Endriss, M. Baldoni & A. Omicini (eds.) (2006). Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies III. Springer.
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  37. George J. Tourlakis (2012). Theory of Computation. Wiley.
    In addition, this book contains tools that, in principle, can search a set of algorithms to see whether a problem is solvable, or more specifically, if it can be solved by an algorithm whose computations are efficient.
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  38. Charles R. Twardy (2011). Local Complexity Adaptable Trajectory Partitioning Via Minimum Message Length. In 18th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. IEEE.
    We present a minimum message length (MML) framework for trajectory partitioning by point selection, and use it to automatically select the tolerance parameter ε for Douglas-Peucker partitioning, adapting to local trajectory complexity. By examining a range of ε for synthetic and real trajectories, it is easy to see that the best ε does vary by trajectory, and that the MML encoding makes sensible choices and is robust against Gaussian noise. We use it to explore the identification of micro-activities within a (...)
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  39. Edward Yalow (1977). Yaq: A 360 Assembler Version of the Algorithm Aq and Comparison with Other Pl/I Programs. Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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