Search results for 'Lateral transfer' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  3
    Johann-Mattis List, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, Hans Geisler & William Martin (2014). Networks of Lexical Borrowing and Lateral Gene Transfer in Language and Genome Evolution. Bioessays 36 (2):141-150.
  2.  40
    Frédéric Bouchard (2010). Symbiosis, Lateral Function Transfer and the (Many) Saplings of Life. Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):623-641.
    One of intuitions driving the acceptance of a neat structured tree of life is the assumption that organisms and the lineages they form have somewhat stable spatial and temporal boundaries. The phenomenon of symbiosis shows us that such ‘fixist’ assumptions does not correspond to how the natural world actually works. The implications of lateral gene transfer (LGT) have been discussed elsewhere; I wish to stress a related point. I will focus on lateral function transfer (LFT) and (...)
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  3.  63
    Joel D. Velasco & Elliott Sober (2010). Testing for Treeness: Lateral Gene Transfer, Phylogenetic Inference, and Model Selection. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):675-687.
    A phylogeny that allows for lateral gene transfer (LGT) can be thought of as a strictly branching tree (all of whose branches are vertical) to which lateral branches have been added. Given that the goal of phylogenetics is to depict evolutionary history, we should look for the best supported phylogenetic network and not restrict ourselves to considering trees. However, the obvious extensions of popular tree-based methods such as maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood face a serious problem—if we (...)
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  4.  23
    Gregory J. Morgan (2010). Evaluating Maclaurin and Sterelny's Conception of Biodiversity in Cases of Frequent, Promiscuous Lateral Gene Transfer. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):603-621.
    The recent conception of biodiversity proposed by James Maclaurin and Sterelny was developed mostly with macrobiological life in mind. They suggest that we measure biodiversity by dividing life into natural units (typically species) and quantifying the differences among units using phenetic rather than phylogenetic measures of distance. They identify problems in implementing quantitative phylogenetic notions of difference for non-prokaryotic species. I suggest that if we focus on microbiological life forms that engage in frequent, promiscuous lateral gene transfer (LGT), (...)
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  5. Jason H. Ko, David M. Kalainov, Lawrence P. Hsu, Robert C. Fang & Robert D. Mastey (2012). Double Lateral Band Transfer for Treatment of Traumatic Hyperextension Instability of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint: A Report of Two Cases. In Zdravko Radman (ed.), The Hand. MIT Press 108-113.
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  6.  6
    Atma M. Ivancevic, Ali M. Walsh, R. Daniel Kortschak & David L. Adelson (2013). Jumping the Fine LINE Between Species: Horizontal Transfer of Transposable Elements in Animals Catalyses Genome Evolution. Bioessays 35 (12):1071-1082.
  7.  2
    Chong S. Choe & Robert B. Welch (1974). Variables Affecting the Intermanual Transfer and Decay of Prism Adaptation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1076.
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  8.  12
    W. Ford Doolittle (2013). Microbial Neopleomorphism. Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):351-378.
    Our understanding of what microbes are and how they evolve has undergone many radical shifts since the late nineteenth century, when many still believed that bacteria could be spontaneously generated and most thought microbial “species” (if any) to be unstable and interchangeable in form and function (pleomorphic). By the late twentieth century, an ontology based on single cells and definable species with predictable properties, evolving like species of animals or plants, was widely accepted. Now, however, genomic and metagenomic data show (...)
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  9. Joachim L. Dagg (2011). Exploring Mouse Trap History. Evolution Education and Outreach 4 (3):397-414.
    Since intelligent design (ID) advocates claimed the ubiquitous mouse trap as an example of systems that cannot have evolved, mouse trap history is doubly relevant to studying material culture. On the one hand, debunking ID claims about mouse traps and, by implication, also about other irreducibly complex systems has a high educational value. On the other hand, a case study of mouse trap history may contribute insights to the academic discussion about material culture evolution. Michael Behe argued that mouse traps (...)
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  10.  51
    Maureen A. O’Malley, William Martin & John Dupré (2010). The Tree of Life: Introduction to an Evolutionary Debate. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):441-453.
    The ‘Tree of Life’ is intended to represent the pattern of evolutionary processes that result in bifurcating species lineages. Often justified in reference to Darwin’s discussions of trees, the Tree of Life has run up against numerous challenges especially in regard to prokaryote evolution. This special issue examines scientific, historical and philosophical aspects of debates about the Tree of Life, with the aim of turning these criticisms towards a reconstruction of prokaryote phylogeny and even some aspects of the standard evolutionary (...)
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  11.  50
    Eric Bapteste & Richard M. Burian (2010). On the Need for Integrative Phylogenomics, and Some Steps Toward its Creation. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):711-736.
    Recently improved understanding of evolutionary processes suggests that tree-based phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary change cannot adequately explain the divergent evolutionary histories of a great many genes and gene complexes. In particular, genetic diversity in the genomes of prokaryotes, phages, and plasmids cannot be fit into classic tree-like models of evolution. These findings entail the need for fundamental reform of our understanding of molecular evolution and the need to devise alternative apparatus for integrated analysis of these genomes. We advocate the development (...)
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  12.  14
    Maureen A. O'Malley & Yan Boucher (2005). Paradigm Change in Evolutionary Microbiology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (1):183-208.
    Thomas Kuhn had little to say about scientific change in biological science, and biologists are ambivalent about how applicable his framework is for their disciplines. We apply Kuhn’s account of paradigm change to evolutionary microbiology, where key Darwinian tenets are being challenged by two decades of findings from molecular phylogenetics. The chief culprit is lateral gene transfer, which undermines the role of vertical descent and the representation of evolutionary history as a tree of life. To assess Kuhn’s relevance (...)
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  13.  40
    Jeffrey G. Lawrence & Adam C. Retchless (2010). The Myth of Bacterial Species and Speciation. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):569-588.
    The Tree of Life hypothesis frames the evolutionary process as a series of events whereby lineages diverge from one another, thus creating the diversity of life as descendent lineages modify properties from their ancestors. This hypothesis is under scrutiny due to the strong evidence for lateral gene transfer between distantly related bacterial taxa, thereby providing extant taxa with more than one parent. As a result, one argues, the Tree of Life becomes confounded as the original branching structure is (...)
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  14.  32
    Justin A. Capes (2016). Incompatibilism and the Transfer of Non-Responsibility. Philosophical Studies 173 (6):1477-1495.
    Arguments for the incompatibility of determinism and moral responsibility sometimes make use of various transfer of non-responsibility principles. These principles purport to specify conditions in which lack of moral responsibility is transmitted to the consequences of things for which people are not morally responsible. In this paper, after developing what I take to be the most serious objections to extant principles of this sort, I identify and defend a new transfer of non-responsibility principle that is immune to these (...)
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  15.  10
    Kanji Tanaka & Katsumi Watanabe (2014). Implicit Transfer of Reversed Temporal Structure in Visuomotor Sequence Learning. Cognitive Science 38 (3):565-579.
    Some spatio-temporal structures are easier to transfer implicitly in sequential learning. In this study, we investigated whether the consistent reversal of triads of learned components would support the implicit transfer of their temporal structure in visuomotor sequence learning. A triad comprised three sequential button presses ([1][2][3]) and seven consecutive triads comprised a sequence. Participants learned sequences by trial and error, until they could complete it 20 times without error. Then, they learned another sequence, in which each triad was (...)
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  16.  37
    Carol E. Cleland (2007). Epistemological Issues in the Study of Microbial Life: Alternative Terran Biospheres? Stud. Hist. Phil. Biol. And Biomed. Sci 38 (4):847-61.
    The assumption that all life on Earth today shares the same basic molecular architecture and biochemistry is part of the paradigm of modern biology. This paper argues that there is little theoretical or empirical support for this widely held assumption. Scientists know that life could have been at least modestly different at the molecular level and it is clear that alternative molecular building blocks for life were available on the early Earth. If the emergence of life is, like other natural (...)
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  17.  30
    Aldo Geuna & Alessandro Muscio (2009). The Governance of University Knowledge Transfer: A Critical Review of the Literature. Minerva 47 (1):93-114.
    Universities have long been involved in knowledge transfer activities. Yet the last 30 years have seen major changes in the governance of university–industry interactions. Knowledge transfer has become a strategic issue: as a source of funding for university research and (rightly or wrongly) as a policy tool for economic development. Universities vary enormously in the extent to which they promote and succeed in commercializing academic research. The identification of clear-cut models of governance for university–industry interactions and knowledge (...) processes is not straightforward. The purpose of this article is to critically discuss university knowledge transfer models and review the recent developments in the literature on research collaborations, intellectual property rights and spin-offs, those forms of knowledge transfer that are more formalized and have been institutionalized in recent years. The article also addresses the role played by university knowledge transfer organizations in promoting commercialization of research results. (shrink)
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  18.  1
    Anne E. Riggs, Martha W. Alibali & Charles W. Kalish (2015). Leave Her Out of It: Person‐Presentation of Strategies is Harmful for Transfer. Cognitive Science 39 (8):1965-1978.
    A common practice in textbooks is to introduce concepts or strategies in association with specific people. This practice aligns with research suggesting that using “real-world” contexts in textbooks increases students’ motivation and engagement. However, other research suggests this practice may interfere with transfer by distracting students or leading them to tie new knowledge too closely to the original learning context. The current study investigates the effects on learning and transfer of connecting mathematics strategies to specific people. A total (...)
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  19. Vinod Goel & Oshin Vartanian (2005). Dissociating the Roles of Right Ventral Lateral and Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Generation and Maintenance of Hypotheses in Set-Shift Problems. Cerebral Cortex 15 (8):1170-1177.
    Although patient data have traditionally implicated the left prefrontal cortex in hypothesis generation, recent lesion data implicate right PFC in hypothesis generation tasks that involve set shifts. To test the involvement of the right prefrontal cortex in a hypothesis generation task involving set shifts, we scanned 13 normal subjects with fMRI as they completed Match Problems and a baseline task. In Match Problems subjects determined the number of possible solutions for each trial. Successful solutions are indicative of set shifts. In (...)
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  20.  35
    Maureen A. O’Malley (2010). Ernst Mayr, the Tree of Life, and Philosophy of Biology. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):529-552.
    Ernst Mayr’s influence on philosophy of biology has given the field a particular perspective on evolution, phylogeny and life in general. Using debates about the tree of life as a guide, I show how Mayrian evolutionary biology excludes numerous forms of life and many important evolutionary processes. Hybridization and lateral gene transfer are two of these processes, and they occur frequently, with important outcomes in all domains of life. Eukaryotes appear to have a more tree-like history because successful (...)
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  21.  38
    Marcus Kracht & Frank Wolter (1997). Simulation and Transfer Results in Modal Logic – a Survey. Studia Logica 59 (2):149-177.
    This papers gives a survey of recent results about simulations of one class of modal logics by another class and of the transfer of properties of modal logics under extensions of the underlying modal language. We discuss: the transfer from normal polymodal logics to their fusions, the transfer from normal modal logics to their extensions by adding the universal modality, and the transfer from normal monomodal logics to minimal tense extensions. Likewise, we discuss simulations of normal (...)
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  22.  19
    Robert G. Beiko (2010). Gene Sharing and Genome Evolution: Networks in Trees and Trees in Networks. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):659-673.
    Frequent lateral genetic transfer undermines the existence of a unique “tree of life” that relates all organisms. Vertical inheritance is nonetheless of vital interest in the study of microbial evolution, and knowing the “tree of cells” can yield insights into ecological continuity, the rates of change of different cellular characters, and the evolutionary plasticity of genomes. Notwithstanding within-species recombination, the relationships most frequently recovered from genomic data at shallow to moderate taxonomic depths are likely to reflect cellular inheritance. (...)
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  23.  30
    Evan Selinger (2009). Towards a Reflexive Framework for Development: Technology Transfer After the Empirical Turn. Synthese 168 (3):377 - 403.
    The purpose of this essay is to: (1) detail how recent trends in philosophical theory have made it possible for philosophers of technology to critically discuss technology transfer; (2) demonstrate that economic standards of assessment are conducive to obscuring the hidden tradeoffs that technological practices, such as mobile phone use in Bangladesh, can engender; and (3) provide the basis of an alternative model that can reflexively addresses dimensions of technology transfer that neo-classical economic accounts occlude.
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  24.  5
    J. Sapp (2007). The Structure of Microbial Evolutionary Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):780-795.
    The study of microbial phylogeny and evolution has emerged as an interdisciplinary synthesis, divergent in both methods and concepts from the classical evolutionary biology. The deployment of macromolecular sequencing in microbial classification has provided a deep evolutionary taxonomy hitherto deemed impossible. Microbial phylogenetics has greatly transformed the landscape of evolutionary biology, not only in revitalizing the field in the pursuit of life’s history over billions of years, but also in transcending the structure of thought that has shaped evolutionary theory since (...)
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  25.  11
    Carol E. Cleland (2007). Epistemological Issues in the Study of Microbial Life: Alternative Terran Biospheres? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (4):847-861.
    The assumption that all life on Earth today shares the same basic molecular architecture and biochemistry is part of the paradigm of modern biology. This paper argues that there is little theoretical or empirical support for this widely held assumption. Scientists know that life could have been at least modestly different at the molecular level and it is clear that alternative molecular building blocks for life were available on the early Earth. If the emergence of life is, like other natural (...)
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  26.  31
    Messaoud Mehafdi (2000). The Ethics of International Transfer Pricing. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (4):365 - 381.
    The pursuit of economic opportunity has frequently put transnational manufacturing enterprises in the spotlight, accused of contributing to, if not causing, economic hardship, social deprivation, unsustainable growth, labour exploitation, resource plundering and ecological degradation in home and host countries. A substantial part of international trade now consists of intra-firm sales, or commercial transactions between units of the same business corporation, within or beyond the national borders of the parent company. Known as transfer pricing and viewed as a legitimate business (...)
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  27.  31
    Mi-Kyung Kim (2009). Oversight Framework Over Oocyte Procurement for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Comparative Analysis of the Hwang Woo Suk Case Under South Korean Bioethics Law and U.S. Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (5):367-384.
    We examine whether the current regulatory regime instituted in South Korea and the United States would have prevented Hwang’s potential transgressions in oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer, we compare the general aspects and oversight framework of the Bioethics and Biosafety Act in South Korea and the US National Academies’ Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and apply the relevant provisions and recommendations to each transgression. We conclude that the Act would institute centralized oversight under governmental auspices (...)
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  28.  35
    Chong Ju Choi & Sae Won Kim (2008). Women and Globalization: Ethical Dimensions of Knowledge Transfer in Global Organizations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):53 - 61.
    The topic of women and globalization raises fundamental questions on the impact of globalization on women, ethnic minorities and other socio-demographically under-represented actors in global organizations. This article seeks to integrate theories of procedural justice, psychological contracts, motivation and psychological ownership in knowledge transfer in global organizations, and the implications for women, and other under-represented actors. Our analysis concurs with current research on the need for a relativist perspective in business ethics research and one that encompasses the critical processes (...)
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  29.  48
    Steven Phillips (1999). Systematic Minds, Unsystematic Models: Learning Transfer in Humans and Networks. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 9 (3):383-398.
    Minds are said to be systematic: the capacity to entertain certain thoughts confers to other related thoughts. Although an important property of human cognition, its implication for cognitive architecture has been less than clear. In part, the uncertainty is due to lack of precise accounts on the degree to which cognition is systematic. However, a recent study on learning transfer provides one clear example. This study is used here to compare transfer in humans and feedforward networks. Simulations and (...)
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  30.  14
    Manuel Velasquez (2009). Development, Justice, and Technology Transfer in China: The Case of HP and Legend. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):157 - 166.
    In 1978, 16 months after Mao Zedong's death, China's new leader, Deng Xiaoping, introduced market reforms and an "opening" to the West that allowed the US company Hewlett-Packard (HP) to enter China in 1981. Shortly thereafter, HP began a partnership with the Chinese company Legend Computer (now Lenovo), through which HP transferred its technology in four main areas: (1) product technology, (2) business model, (3) management practices, and (4) strategic planning processes. This technology transfer seems to be a "just (...)
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  31.  20
    Olivier Rieppel (2013). Biological Individuals and Natural Kinds. Biological Theory 7 (2):162-169.
    This paper takes a hierarchical approach to the question whether species are individuals or natural kinds. The thesis defended here is that species are spatiotemporally located complex wholes (individuals), that are composed of (i.e., include) causally interdependent parts, which collectively also instantiate a homeostatic property cluster (HPC) natural kind. Species may form open or closed genetic systems that are dynamic in nature, that have fuzzy boundaries due to the processual nature of speciation, that may have leaky boundaries as is manifest (...)
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  32.  8
    Hongjing Lu, Randall R. Rojas, Tom Beckers & Alan L. Yuille (2016). A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer. Cognitive Science 40 (2):404-439.
    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that (...)
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  33.  43
    Danilo šuster (2004). Incompatibilism and the Logic of Transfer. Acta Analytica 19 (33):45-54.
    Modal arguments for incompatibility of freedom and determinism are typically based on the “transfer principle” for inability to act otherwise (Beta). The principle of agglomerativity (closure under conjunction introduction) is derivable from Beta. The most convincing counterexample to Beta is based on the denial of Agglomeration. The defender of the modal argument has two ways to block counterexamples to Beta: (i) use a notion of inability to act otherwise which is immune to the counterexample to agglomerativity; (ii) replace Beta (...)
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  34. Luis M. Villegas‐Silva (2006). A Gap 1 Cardinal Transfer Theorem. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 52 (4):340-350.
    We extend the gap 1 cardinal transfer theorem → to any language of cardinality ≤λ, where λ is a regular cardinal. This transfer theorem has been proved by Chang under GCH for countable languages and by Silver in some cases for bigger languages . We assume the existence of a coarse -morass instead of GCH.
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  35.  6
    Dominic Wilkinson, G. Owen Schaefer, Kelton Tremellen & Julian Savulescu (2015). Double Trouble: Should Double Embryo Transfer Be Banned? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (2):121-139.
    What role should legislation or policy play in avoiding the complications of in-vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on single versus double embryo transfer, and assess three arguments in favour of mandatory single embryo transfer: risks to the mother, risks to resultant children, and costs to society. We highlight significant ethical concerns about each of these. Reproductive autonomy and non-paternalism are strong enough to outweigh the health concerns for the woman. Complications due to non-identity cast doubt on (...)
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  36.  7
    Felix Rauner & Klaus Ruth (1989). Industrial Cultural Determinants of Technological Developments: Skill Transfer or Power Transfer? [REVIEW] AI and Society 3 (2):88-102.
    This paper discusses the social effects resulting from the transfer of knowledge and skill both in the spheres of production and machine design. Relevant design determinants and their impact on technological developments are discussed within the theoretical framework of industrial cultures. Two types of skill transfer are analysed in connection with different production philosophies — one more Tayloristic, the other more workshop-oriented. Finally, the paper discusses the relation of both philosophies to the requirements of future production concepts.
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  37.  9
    Ling Wang & King Kui Sin (2013). Legal Translation and Cultural Transfer: A Framework for Translating the Common Law Into Chinese in Hong Kong. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 26 (4):883-896.
    It is widely held in translation studies that translation proper is not merely a process of linguistic transfer but also of cultural transfer. But how cultural transfer is effected or whether it can be effected is not at all clear. The study begins with a critical analysis of the problems relating to law translation in general and translating the common law into Chinese in particular. It then examines the nature of cultural transfer in law translation with (...)
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  38.  19
    Nadine Le Forestier (2011). Normalities Are Not the Only Answer for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients. Medicine Studies 3 (2):71-81.
    Because our actions change, our responsibility is modified; because our responsibility is modified, we need to question the ethics of the action. Our action is situated right there between announcing a diagnosis, the theoretical and practical result of identification, the determining and naming of a fact and voicing the disease which is a human action where medical and technical expertise comes up against a life and its story. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a degenerative disease (...)
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  39.  3
    Safia Mahomed, Kevin Behrens, Melodie Slabbert & Ian Sanne (2016). Managing Human Tissue Transfer Across National Boundaries – An Approach From an Institution in South Africa. Developing World Bioethics 16 (1):29-35.
    With biobank research on the increase and the history of exploitation in Africa, it has become necessary to manage the transfer of human tissues across national boundaries. There are many accepted templates of Material Transfer Agreements that currently exist internationally. However, these templates do not address the specific concerns of South Africa and even of Africa as a continent. This article will examine three significantly important ethico-legal concepts that were deliberated and carefully adapted by a South African Institution (...)
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  40.  8
    Felix Rauner & Djavad Salari (2003). Cultural Determinants of Technology Transfer - a Case Study in Human Resources Planning for Steel Production. AI and Society 17 (3-4):266-277.
    Technology transfer (TT) is a highly complex problem in development cooperation. Case studies that ITB has conducted in various projects focusing on automobile and steel production as well as in the machine tool sector indicate that the multi-dimensionality of know-how transfer is often and greatly underestimated during the planning and implementation of TTs from one industrial “culture” to another. Greater insight and knowledge of the problems associated with know-how transfer in TT projects can only be obtained from (...)
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  41.  6
    Donald Chalmers, Dianne Nicol, Pilar Nicolás & Nikolajs Zeps (2014). A Role for Research Ethics Committees in Exchanges of Human Biospecimens Through Material Transfer Agreements. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (3):301-306.
    International transfers of human biological material (biospecimens) and data are increasing, and commentators are starting to raise concerns about how donor wishes are protected in such circumstances. These exchanges are generally made under contractual material transfer agreements (MTAs). This paper asks what role, if any, should research ethics committees (RECs) play in ensuring legal and ethical conduct in such exchanges. It is recommended that RECs should play a more active role in the future development of best practice MTAs involving (...)
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  42.  14
    Amir S. Tabandeh (1994). Characterising Artificial Intelligence Technology for International Transfer. AI and Society 8 (4):315-325.
    One of the central factors influencing the process and the outcome of technology transfer is the nature of the technology being transferred. This paper identifies and discusses the main characteristics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology from the point of view of international technology transfer. It attempts to indicate the peculiarities of AI in this context and move towards a framework to assist recipient decision makers in optimising the formulation of their policies on AI technology transfer.
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  43.  4
    Creso Sá, Andrew Kretz & Kristjan Sigurdson (2013). Techno-Nationalism and the Construction of University Technology Transfer. Minerva 51 (4):443-464.
    Our historical study of Canada’s main research university illuminates the overlooked influence of national identities and interests as forces shaping the institutionalization of technology transfer. Through the use of archival sources we trace the rise and influence of Canadian technological nationalism—a response to Canada’s perceived dependency on the United States’ science and technology. Technological nationalism provided a symbol for producing a shared understanding of the desirability and appropriateness of technology transfer that legitimated the commercial activities of university scientists.
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  44.  3
    Takao Nuki (1990). The 'Transfer of Skill' and the 'Transfer of Human Relations' to Machine Systems. AI and Society 4 (3):173-182.
    The necessity and opportunity for face-to-face contact with other colleagues is being increasingly reduced as a result of factory automation (FA) or office automation (OA). This means that human functions which are a result of human contact and relationships are substituted for by the function of machine systems. This “transfer of relations” from the human “system” to the machine system causes isolation of the individual in the process of work. This chapter considers some reasons for “isolation” with particular reference (...)
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  45.  3
    Virginijus Bitė (2010). Classification of Sale or Acquisition of Company Shares as a Business Transfer: Diagnostic Criteria and the Liability of the Seller (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 120 (2):357-378.
    The object of this study is the legal framework for the sale or purchase of company shares when the goal of the transaction is the sale of a business. The impact of such transactions on Lithuanian economic development underlines the importance of this study. The recent wave of mergers and acquisitions in Lithuania is likely to substantially increase the number of related legal disputes as well. Legislation on the purchase and sale of company shares and the resulting transfer of (...)
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  46.  3
    Shelly Benjaminy & Tania Bubela (2014). Ocular Gene Transfer in the Spotlight: Implications of Newspaper Content for Clinical Communications. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):58.
    Ocular gene transfer clinical trials are raising hopes for blindness treatments and attracting media attention. News media provide an accessible health information source for patients and the public, but are often criticized for overemphasizing benefits and underplaying risks of novel biomedical interventions. Overly optimistic portrayals of unproven interventions may influence public and patient expectations; the latter may cause patients to downplay risks and over-emphasize benefits, with implications for informed consent for clinical trials. We analyze the news media communications landscape (...)
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  47.  2
    Jay Liebowitz & Francisco J. Cantu-Ortiz (1992). Expert System Technology Transfer Strategies: Selected Cases From the United States and Mexico. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (4):324-336.
    Expert systems are being developed in a multitude of domains worldwide. The usage of expert systems within organizations is growing; however, many expert systems projects still fail due to poor ‘institutionalization’ practices. This paper addresses various strategies for providing the transfer of expert systems technology within organizations. Specifically, this paper will address expert system technology transfer strategies using examples from United States and Mexican organizations.
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  48. Virginijus Bitė (2011). Non-Competition Covenants in Case of a Business Transfer. Jurisprudence 18 (1):177-198.
    The validity (probability) of non-competition covenants which are typical for business transfer transactions is one of those issues on which discussions go in the international business transfer theory and practice. On one hand, such covenants help ensure the business interests of the buyer, on the other hand, by their nature, they can mean a restriction of competition, which is prohibited by law. This article, based on the analysis of the European Union, the Lithuanian and foreign legislation, case-law and (...)
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  49. Kenneth R. Koedinger, Michael V. Yudelson & Philip I. Pavlik (2016). Testing Theories of Transfer Using Error Rate Learning Curves. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (3):589-609.
    We analyze naturally occurring datasets from student use of educational technologies to explore a long-standing question of the scope of transfer of learning. We contrast a faculty theory of broad transfer with a component theory of more constrained transfer. To test these theories, we develop statistical models of them. These models use latent variables to represent mental functions that are changed while learning to cause a reduction in error rates for new tasks. Strong versions of these models (...)
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  50. Jan Willem Wieland & Philip Robichaud (forthcoming). Blame Transfer. In Philip Robichaud & Jan Willem Wieland (eds.), Responsibility - The Epistemic Condition. Oxford University Press
    Many philosophers accept derivative blameworthiness for ignorant conduct – the idea that the blameworthiness for one’s ignorance can ‘transfer’ to blameworthiness for one’s subsequent ignorant conduct. In this chapter we ask the question what it actually means that blameworthiness would transfer, and explore four distinct views and their merits. On views (I) and (II), one’s overall degree of blameworthiness is determined by factors relevant to one’s ignorance and/or one’s subsequent conduct, and transfer only involves an increase in (...)
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