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  1. Lonnie W. Aarssen (2013). Will Empathy Save Us? Biological Theory 7 (3):211-217.
    Recent prescriptions for rescuing civilization from collapse involve extending our human capacity for empathy to a global scale. This is a worthy goal, but several indications leave grounds for cautious optimism at best. Evolutionary biology interprets non-kin helping behaviors as products of natural selection that rewarded only the transmission success of resident genes within ancestors, not their prospects for building a sustainable civilization for descendants. These descendants however are now us, threatened with ruin on a warming, overcrowded planet—and our evolutionary (...)
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  2. Adnan S. Abu-Surrah & Bernhard Rieger (forthcoming). Problems and Paradigms: Genetic Sex Determination Mechanism and Evolution. Bioessays.
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  3. Ge Allen (1991). Marxism and Human Sociobiology-Reply. Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):453-456.
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  4. Stephen J. Alter & Uwe Hossfeld (1999). Book Reviews-Darwinism and the Linguistic Image: Language, Race and Natural Theology in the Nineteenth Century. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2):236-236.
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  5. Kristin Andrews & Brian Huss (2014). Anthropomorphism, Anthropectomy, and the Null Hypothesis. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):711-729.
    We examine the claim that the methodology of psychology leads to a bias in animal cognition research against attributing “anthropomorphic” properties to animals . This charge is examined in light of a debate on the role of folk psychology between primatologists who emphasize similarities between humans and other apes, and those who emphasize differences. We argue that while in practice there is sometimes bias, either in the formulation of the null hypothesis or in the preference of Type-II errors over Type-I (...)
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  6. Wallace Arthur & Ariel D. Chipman (2005). The Centipede Strigamia Maritima: What It Can Tell Us About the Development and Evolution of Segmentation. Bioessays 27 (6):653-660.
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  7. Alessandra Attanasio (2010). Darwinismo Morale: Da Darwin Alle Neuroscienze. Utet Università.
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  8. Pierre Auger, Ali Moussaoui & Gauthier Sallet (forthcoming). Basic Reproduction Ratio for a Fishery Model in a Patchy Environment. Acta Biotheoretica.
    Abstract We present a dynamical model of a multi-site fishery. The fish stock is located on a discrete set of fish habitats where it is catched by the fishing fleet. We assume that fishes remain on fishing habitats while the fishing vessels can move at a fast time scale to visit the different fishing sites. We use the existence of two time scales to reduce the dimension of the model : we build an aggregated model considering the habitat fish densities (...)
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  9. Robert Aunger & Valerie Curtis (2013). The Anatomy of Motivation: An Evolutionary-Ecological Approach. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 8 (1):49-63.
    There have been few attempts to bring evolutionary theory to the study of human motivation. From this perspective motives can be considered psychological mechanisms to produce behavior that solves evolutionarily important tasks in the human niche. From the dimensions of the human niche we deduce eight human needs: optimize the number and survival of gene copies; maintain bodily integrity; avoid external threats; optimize sexual, environmental, and social capital; and acquire reproductive and survival skills. These needs then serve as the foundation (...)
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  10. Francisco J. Ayala (2000). Evolution of Biological Diversity. Bioessays 22 (7):681-682.
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  11. Francisco J. Ayala (1995). Adam, Eve, and Other Ancestors: A Story of Human Origins Told by Genes. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (2):303 - 313.
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  12. Francisco J. Ayala (1985). Human Nature and Evolution. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 7 (2):315 - 320.
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  13. G. F. Azzone (1996). The Disease: Evolutionary, Thermodynamical and Historical Aspect'. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17:83-106.
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  14. Tudor M. Baetu (2012). Mechanistic Constraints on Evolutionary Outcomes. Philosophy of Science 79 (2):276-294.
  15. Michael E. Baker (2003). Evolution of Adrenal and Sex Steroid Action in Vertebrates: A Ligand‐Based Mechanism for Complexity. Bioessays 25 (4):396-400.
  16. Marcello Barbieri (2011). Origin and Evolution of the Brain. Biosemiotics 4 (3):369-399.
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  17. Marcello Barbieri (2003). The Organic Codes: An Introduction to Semantic Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    The genetic code appeared on Earth with the first cells. The codes of cultural evolution arrived almost four billion years later. These are the only codes that are recognized by modern biology. In this book, however, Marcello Barbieri explains that there are many more organic codes in nature, and their appearance not only took place throughout the history of life but marked the major steps of that history. A code establishes a correspondence between two independent 'worlds', and the codemaker is (...)
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  18. H. Clark Barrett, Stephen Stich & Stephen Laurence (2012). Should the Study of Homo Sapiens Be Part of Cognitive Science? Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (3):379-386.
    Beller, Bender, and Medin argue that a reconciliation between anthropology and cognitive science seems unlikely. We disagree. In our view, Beller et al.’s view of the scope of what anthropology can offer cognitive science is too narrow. In focusing on anthropology’s role in elucidating cultural particulars, they downplay the fact that anthropology can reveal both variation and universals in human cognition, and is in a unique position to do so relative to the other subfields of cognitive science. Indeed, without cross-cultural (...)
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  19. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2013). The Evolution of Simple Rule-Following. Biological Theory 8 (2):142-150.
    We are concerned here with explaining how successful rule-following behavior might evolve and how an old evolved rule might come to be successfully used in a new context. Such rule-following behavior is illustrated in the transitive judgments of pinyon and scrub-jays (Bond et al., Anim Behav 65:479–487, 2003). We begin by considering how successful transitive rule-following behavior might evolve in the context of Skyrms–Lewis sender–receiver games (Lewis, Convention. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1969; Skyrms, Philos Sci 75:489–500, 2006). We then consider (...)
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  20. Patrick Bateson (2006). The Nest's Tale. A Reply to Richard Dawkins. Biology and Philosophy 21 (4):553-558.
    If temperature does not vary from one generation from to the next but its value is crucial for the development of particular phenotypic characteristics, a long-term change in its value may trigger major evolutionary changes of the organism. If a bird's nest maintains the critical temperature, then a statement that the bird is the nest's way of making another nest is as helpful as accounts couched in terms of genes' intentions. However, the language of intentions rests on different evidence and (...)
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  21. H. Heath Bawden & Kevin S. Decker (2008). The Evolution of the Psychical Element, by George Herbert Mead (Dec. 1899–March 1900 or 1898–1899). Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 44 (3):480 - 507.
    George Herbert Mead's lectures at the University of Chicago are more important to understanding Mead's views on social psychology than some commentators, such as Hans Joas, have emphasized. Mead's 1898-99 lecture series, preserved through the notes of his student H. Heath Bawden, demonstrate his devotion to Hegelianism as a method of thinking and how this influenced his non-reductive approach to functionalist psychology. In addition, Mead's breadth of historical knowledge and his commitments in the natural and social sciences are on display (...)
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  22. Jay Belsky (1997). Attachment, Mating, and Parenting. Human Nature 8 (4):361-381.
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  23. Rinaldo C. Bertossa (2005). Evolution of Behaviour: Bridging the Gap Between Evolutionary and Developmental Genetics. Bioessays 27 (12):1303-1304.
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  24. Neil W. Blackstone (2000). Redox Control and the Evolution of Multicellularity. Bioessays 22 (10):947-953.
  25. Neil W. Blackstone & Douglas R. Green (1999). The Evolution of a Mechanism of Cell Suicide. Bioessays 21 (1):84-88.
  26. Stephan Blatti (2012). A New Argument for Animalism. Analysis 72 (4):685-690.
    The view known as animalism asserts that we are human animals—that each of us is an instance of the Homo sapiens species. The standard argument for this view is known as the thinking animal argument . But this argument has recently come under attack. So, here, a new argument for animalism is introduced. The animal ancestors argument illustrates how the case for animalism can be seen to piggyback on the credibility of evolutionary theory. Two objections are then considered and answered.
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  27. Marion Blute (2013). The Evolution of Anisogamy: More Questions Than Answers. Biological Theory 7 (1):3-9.
    Despite a revived interest in explaining the evolution of anisogamy in recent years (i.e. different—micro and macrogametes), there remain more questions than answers. The topic is important because it is thought to be the foundation of the theory of gender differences and relations. Twelve of these questions are briefly reviewed here—(1) the distinction between sex and sexual types; (2) the distinction between mating types and anisogamy; (3) the possible role of ecological as well as social evolution in proto-gender differences and (...)
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  28. John Bolender (2007). Prehistoric Cognition by Description: A Russellian Approach to the Upper Paleolithic. Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):383-399.
    A cultural change occurred roughly 40,000 years ago. For the first time, there was evidence of belief in unseen agents and an afterlife. Before this time, humans did not show widespread evidence of being able to think about objects, persons, and other agents that they had not been in close contact with. I argue that one can explain this transition by appealing to a population increase resulting in greater exoteric (inter-group) communication. The increase in exoteric communication triggered the actualization of (...)
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  29. Raymond Bradley (2002). Love and Power, and the Development of the Brain, Mind, and Agency. World Futures 58 (2 & 3):175 – 211.
    In drawing on my own research and collaborative work with Karl Pribram, I show that love (affective attachment) and power (social control) play a central role in psychosocial evolution. When these relations are coupled in a self-regulating system of cooperative interactions, brain growth is stimulated, mind and agency develop, and stable forms of collective social organization are generated. Focusing on the endogenous dynamics of social collectives, the article is organized in four parts. (A "social collective" is defined as a (...)
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  30. Paul M. Brakefield & Vernon French (1999). Butterfly Wings: The Evolution of Development of Colour Patterns. Bioessays 21 (5):391-401.
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  31. Robert N. Brandon & Norbert Hornstein (1986). From Icons to Symbols: Some Speculations on the Origins of Language. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 1 (2):169-189.
    This paper is divided into three sections. In the first section we offer a retooling of some traditional concepts, namely icons and symbols, which allows us to describe an evolutionary continuum of communication systems. The second section consists of an argument from theoretical biology. In it we explore the advantages and disadvantages of phenotypic plasticity. We argue that a range of the conditions that selectively favor phenotypic plasticity also favor a nongenetic transmission system that would allow for the inheritance of (...)
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  32. Daniel R. Brooks, John Collier, Brian A. Maurer, Jonathan D. H. Smith & E. O. Wiley (1989). Entropy and Information in Evolving Biological Systems. Biology and Philosophy 4 (4):407-432.
    Integrating concepts of maintenance and of origins is essential to explaining biological diversity. The unified theory of evolution attempts to find a common theme linking production rules inherent in biological systems, explaining the origin of biological order as a manifestation of the flow of energy and the flow of information on various spatial and temporal scales, with the recognition that natural selection is an evolutionarily relevant process. Biological systems persist in space and time by transfor ming energy from one state (...)
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  33. Jürgen Brosius (2003). From Eden to a Hell of Uniformity? Directed Evolution in Humans. Bioessays 25 (8):815-821.
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  34. Gwen J. Broude (1999). What the Human Annals Tell Us. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):888-888.
    Evidence reveals numerous cross-cultural universals regarding human mental processes and behavior. Similarly, cross-cultural data are consistent with predictions from theories of kin selection, reciprocal altruism, and sexual selection inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Thus, the “annals of human behaviour” do provide “example[s] fitting the sociobiological bill,” (Lifelines, p. 202) thereby, supporting sociobiological accounts of human behavior.
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  35. Rachael L. Brown (forthcoming). Rethinking Behavioural Evolution. In Barker Desjardins & Pearce (eds.), Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences. Springer.
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  36. Andre Cloots, Stijn Latré & Guido Vanheeswijck (2013). The Future of the Christian Past: Marcel Gauchet and Charles Taylor on the Essence of Religion and its Evolution. Heythrop Journal 55 (6).
    This article explores the differences between Marcel Gauchet and Charles Taylor with respect to their theories of secularization. It starts by looking at their resemblances; it continues by distinguishing a two-fold difference in their approach. The variation within their similar methodologies is examined, and then the consequences of these divergent definitions of religion are investigated. We focus on four themes: the role of the Axial religions, the significance of Incarnation and Reformation, the significance of Christianity as the ‘religion of the (...)
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  37. Jonathan Cooke (2005). Book Review: Human Evolutionary Genetics: Origins, Peoples and Disease and Gene Genealogies, Variation and Evolution: A Primer in Coalescent Theory. [REVIEW] Bioessays 27 (9):978-980.
  38. Jonathan Cooke (2004). The Evolutionary Origins and Significance of Vertebrate Left–Right Organisation. Bioessays 26 (4):413-421.
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  39. William S. Cooper & Giovanni Boniolo (2002). Book Reviews-the Evolution of Reason. Logic as a Branch of Biology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (2):335-336.
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  40. Christopher Cosans (1994). Anatomy, Metaphysics, and Values: The Ape Brain Debate Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):129-165.
    Conventional wisdom teaches that Thomas Huxley discredited Richard Owen in their debate over ape and human brains. This paper reexamines the dispute and uses it as a test case for evaluating the metaphysical realist, internal realist, and social constructivist theories of scientific knowledge. Since Owen worked in the Kantian tradition, his anatomical research illustrates the implications of internal realism for scientific practice. As an avowed Cartesian, Huxley offered a well developed attack on Owen''s position from a metaphysical realist (...)
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  41. Stephen J. Cowley (2013). Naturalizing Language: Human Appraisal and (Quasi) Technology. AI and Society 28 (4):443-453.
    Using contemporary science, the paper builds on Wittgenstein’s views of human language. Rather than ascribing reality to inscription-like entities, it links embodiment with distributed cognition. The verbal or (quasi) technological aspect of language is traced to not action, but human specific interactivity. This species-specific form of sense-making sustains, among other things, using texts, making/construing phonetic gestures and thinking. Human action is thus grounded in appraisals or sense-saturated coordination. To illustrate interactivity at work, the paper focuses on a case study. Over (...)
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  42. Ian W. Craig (2007). The Importance of Stress and Genetic Variation in Human Aggression. Bioessays 29 (3):227-236.
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  43. G. K. D. Crozier (2008). Reconsidering Cultural Selection Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):455-479.
    This paper examines conceptual issues that arise in applications of Darwinian natural selection to cultural systems. I argue that many criticisms of cultural selectionist models have been based on an over-detailed reading of the analogy between biological and cultural units of selection. I identify five of the most powerful objections to cultural selection theory and argue that none cuts to its heart. Some objections are based on mistaken assumptions about the simplicity of the mechanisms of biological heredity. Other objections are (...)
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  44. G. K. D. Crozier (2010). A Formal Investigation of Cultural Selection Theory: Acoustic Adaptation in Bird Song. Biology and Philosophy 25 (5):781-801.
    The greatest challenge for Cultural Selection Theory lies is the paucity of evidence for structural mechanisms in cultural systems that are sufficient for adaptation by natural selection. In part, clarification is required with respect to the interaction between cultural systems and their purported selective environments. Edmonds et al. have argued that Cultural Selection Theory requires simple, conclusive, unambiguous case studies in order to meet this challenge. To that end, this paper examines the songs of the Rufous-collared Sparrow, which seem to (...)
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  45. Gillian Crozier, Acoustic Adaptation in Bird Songs: A Case Study in Cultural Selection.
    The greatest challenge for Cultural Selection Theory, which holds that Darwinian natural selection contributes to cultural evolution, lies is the paucity of evidence for structural mechanisms in cultural systems that are sufficient for adaptation by natural selection. In part, clarification is required with respect to the interaction between cultural systems and their purported selective environments. Edmonds, Hull, and others have argued that Cultural Selection Theory requires simple, conclusive, unambiguous case studies in order to meet this challenge. To this end, I (...)
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  46. Stephen Davies, I. Is Art Purely Cultural or Does It Centrally Involve a Biological Component?
    Dissanayake is an ethologist. She is interested in human behavioral predispositions that are universal and innate because they have proved to enhance survival, which is defined as reproductive success (1995:36, 2000:21), and, hence, became selected for at the genetic level. Such behaviors must date back at least to the late Pleistocene (20,000 years ago) since it is then that human biological evolution reached its present condition. Subsequent changes involved cultural evolution, a predisposition that is itself based on evolutionary characteristics of (...)
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  47. Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt (2007). The Role of Intuitive Ontologies in Scientific Understanding – the Case of Human Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):351-368.
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  48. Pierre De Meyts (2004). Insulin and its Receptor: Structure, Function and Evolution. Bioessays 26 (12):1351-1362.
  49. Terrence W. Deacon (2012). À propos de l'homme, ou comment repenser la sélection naturelle du langage humain. Labyrinthe 38 (38):27-37.
    Il arrive qu’une complexité extrême mette le modèle de la sélection naturelle au défi d’expliquer quoi que ce soit. Depuis Darwin, l’aptitude humaine au langage est incessamment citée en exemple-type de ce cas de figure. Et ceux qui ont souligné les problèmes posés par cette faculté si spécifiquement humaine n’étaient pas tous des critiques du darwinisme. On sait l’argument avancé par Alfred Russel Wallace, co-instigateur de la théorie de la sélection naturelle, et réputé plus darwiniste que ..
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  50. R. G. Delisle (2012). Human Evolution: An Agenda for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 34 (1-2):3.
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