"The Tao that can be spoken of is not the real Way," reads a famous line from the Tao-te-ching. But although the Tao cannot be described by words, words can allow us to catch a fleeting glimpse of that mysterious energy of the universe which is the source of life. The readings in this book are a beginner's entree into the vast treasury of writings from the sacred Chinese tradition, consisting of original translations of excerpts from the Taoist canon. (...) Brief introductions and notes on the translation accompany the selections from the classics; books of devotional and mystical Taoism; texts of internal alchemy; stories of Taoist immortals, magicians, and sorcerers; ethical tracts; chants and rituals; and teachings on meditation and methods of longevity. (shrink)
The purpose of One Heart is to illuminate the common sacred ground at the heart of seven faiths: Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Taoism. Its method is to identify 65 essential principles, among them: Feel what other people feel; Don't harm others; Lead with virtue and concern for others; Be honest; Practice what you preach; Be content; Don't let anger take over; Choose your companions wisely; Accept the existence of spiritual beings; Seek and you will (...) find. Illustrating each principle are one, two, or three quotations (adding up to more than 600) from a wide variety of texts sacred to each of the seven faiths—including the Old and New Testaments, the Talmud, the Mahabarata, the Tao Te Ching, the Bhagavad Gita, the Analects of Confucius, and many other sacred sources. In addition, each chapter also provides guidance on a spiritual theme or practice—prayer beads, a home altar, labyrinth walking—to enhance our understanding of these wise words and universal principles. (shrink)
In this deeply learned work, Toshihiko Izutsu compares the metaphysical and mystical thought-systems of Sufism and Taoism and discovers that, although historically unrelated, the two share features and patterns which prove fruitful for a transhistorical dialogue. His original and suggestive approach opens new doors in the study of comparative philosophy and mysticism. Izutsu begins with Ibn 'Arabi, analyzing and isolating the major ontological concepts of this most challenging of Islamic thinkers. Then, in the second part of the book, Izutsu (...) turns his attention to an analysis of parallel concepts of two great Taoist thinkers, Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu. Only after laying bare the fundamental structure of each world view does Izutsu embark, in the final section of the book, upon a comparative analysis. Only thus, he argues, can he be sure to avoid easy and superficial comparisons. Izutsu maintains that both the Sufi and Taoist world views are based on two pivots--the Absolute Man and the Perfect Man--with a whole system of oncological thought being developed between these two pivots. Izutsu discusses similarities in these ontological systems and advances the hypothesis that certain patterns of mystical and metaphysical thought may be shared even by systems with no apparent historical connection. This second edition of Sufism and Taoism is the first published in the United States. The original edition, published in English and in Japan, was prized by the few English-speaking scholars who knew of it as a model in the field of comparative philosophy. Making available in English much new material on both sides of its comparison, Sufism and Taoism richly fulfills Izutsu's motivating desire "to open a new vista in the domain of comparative philosophy.". (shrink)
Torah, the name of the first five books of the ?sacred history? comprised by the Hebrew Bible, tends to be translated as ?Law? and to be affiliated with the separating ?Law of the Father.? But Torah means ?teaching.? Venerable tradition allies this teaching with feminine Wisdom, ?a tree of life.? Theories of poetic language elaborated by such scholars as Julia Kristeva and Hélène Cixous facilitate discovering beneath the Torah's fractured and labyrinthine surface a way of return to the (...) mother. This way is embodied in the inversions, textuality, and concentricity of the rhetorical trope of chiasmus, which exceeds the bounds of the Law to provide a form for the expression of ?woman's desire? and so for the feminine text. Exploring as such the doubly chiastic poem in which, when naming woman in Eden, a human being (adam) changes its name to man (iysh) challenges man's biblical history, while restoring the memory of interconnection with the mother and all life. Reduplications of this transformative moment expand upon sacred history in terms of the Torah's central injunction to love one's neighbor as oneself. (shrink)
Defining the meaning and spiritual use of sacred art through its symbolic content and dependence on metaphysical principles, this work is wide in scope, covering Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Islamic, and Taoist art.
In this paper, I explore a possible convergence between two great twentieth century thinkers, Nishida Kitarō of Japan and Martin Heidegger of Germany. The focus is on the quasi-religious language they employ in discussing the grounding of human existence in terms of an encompassing Wherein for our being. Heidegger speaks of “the sacred” and “the passing of the last god” that mark an empty clearing wherein all metaphysical absolutes or gods have withdrawn but are simultaneously indicative of an opening (...) wherein beings are given. Nishida speaks of “the religious” dimension in the depths of one's being, that he calls “place,” and that somehow envelops the world through its kenotic self-negation. In both we find reference to a kind of originary space—the open or place—associated with quasireligious themes. I also point to their distinct approaches to metaphysical language in their attempts to give voice to that abysmal thought. (shrink)
Many employees with strong religious convictions find themselves living in two separate worlds: the sacred private world of family and church where they can express their faith freely and the secular public world where religious expression is strongly discouraged. We examine the origins of sacred/secular divide, and show how this division is an outcome of modernism replacing Christianity as the dominant worldview in western society. Next, we make the case that guiding assumptions (or faith) is inherent in every (...) worldview, system of thought, or religion and also show that scientific reason can never be a comprehensive or totalizing meaning system, particularly in the realm of ethics. The underlying assumptions of the sacred/secular divide are seriously questioned which has implications for employees who desire to integrate faith and career. Finally, we offer possibilities for individuals and corporate entities to integrate the personal and sacred with the institutional and secular. (shrink)
Fully embracing previous achievements in the research of Taoist philosophy, this paper attempts to create a sound analysis and investigation of the value concern of Taoism and reconstruct a new set of Taoist philosophy conforming to the requirement of modern science from the perspective of modern philosophy. The author sincerely wishes that the preliminary understanding of the Taoist philosophy presented in this paper would contribute to the construction of the Taoist philosophy.
A modern form of narrative, comic books are used to communicate, discuss, and critique issues in business ethics and social issues in management. A description of comic books as a legitimate medium is followed by a discussion of the pedagogical uses of comic books and assessment techniques. The strengths of the pedagogy include crossing cultural barriers, understanding the complexity of individual decision-making and organizational influences, and the universality of dilemmas and values. We provide an initial source for (...) educators on the topics, comic books, plotlines, and other commentary for consideration of use in the classroom from high school to graduate business ethics and social issues in management courses. (shrink)
This paper discusses the extent to which books about business ethics are purchased or read outside of tertiary institutions in Australia, whether the subject is commonly perceived as business, philosophy or both, what range of business ethics books is commonly offered for purchase, and what conclusions might be drawn from the above considerations. Investigation shows that the range and availability of business ethics books is quite limited outside of tertiary institutions, and that the general perception is that (...) business ethics is something which pertains specifically to business rather than to moral philosophy. It is likely that this tends to isolate the subject from philosophy as broadly conceived in the minds of business practitioners. (shrink)
When it comes to Chinese transformational leadership behavior, the focus seems to be Confucian work value; nonetheless, it represents only one of the Chinese traditions. In order to have a better understanding the relationship between Chinese traditional values and transformational leadership behavior, Taoist work value should also be taken into consideration. Thus, this study firstly develops Confucian and Taoist work value scale (study 1) and then applies this scale to examine its relationship with transformational leadership (study 2). The results show (...) that while Confucian work value is the most consistent predictor of core transformational leader behavior and high-performance expectations, Taoist work value is the most consistent predictor of intellectual stimulation. (shrink)
No altar da Igreja de Santa Maria della Vittoria (Roma), encontramos a bela escultura de Bernini, denominada “O êxtase de Santa Teresa”. Símbolo da entrega ao gozo espiritual, a escultura do artista italiano representa Santa Teresa de Ávila recebendo do anjo a seta do amor divino, reprodução perfeita do êxtase místico e religioso. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a ocorrência de Teresas na literatura brasileira, como heroínas divididas entre o sacro e o profano. Propomos o estudo do romance Tereza (...) Batista: cansada de guerra , de Jorge Amado, a partir da intertextualidade com a tradição literária baiana, de Gregório de Matos e Castro Alves, e em contraponto ao pensamento religioso da obra lírica de Santa Teresa de Ávila, em diálogo com a escultura extática da santa, criada por Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Palavras-chaves : Santa Teresa de Ávila. Jorge Amado. Castro Alves. Gregório de Matos. Sagrado. Profano.At the altar of the Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria (Rome), is located the Bernini’s sculpture, called "The Ecstasy of St. Teresa." Symbol of surrender to spiritual joy, the sculpture by the Italian artist represents St. Teresa of Avila affected by the arrow of the Angel, perfect reproduction of the religious and mystical ecstasy. This article aims to analyze the occurrence of Teresas in Brazilian literature, as heroines divided between the sacred and the profane. We propose to study of the novel Tereza Batista: cansada de guerra , by Jorge Amado, from the intertextuality with the literary tradition of Bahia, of Gregorio de Mattos and Castro Alves, and in opposition to the religious thought of the lyrical work of St. Teresa de Ávila, in dialogue with the ecstatic sculpture of St. Tereza, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Keywords : St. Teresa of Ávila. Jorge Amado. Castro Alves. Gregório de Mattos. Sacred. Profane. (shrink)
Religious fundamentalism has become such a bane in our modern day societies that any serious thinker should consider it necessary to try to find a solution to this malaise of our civilization. This paper argues that the source of these crises is in the misapplication of religion to human society. Accordingly, it argues that unless there is a rationalization of the sacred, there may never be peace for humanity. This stems from the view that religious actors tendentiously manipulate religion (...) to serve their whims and caprices allegedly doing the work of the divine. Furthermore, the basis of their actions is a mixture of human nature and values. In order to stem the tide of fundamentalism, this paper avers that the world ought to borrow what the author calls the pragmatic religious value of the African Traditional Religion. (shrink)
Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A partir da experiência das festividades patronais duma pequena cidade de Madri, reflete-se sobre o sentido geral da festa, seu significado humano, sua necessidade coletiva e as interpretações dos grupos humanos em sua busca de objetivos. Este estudo parte da experiência pessoal na participação ativa das festas populares, ou seja, desde o saber-se membro de um grupo humano, para passar a uma análise científica, a partir dos paradigmas de R. Caillois, G. Dumezil e (...) R. Otto. O objetivo pretende não somente viver a festa como analisar e estudar a festa. Desta festa concreta e particular, pode-se passar ao universal. De fato, a festa supõe um momento muito especial na historia dos grupos humanos, permitindo dimensionar sua vida desde um passado vivencial e um futuro de esperança. A festa permite quebrar a monotonia do cotidiano reorganizando a vida do grupo, possibilitando a alegria e o dinamismo da existência humana. Trata-se de uma necessidade humana, tão humana como o trabalho, onde o sagrado e o profano entram como formas integradoras da convivência. Convivência que necessita do riso, da alegria, da irreverência e da felicidade, além do trabalho, do compromisso e da ordem estabelecida. Palavras-chave : Antropologia da festa; sagrado e profano; sociedade; religião Resumen A partir de la experiencia de las festividades patronales de una pequeña ciudad de Madrid, se reflexiona sobre el sentido general de la fiesta, su significado humano, su necesidad colectiva y las interpretaciones de los grupos humanos en su busca de objetivos sociales. Este estudio parte de la experiencia personal en la participación activa de las fiestas populares, o sea, desde saberse miembro de un grupo humano para pasar a un análisis científico, a partir dos paradigmas de R. Caillois, G. Dumezil y R. Otto. El objetivo pretende no solamente vivir la fiesta como analizar y estudiar la fiesta. De esta fiesta concreta y particular se puede pasar a lo universal. De hecho, la fiesta supone un momento muy especial en la historia de los grupos humanos, permitiendo dimensionar su vida desde un pasado vivencial y un futuro de esperanza. La fiesta permite quebrar la monotonía de lo cotidiano reorganizando la vida del grupo, haciendo posible la alegría y el dinamismo de la existencia humana. Se trata de una necesidad humana, tan humana como el trabajo, en donde lo sagrado y lo profano entran como formas integradoras de convivencia. Convivencia que necesita de la risa, de la alegría, de la irreverencia y de la felicidad, además del trabajo, del compromiso y del orden establecido. Palabras clave : Antropología de la fiesta; sagrado y profano; sociedad; religiónTaking into account the experience of the patron festivities of a small town of Madrid, the present article aims to reflect on the general meaning of such party. To do so, the article looks for its human significance, their collective need and the interpretations of human groups trying to achieve their main goals. It is known that festivals assume a very special moment in the history of human groups, allowing them to resize their lives from an existential past and a future of hope. The festival allows us to break the monotony of our daily lives and help us in the reorganization of our group life. It also makes the joy and the dynamism of human existence ever possible. The sacred and the profane insert in this dimension of human existence as integrative forms of human coexistence. key words: Holy anthropology; sacred and profane; society; religión. (shrink)
The twentieth century discovered the concept of sacred place largely through the work of Martin Heidegger and Mircea Eliade. Their writings on sacred place respond to the modern manipulation of nature and secularization of space, and so may seem distinctively postmodern, but their work has an important and unacknowledged precedent in the Neoplatonism of Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages. Sacred Place in Early Medieval Neoplatonism traces the appearance and development of sacred place in the (...) writings of Neoplatonists from the third to ninth centuries, and sets them in the context of present-day debates over place and the sacred. (shrink)
Research has shown that repeatedly looking at picture books about fruits and vegetables with parents can enhance young children’s visual preferences towards the foods in the book (Houston-Price et al, 2009) and influence their willingness to taste these foods (Houston-Price, Butler & Shiba, 2009). This article explores whether the effects of picture book exposure are mediated by infants' initial familiarity with and liking for the foods presented. In two experiments parents of toddlers aged between 19 and 26 months were (...) asked to read a picture book about a liked, disliked or unfamiliar fruit or vegetable with their child every day for two weeks. Results showed that the impact of the intervention on both visual preferences and eating behaviour was determined by the initial status of the target food, with the strongest effects seen for foods that were initially unfamiliar. Most strikingly, toddlers consumed more of the unfamiliar vegetable they had seen in their picture book than of a matched control vegetable. Results confirm the potential for picture books to play a positive role in encouraging healthy eating in your children. (shrink)
A identidade do Ensino Religioso como área de conhecimento historicamente pode ser demonstrada a partir dos livros produzidos para sistematizar as reflexões, as pesquisas, enfim os diferentes estudos referentes aos aspectos legais, metodológicos, propostas de conteúdo, sobre a formação de professores e as questões relacionadas ao ensino aprendizagem deste componente curricular. Este artigo deriva do primeiro relatório de uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, utilizando uma metodologia histórico-analítica apoiada em documentos impressos e visa compreender a identidade de uma disciplina que progressivamente (...) assume um perfil de área de conhecimento. São apresentados três quadros que tratam da produção referente ao Ensino Religioso. Quadro 1 - Período de publicação; Quadro 2 - Editoras que publicaram os livros sobre o Ensino Religioso; Quadro 3 - Autores e ou Co-Autores que publicaram os livros sobre o Ensino Religioso. A presente reflexão indica outras frentes como por exemplo, empreender análise de conteúdo dos textos apresentados nestas publicações a fim de contribuir para a definitiva configuração identitária do Ensino Religioso. Palavras-chave : Ensino Religioso; Produção Científica; Livros; História do Ensino Religioso; EducaçãoThe identity of Religious Education as an area of knowledge might be historically proved by books produced to systematize the reflections, the research, the different studies related to legal and methodological aspects, content proposals, teachers' background and education, and issues related to the teaching and learning of this curricular component. This is the first report of research based on a qualitative approach, using analytic and historical methodology supported by printed documents in order to determine this identity for a discipline that progressively assumes a profile of an area of knowledge. We present three aspects related to the production of Religious Education. The first - Publishing period; the second - Publishing companies that have published books on Religious Education; the third - Authors and/or Co-authors that published books on Religious Education. This research has not been concluded yet, since it is necessary to analyze the content of the texts presented in these books, produced by different publishing companies, which will later become known. Key words: Religious Education; Scientific Production; Books; History of Religious Education; Education. (shrink)
The paper's focus is on pragmatic arguments for various ‘rationality constraints’ on a decision maker’s state of mind: on his beliefs or preferences. An argument of this kind purports to show that a violator of a given constraint can be exposed to a decision problem in which he will act to his guaranteed disadvantage. Dramatically put, he can be exploited by a clever bookie who doesn’t know more than the agent himself. Examples of pragmatic arguments of this kind are synchronic (...) Dutch Books, for the standard probability axioms, diachronic Dutch Books, for the more controversial principles of reflection and conditionalization, and Money Pumps, for the transitivity requirement on preferences. The proposed exploitation set-ups share a common feature. If the violator of a given constraint is logically and mathematically competent, he can be exploited only if he is disunified in his decision-making. Exploitation is possible only if the agent makes decisions on various issues he confronts one by one, rather than on all of them together. Unity in decision making may be quite costly and is often inconvenient, especially when it concerns opportunity packages that are spread over time. Therefore, pragmatic arguments should be seen as delivering conditional conclusions: “To afford being disunified as a decision maker, you’d better satisfy these constraints.” Arguments of this kind fail to establish the inherent rationality of the constraints under consideration. Levi’s view of the status of pragmatic arguments (cf. Levi 2002) is diametrally opposed. According to him, only synchronic pragmatic arguments are valid (indeed, categorically valid). The diachronic ones, he argues, lack any validity at all. This line of reasoning is questioned in the paper. (shrink)
In the ancient Greek city, was sacred land distinct from public land? Were there points of intersection or areas of overlap between the two or was there no distinction at all? First, evidence from Athens is examined through a discussion of N. Papazarkadas' recent monograph, Sacred and Public Land in Ancient Athens. Three criteria for classifying landed property as sacred are proposed in that study: the prohibition or authorization to cultivate sacred land; the use of revenues (...) for cultic purposes; and the inalienability of sacred land. But this trio of criteria does not in fact allow us to establish a clear division between sacred land and public land. The evidence from other cities shows the existence of land defined simultaneously as and the possibility of co-ownership and joint possession between god and city; a distinct place within the city's total property could also be reserved for sacred property (either land or funds). (shrink)
According to the Dutch Book Argument (DBA), if an agent's subjective probabilities fail to satisfy the axioms of the probability calculus and so make the agent vulnerable to a Dutch Book, the agent's subjective probabilities are incoherent and the agent is therefore irrational. Critics of DBA have argued, however, that probabilistic incoherence is compatible with various kinds of rationality â logico-semantic, epistemic, instrumental and prudential. In this paper, I provide an interpretation of DBA on which it is true that probabilistic (...) incoherence entails agent irrationality. Articulating this interpretation requires the specification of some of the connections among the varieties of rationality. Once this is done, it becomes possible to vindicate a modest version of DBA. (shrink)
This paper tries to examine what is at stake in the various projects to ?re-enchant the world?, which have arisen in the face of modernity. It sees the ambition to ?save the sacred? in this context. It poses a number of problems which arise for such projects, and in particular examines the notion of ?polytheism? which is central to the recent book of Sean Kelly and Hubert Dreyfus, All Things Shining.
For many of us, the great scientific discoveries of the modern age--the Big Bang, evolution, quantum physics, relativity-- point to an existence that is bleak, devoid of meaning, pointless. But in The Sacred Depths of Nature, eminent biologist Ursula Goodenough shows us that the scientific world view need not be a source of despair. Indeed, it can be a wellspring of solace and hope. This eloquent volume reconciles the modern scientific understanding of reality with our timeless spiritual yearnings for (...) reverence and continuity. Looking at topics such as evolution, emotions, sexuality, and death, Goodenough writes with rich, uncluttered detail about the workings of nature in general and of living creatures in particular. Her luminous clarity makes it possible for even non-scientists to appreciate that the origins of life and the universe are no less meaningful because of our increasingly scientific understanding of them. At the end of each chapter, Goodenough's spiritual reflections respond to the complexity of nature with vibrant emotional intensity and a sense of reverent wonder. A beautifully written celebration of molecular biology with meditations on the spiritual and religious meaning that can be found at the heart of science, this volume makes an important contribution to the ongoing dialog between science and religion. This book will engage anyone who was ever mesmerized--or terrified--by the mysteries of existence. (shrink)
In his book A Secular Age, Charles Taylor appeals to the metaphysical?normative distinction between ?immanence? and ?transcendence? as definitive for post-Axial religion. On Taylor's view, therefore, those of us who embrace a fully secular modernity can be described as having abandoned ?transcendence? to take up our lives wholly within the confines of the immanent frame, though he grants we may seek alternative satisfactions or ?substitutes? for eternity. But the notion that any metaphysical?normative model of sacred experience can serve as (...) an irresistible foundation is open to doubt if one recalls the Heideggerian insight that any metaphysical picture both reveals and conceals aspects of our experience. Taylor's own description of sacred and non-sacred experience within the immanent frame seems to rely upon this foundational distinction, without entertaining the possibility that the language itself may very well actually distort what our experience is like. This paper pursues the above objections to Taylor's argument, focusing special attention on the assumption that one can judge aesthetic experience (such as listening to a Beethoven string quartet) with the criteria we have inherited from post-Axial religion. The overwhelming authority of the Axial tradition might seem to validate questions such as, ?Is there an object?? or ?Is the experience purely immanent?? But to such questions we might respond that such language simply has no grip on the phenomena. Any such talk of ?substitution? might therefore be understood as an historical remnant in Taylor's book of the traditional monotheist's critique of idolatry. (shrink)