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Summary The philosophy of information is the branch of philosophy devoted to the thematic study of information in all its forms, and to the application of informational methods to new and traditional philosophical problems. The philosophy of information is not limited to any particular doctrine or methodology; rather, it is unified by its central focus on information as it plays out in both theory and practice. Examples of topics addressed by the philosophy of information include, among others: the nature of information; the modalities of information processing; the relations between information, knowledge, and meaning; the informational nature of mental life; the informational interpretation of reality; the value of information; the role of information in society and human interactions; and the politics of information.
Key works Though the Philosophy of Information as discipline is fairly new, works that can be labelled as belonging to one or more of the related sub-disciplines can be found at least since the Sixties. In particular for the relation with knowledge and logic: Bar-Hillel & Carnap 1953 and Dretske 1981. For a comprehensive approach of the current debates see Adriaans & van Benthem 2008 and Floridi 2011.
Introductions Adriaans 2012; Introduction in Adriaans & van Benthem 2008 and Floridi 2011; Floridi 2010; Floridi 2002.
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  1. Eric A. Abbott & J. Paul Yarbrough (1992). Inequalities in the Information Age: Farmers' Differential Adoption and Use of Four Information Technologies. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 9 (2):67-79.
    New communication technologies such as the microcomputer, videotex/teletext systems, the videocassette recorder, and satellite receiving dishes have been available to farmers since the early 1980s. This longitudinal study examines ethical issues associated with the impact that differential patterns of adoption and use of these technologies have had on inequalities among farmers from 1982 to 1989. The results demonstrate a strong adoption and use bias toward larger scale farmers who already have well-developed skills for handling information. This bias is especially strong (...)
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  2. David K. Allen & Thomas D. Wilson (1999). Exploring the Contexts of Information Behaviour Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Reseach in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 13/15 August 1998, Sheffield, Uk. [REVIEW] Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  3. Stephen J. Andriole (1993). Information Management Support for International Negotiations. Theory and Decision 34 (3):313-328.
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  4. J. B. B. (1962). General Introduction to Library Science. Review of Metaphysics 16 (2):393-393.
  5. Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (1955). Information and Content: A Semantic Analysis. Synthese 9 (1):299 - 305.
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  6. Shifra Baruchson‐Arbib (2007). The Contribution of “Information Science” to the Social and Ethical Challenges of the Information Age. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):53-58.
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  7. Gérard Battail (2009). Living Versus Inanimate: The Information Border. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 2 (3):321-341.
    The traditional divide between nature and culture restricts to the latter the use of information. Biosemiotics claims instead that the divide between nature and culture is a mere subdivision within the living world but that semiosis is the specific feature which distinguishes the living from the inanimate. The present paper is intended to reformulate this basic tenet in information-theoretic terms, to support it using information-theoretic arguments, and to show that its consequences match reality. It first proposes a ‘receiver-oriented’ interpretation of (...)
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  8. Peter beim Graben (2006). Pragmatic Information in Dynamic Semantics. Mind and Matter 4 (2):169-193.
    In 1972,Ernst Ulrich and Christine von Weizs ¨acker introduced the concept of pragmatic information with three desiderata:(i) Pragmatic information should assess the impact of a message upon its receiver;(ii)Pragmatic information should vanish in the limits of complete (non-interpretable)'novelty 'and complete 'confirmation';(iii)Pragmatic information should exhibit non-classical properties since novelty and confirmation behave similarly to Fourier pairs of complementary operators in quantum mechanics. It will be shown how these three desiderata can be naturally fulfilled within the framework of Gardenfors' dynamic semantics of (...)
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  9. Jacques Berleur, Markku I. Nurminen & John Impagliazzo (eds.) (2006). IFIP; Social Informatics: An Information Society for All? In Remembrance of Rob Kling Vol 223. Springer.
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  10. Yantao Bi (2012). The Political Economy of the Flow of Information. Asian Culture and History 4 (2):p43.
    In the global context, the economic-technological powers are also the political-cultural powers, which have the capacity to obtain the maximising benefits from the global flow of information. Meanwhile, the countries which are inferior in economics, technology, etc. feel unable to enjoy the fruits of the information society; they have to struggle for their right to communicate.
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  11. Mark H. Bickhard (2000). Information and Representation in Autonomous Agents. Cognitive Systems Research 1 (2):65-75.
    Information and representation are thought to be intimately related. Representation, in fact, is commonly considered to be a special kind of information. It must be a _special_ kind, because otherwise all of the myriad instances of informational relationships in the universe would be representational -- some restrictions must be placed on informational relationships in order to refine the vast set into those that are truly representational. I will argue that information in this general sense is important to genuine agents, but (...)
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  12. Mark Bovens (2002). Information Rights: Citizenship in the Information Society. Journal of Political Philosophy 10 (3):317–341.
  13. Stephen F. Bush (2013). 5. In Information Theory and Network Science for Power Systems. Wiley-Ieee Press 128--161.
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  14. Terrell Ward Bynum (2008). Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics. In M. J. van den Joven & J. Weckert (eds.), Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press
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  15. John Cantwell (1998). Resolving Conflicting Information. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (2):191-220.
    Information received from different sources can be inconsistent. Even when the sources of information can be ordered on the basis of their trustworthiness, it turns out that extracting an acceptable notion of support for information is a non-trivial matter, as is the question what information a rational agent should accept. Here it is shown how a support ordering on the information can be generated and how it can be used to decide what information to accept and what not to accept. (...)
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  16. Rosa Cao (2014). Signaling in the Brain: In Search of Functional Units. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):891-901.
    What are the functional units of the brain? If the function of the brain is to process information-carrying signals, then the functional units will be the senders and receivers of those signals. Neurons have been the default candidate, with action potentials as the signals. But there are alternatives: synapses fit the action potential picture more cleanly, and glial activities (e.g., in astrocytes) might also be characterized as signaling. Are synapses or nonneuronal cells better candidates to play the role of functional (...)
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  17. Igor Čatić, Maja Rujnić-Sokele & Borislav Dadić (2010). Energy or Information? Synthesis Philosophica 25 (1):173-180.
    The descriptions of the development of events in nature from the moment of the Big Bang are using concepts of ‘energy’ and ‘matter’. Systemically, these descriptions lack the third component of every system – information. This brings up the question of where in these descriptions information is and does it possibly precede energy. The analysis used the general systems theory, one of the powerful methods in modern science. For the description of the general technology , from the Big Bang to (...)
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  18. Georges Chapouthier (2013). Information, structure et forme dans la pensée de Raymond Ruyer. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 1 (5):21-28.
    La conception épistémologique dualiste de Raymond Ruyer, où l'information n'est signifiante que par l'exercice d'une conscience relevant d'une autre dimension, a permis à l'auteur d'échapper à un dogme erroné dans ce domaine : celui qui voulait identifier information, ordre et néguentropie. Même si les conceptions philosophiques des scientifiques d'aujourd'hui, généralement matérialistes et monistes, sont différentes, leurs conséquences rejoignent les positions épistémologiques de Ruyer où information, structure, forme ou évolution des espèces ne peuvent être conçues selon un réductionnisme simpliste. Raymond Ruyer's (...)
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  19. Stéphane Chaudiron & Madjid Ihadjadene (2004). Évaluer les Systèmes de Recherche d'Information : Nouveaux Modèles de L'Utilisateur. Hermes 39:170.
    Cet article présente l'apport des sciences cognitives à l'évaluation des systèmes de recherche d'information. Correspondant à une ouverture par rapport au paradigme «système» de l'évaluation, l'approche cognitive présente néanmoins des limites à la fois théoriques et méthodologiques qui sont présentées dans la première partie. Dans la deuxième partie, une extension de l'approche cognitive, qualifiée d'approche holistique, est présentée à travers quatre modèles qui illustrent le fait que l'enjeu n'est pas seulement de comprendre le comportement des usagers afin d'améliorer la performance (...)
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  20. Frank Cioffi (1970). Information, Contemplation and Social Life. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 4:105-131.
    Wittgenstein has a remark in which he admonishes us to remember that not everything which is expressed in the language of information belongs to the language game of giving information. In this paper I want to illustrate how the language of information may be used to disguise the character of the interest we take in social life, an interest whose candid and undisguised manifestations are to be found in literature.
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  21. Stirling A. Colgate & Hans Ziock (2011). A Definition of Information, the Arrow of Information, and its Relationship to Life. Complexity 16 (5):54-62.
  22. Gonçalo Jorge Morais Costa & Nuno Sotero Alves Silva (2010). Informational Existentialism! Will Information Ethics Shape Our Cultures? International Review of Information Ethics 13:33-41.
    The evolution of philosophy and physics seem to acknowledge that "informational existentialism" will be possible. Therefore, this contribution aims to comprehend if Heidegger existentialism can enrich the bound between information theory and the intercultural dialogue as regards to information. Even so, an important query arises: why specifically Heidegger's philosophy? Because it highlights an intercultural dialogue namely with East Asian and with Arabic philosophy, which is also consistent with the debate concerning the potential value and contribution of information theory to the (...)
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  23. Antony R. Crofts (2007). Life, Information, Entropy, and Time: Vehicles for Semantic Inheritance. Complexity 13 (1):14-50.
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  24. C. Davidson (2010). Humanities and Technology in the Information Age. In Julie Thompson Klein & Carl Mitcham (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. OUP Oxford
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  25. P. C. W. Davies & Niels Henrik Gregersen (eds.) (2010). Information and the Nature of Reality: From Physics to Metaphysics. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction: does information matter?; Paul Davies and Niels Henrik Gregersen; Part I. History: 2. From matter to materialism ... and (almost) back Ernan McMullin; 3. Unsolved dilemmas: the concept of matter in the history of philosophy and in contemporary physics Philip Clayton; Part II. Physics: 4. Universe from bit Paul Davies; 5. The computational universe Seth Lloyd; 6. Minds and values in the quantum universe Henry Pierce Stapp; Part III. Biology: 7. The concept of information (...)
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  26. Henk W. de Regt, Dennis Dieks, A. Contextual, Hykel Hosni, Jeff Paris & Rationality as Conformity (2005). Max Deutsch/Intentionalism and Intransitivity O. Lombardi/Dretske, Shannon's Theory and the Interpre-Tation of Information Wayne Wright/Distracted Drivers and Unattended Experience. Synthese 144 (1):449-450.
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  27. D. de Rougemont & R. S. Walker (1981). Information is Not Knowledge. Diogenes 29 (116):1-17.
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  28. William Dembski, Information as a Measure of Variation.
    In many applications of information theory, information measures the reduction of uncertainty that results from the knowledge that an event has occurred. Even so, an item of information learned need not be the occurrence of an event but, rather, the change in probability distribution associated with an ensemble of events. This paper examines the basic account of information, which focuses on events, and reviews how it may be naturally generalized to probability distributions/measures. The resulting information measure is special case of (...)
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  29. Keith Devlin (1998). Information Flow: The Logic of Distributed Systems by Jon Barwise and Jerry Seligman. Complexity 4 (2):30-32.
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  30. Wanda V. Dole & Jitka M. Hurych (2001). Values for Librarians in the Information Age. Journal of Information Ethics 10 (2):38-50.
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  31. Anthony Doyle (1985). Is Knowledge Information-Produced Belief? A Defense of Dretske Against Some Critics. Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (1):33-46.
  32. Tony Doyle (2010). A Critique of Information Ethics. Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):163-175.
    Luciano Floridi presents Information Ethics (IE) as an alternative to traditional moral theories. IE consists of two tenets. First, reality can be interpreted at numerous, mutually consistent levels of abstraction, the highest of which is information. This level, unlike the others, applies to all of reality. Second, everything, insofar as it is an information object, has some degree of intrinsic value and hence moral dignity. I criticize IE, arguing that Floridi fails to show that the moral community should be expanded (...)
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  33. Ramsey Dukes (2003). Words Made Flesh, or, Information in Formation. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  34. J. Michael Dunn (2013). A Guide to the Floridi Keys. Metascience 22 (1):93-98.
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  35. Se Edgell (1992). Relevant Dimensional Information Facilitates the Utilization of Configural Information. 2. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):480-480.
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  36. Comandanta Esther (2009). 230 Shannon Speed. In Mark Goodale (ed.), Human Rights: An Anthropological Reader. Wiley-Blackwell 10--229.
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  37. Luciano Floridi (2014). The Latent Nature of Global Information Warfare. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):317-319.
    Information has always been at the core of conflicts. When Napoleon planned to invade Italy, he duly upgraded the first telegraph network in the world, the French “semaphore”. He famously remarked that “an army marches on its stomach,” but he also knew that the same army acted on information. As Von Clausewitz once stated “by the word ‘information’ we denote all the knowledge which we have of the enemy and his country; therefore, in fact, the foundation of all our ideas (...)
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  38. Luciano Floridi (2008). Understanding Epistemic Relevance. Erkenntnis 69 (1):69-92.
    Agents require a constant flow, and a high level of processing, of relevant semantic information, in order to interact successfully among themselves and with the environment in which they are embedded. Standard theories of information, however, are silent on the nature of epistemic relevance. In this paper, a subjectivist interpretation of epistemic relevance is developed and defended. It is based on a counterfactual and metatheoretical analysis of the degree of relevance of some semantic information i to an informee/agent a, as (...)
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  39. Petros Gelepithis (1997). A Rudimentary Theory of Information: Consequences for Information Science and Information Systems. World Futures 49 (3):275-286.
    (1997). A rudimentary theory of information: Consequences for information science and information systems. World Futures: Vol. 49, The Quest for a Unified Theory of Information, pp. 275-286.
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  40. Murray Gell-Mann & Seth Lloyd (1996). Information Measures, Effective Complexity, and Total Information. Complexity 2 (1):44-52.
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  41. Dieter Gernert (2006). Pragmatic Information: Historical Exposition and General Overview. Mind and Matter 4 (2):141-167.
    Pragmatic information,understood as the impact of a message upon a receiving system,represents a matured and comprehensive concept of which earlier proposals are special cases.The di .erent kinds of recipients and reactions to incoming message are characterized.In a historical exposition the principal approaches to the definition and operationalization of information are critically reviewed. From a modern point of view,the measurement of pragmatic information is possible but requires novel and specific procedures.As a perspective notion,pragmatic information will be analyzed in its relationships with (...)
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  42. Dr Carlos Gershenson, The World as Evolving Information.
    This paper discusses the benefits of describing the world as information, especially in the study of the evolution of life and cognition. Traditional studies encounter problems because it is difficult to describe life and cognition in terms of matter and energy, since their laws are valid only at the physical scale. However, if matter and energy, as well as life and cognition, are described in terms of information, evolution can be described consistently as information becoming more complex. The paper presents (...)
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  43. Terrance Goan, Emi Fujioka, Ryan Kaneshiro & Lynn Gasch (2006). Part III-Extended Abstracts for Posters and Demos-Data, Information, and Knowledge Management-Identifying Information Provenance in Support of Intelligence Analysis, Sharing, and Protection. In O. Stock & M. Schaerf (eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag 692-693.
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  44. Peter Godfrey-Smith (1989). Misinformation. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 19 (4):533-50.
  45. Wendy J. Gordon (2008). Moral Philosophy, Information Technology, and Copyright: The Grokster Case. In M. J. van den Joven & J. Weckert (eds.), Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press 270.
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  46. Peter Beim Graben (2006). Pragmatic Information in Dynamic Semantics. Mind and Matter 4 (2):169-193.
    In 1972,Ernst Ulrich and Christine von Weizs ¨acker introduced the concept of pragmatic information with three desiderata: Pragmatic information should assess the impact of a message upon its receiver;Pragmatic information should vanish in the limits of complete 'novelty 'and complete 'confirmation';Pragmatic information should exhibit non-classical properties since novelty and confirmation behave similarly to Fourier pairs of complementary operators in quantum mechanics. It will be shown how these three desiderata can be naturally fulfilled within the framework of Gardenfors' dynamic semantics of (...)
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  47. Alexei Grinbaum (2013). Quantum Observer, Information Theory and Kolmogorov Complexity. In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag 59--72.
  48. Ruth Hagengruber & Uwe Riss (eds.) (2014). Philosophy, Computing and Information Science. Chatto and Pickering.
    Over the last four decades computers and the internet have become an intrinsic part of all our lives, but this speed of development has left related philosophical enquiry behind. Featuring the work of computer scientists and philosophers, these essays provide an overview of an exciting new area of philosophy that is still taking shape.
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  49. Pelle G. Hansen, Vincent F. Hendricks & Rasmus K. Rendsvig (2013). Infostorms. Metaphilosophy 44 (3):301-326.
    It has become a truism that we live in so-called information societies where new information technologies have made information abundant. At the same time, information science has made us aware of many phenomena tied to the way we process information. This article explores a series of socio-epistemic information phenomena resulting from processes that track truth imperfectly: pluralistic ignorance, informational cascades, and belief polarization. It then couples these phenomena with the hypothesis that modern information technologies may lead to their amplification so (...)
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  50. Michael Karl Wilhelm Happold (2001). Information, Computation, and the Nature of Cognition: A Critique of Computational Approaches to Understanding and Creating Minds. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo
    Cognitive scientists generally subscribe to an information-processing model of mind and implement this model through computational methods. Information processing is understood to be generation and composition of informational primitives into more complex pieces of information in response to signals extracted from the environment. Computationalism offers a powerful methodology for carrying out information processing, with abstract tokens standing in for pieces of information, and new information structures being created through application of rules. This purely syntactic model of cognition is unable, however, (...)
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