Drawing on several issues and methods in Western philosophy, from analytical philosophy to semiotics and hermeneutics, the author throws new light on the ancient Zhuangzi text. Engaging Daoism and contemporary Western philosophical logic, and drawing on new developments in our understanding of early Chinese culture, Coutinho challenges the interpretation of Zhuangzi as either a skeptic or a relativist, and instead seeks to explore his philosophy as emphasizing the ineradicable vagueness of language, thought and reality. This new interpretation of the (...) Zhuangzi offers an important development in the understanding of Daoist philosophy, describing a world in flux in which things themselves are vague and inconsistent, and tries to show us a Way (a Dao) to negotiate through the shadows of a "chaotic" world. (shrink)
Coutinho respects the multiplicity of Daoist philosophies while also revealing a distinctive philosophical sensibility, and he provides clear explanations of these complex texts without resorting to oversimplification.
: The role of vagueness in the Laozi is explored by investigating its connection with "process." First, a hermeneutic methodology is developed and adopted, derived from Peirce's notion of "abduction." Second, this notion is analyzed, and several distinctive characteristics, or "traces," of vagueness are identified. Third, evidence of these traces in the text of the Laozi is collected, with comments on their significance in the Daoist context.
Introduction -- Youth, a contradictory formation: 1910-18 -- Workers' democracy and factory-councils: 1919-20 -- Passage to maturity: 1921-6 -- Methodological observations on the prison notebooks -- The 'extended' theory of the state -- The party as 'collective intellectual' -- The current relevance and universality of Gramsci.
We agree with Carruthers that evidence for metacognition in species lacking mindreading provides dramatic evidence in favor of the metacognition-is-prior account and against the mindreading-is-prior account. We discuss this existing evidence and explain why an evolutionary perspective favors the former account and poses serious problems for the latter account.
(Spanish) La argumentación es un aspecto publico y comunicativo, quizás no el único, de los procesos cognitivos inferenciales en la especie humana. Aunque los propios procesos cognitivos inferenciales no son exclusivos de los seres humanos, su expresión a través de la comunicación lingüística, su utilización en los procesos sociales para la conformación y cambio de las creencias y la conducta es propiamente humana. Una explicación correcta del concepto de argumentación es por tanto importante para captar nuestro concepto de racionalidad, de (...) uso de la razón. EI trabajo explora la forma que tiene el concepto de argumentación en la cultura occidental utilizando las herramientas de teorías cognitivas recientes sobre la naturaleza de los conceptos, sugiriendo sus consecuencias para el concepto de razón. -/- (English) The argumentation is a public and communicative aspect, maybe not the only one, of inferential cognitive processes in the human species. While the very inferential, cognitive processes are not exclusive of the human beings, their expression through the linguistic communication, their use in social processes to shape and change beliefs and behaviour is properly human. An accurate description of the concept of argumentation is important then to grasp our concept of rationality, of the use of the reason. This paper explores the form of the concept of argumentation in western culture using the tools of recent cognitive theories on the nature of concepts, suggesting its consequences for the concept of reason. (shrink)
That humans can categorize in different ways does not imply that there are qualitatively distinct underlying natural kinds or that the field of concepts splinters. Rather, it implies that the unitary goal of forming concepts is important enough that it receives redundant expression in cognition. Categorization science focuses on commonalities involved in concept learning. Eliminating makes this more difficult.
This paper informs the results of a research which aimed to analysed the meanings of work for women in a small poultry slaughterhouse, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The understanding of the meanings was supported by the Social Psychology related to social constructionism theory. The information w..
The po lit i cal thought of An to nio Gramsci has not lost rel e vance and va lid ity in its in ter - pre ta tion and crit i cism of the mod ern cap i tal ist State. His the o ret i cal and prac ti cal con tri bu - tions are many, but this work in tends to high - light his in ter est ing con ce..
Este artigo visa analisar o processo de recepção do Concílio Vaticano II nas “Igrejas locais” do Maranhão a partir da teoria do agir comunicativo de Jürgen Habermas. A partir de uma questão levantada por José Oscar Beozzo, historiador brasileiro do Concílio Vaticano II, queremos saber de que modo áreas relativamente periféricas para a gestação e produção do Concílio aprestaram-se para a sua recepção e a realizaram à sua maneira. O tema se torna interessante porque foram justamente nessas áreas relativamente marginais (...) durante a gesta conciliar, que se tornaram das mais relevantes para sua recepção, durante o período pós-conciliar. O que pensar, então, da recepção do Vaticano II em áreas periféricas à periferia? No caso brasileiro, estamos nos referindo àquelas “Igrejas” que estariam longe dos grandes centros urbanos, dos centros de decisão política e econômica, dos avanços tecnológicos e das inovações culturais. Para responder, lançamos a hipótese de que por meio da “verbalização do sagrado” a Igreja no Maranhão veio (e vem) realizando sua recepção do Concílio tendo como fio condutor a construção de uma esfera pública democrática no “mundo da vida” contra a colonização pelo “sistema”. Palavras-chave : Concílio Vaticano II, Igreja Católica, Jürgen Habermas, teoria do agir comunicativo, esfera pública democrática.This article aims to analyze the process of reception of Vatican II in "Churches" of Maranhão by the theory of communicative action of Jürgen Habermas. From a question raised by José Oscar Beozzo, brazilian Vatican II historian, we want to know how relatively remote areas, during the gestation and production of the Council, were preparing for their reception and made his own way. This is interesting because it was in these relatively marginal areas, during the Council, which became the most relevant for the reception, during the post-council period. Then, what think about the reception of Vatican II in the periphery of periphery? We are referring, in Brazil, to those “churches” that are far from major urban centers of political and economic decision, technological and cultural innovations. The hypothesis is: by "sacred verbalization" the Maranhão Church’s which continues doing his reception, lead by the construction of a democratic public sphere in the "life world" against "system" colonization. Key words : Vatican II Council, Catholic Church, Jürgen Habermas, theory of communicative action, democratic public sphere. (shrink)
Lukács and Twentieth Century Literature Tough he elaborated a robust system of Marxist aesthetics whose categories enabled him to formulate a brilliant analysis of the 19th century realist novel, Lukács proved unable to understand the literature of the 20th century. In fact he either ignored or regarded as “decadent” almost all the major representatives of the avant-garde, such as Proust and Kafka. is was not due to the intrinsic limitations of the aesthetic categories themselves. It was rather an effect of (...) his “optimistic” vision of the historical period following after the 1917 Revolution and the hypothesis of the development of socialism. is led him to regard as anti-realist the alleged “pessimism” of the avant-garde. Towards the end of his life, Lukács did however adopt a more critical position towards “real socialism”. He thus moved towards a more positive understanding of the literature of his time. (shrink)
In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961), and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964) turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with (...) Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982), as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970), I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975) and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986) holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved. (shrink)
This paper presents results of the author’s PhD research: Catholic beliefs and practices, attitudes toward marriage, life and sexuality. The empirical support is a survey made to a sample of 500 students from Lisbon public universities, using a non-random sampling in two phases, first a quota sampling and after a convenience one. There are some results that stand out. More than half of students of the sample call themselves Catholic and believe in the dogmatic representations about God, Jesus and Mary, (...) though other dogmatic beliefs as hell, purgatory and resurrection are much lower. There is some spirituality among students, although the importance of God is less important. The frequencies of the Mass, prayer, Holy Communion, confession are all very low. The attitudes toward marriage, life and sexuality lie between ‘some’ and ‘very’, with abortion having the smallest rating and contraception the highest. In general, undergraduate youth is away from the norms of the Church. At the same time, these youngsters believe and belong more than they practice. Keywords: Beliefs. Practices. Attitudes. Portugal. Undergraduate students. Resumo Este artigo apresenta resultados da tese de doutoramento do autor: crenças e práticas católicas, atitudes em relação ao casamento, à vida e à sexualidade. O suporte empírico é um inquérito aplicado a uma amostra de 500 estudantes das universidades públicas de Lisboa, usando uma amostragem não aleatória em duas fases, primeiro a amostragem por quotas e depois a amostragem por conveniência. Há alguns resultados que se destacam. Mais do que metade da amostra denomina-se católica e acredita nas representações dogmáticas de Deus, Jesus e Maria, embora outras crenças dogmáticas como inferno, purgatório e ressurreição sejam bastante mais baixas. Há alguma espiritualidade entre os estudantes, embora menos considerem que Deus seja importante. A frequência da Missa, oração, comunhão, confissão é muito baixa. As atitudes relativamente ao casamento, vida e sexualidade estão entre ‘alguma’ e ‘muita’, tendo o aborto o valor mais pequeno e a contracepção o valor maior. Na generalidade, a juventude universitária está afastada das normas da Igreja. Ao mesmo tempo, eles acreditam e pertencem mais do que praticam. Palavras-chave: Crenças. Práticas. Atitudes. Portugal. Estudantes niversitários. (shrink)
The present study aimed at describing the research activities executed by researchers on organizational and work psychology in the state of Santa Catarina. The considered aspects were the psychological phenomena investigated by researchers, the types of procedures and instruments employed with great..
In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle, (...) as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication and reference holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved. (shrink)
En el presente trabajo nos hemos propuesto la factura de una exposición sucinta en torno a la crítica contra la metafísica clásica desde la perspectiva de Eduardo Nicol. Puede decirse que, desde el punto de vista de nuestro autor, la característica básica de la metafísica ha consistido en el soterramiento del ser, es decir, la metafísica clásica, de alguna u otra manera, ha versado acerca de un ser atemporal y oculto. El ocultamiento del ser ha estado íntimamente ligado al (...) olvido del tiempo y al endiosamiento de la razón; justo por esto Nicol se propone ahora una recuperación de la visibilidad del ser en aras de un contradiscurso del método. (shrink)
Mozambique has seen remarkable growth in biomedical research over the last decade. To meet a growing need, the National Committee for Bioethics in Health of Mozambique encouraged the development of ethical review processes at institutions that regularly conduct medical and social science research. In 2012, the Faculty of Medicine of University Eduardo Mondlane and the Maputo Central Hospital established a joint Institutional Committee on Bioethics for Health. This study examines the experience of the first 4 years of the CIBS (...) FM & MCH. This study provides a descriptive, retrospective analysis of research protocols submitted to and approved by the CIBS FM & MCH between March 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016, together with an analysis of the Committee’s respective reviews and actions. A total of 356 protocols were submitted for review during the period under analysis, with 309 protocols approved. Sixty-four percent were submitted by students, faculty, and researchers from UEM, mainly related to Master’s degree research. Descriptive cross-sectional studies were the most frequently reviewed research. The majority were prospective and used quantitative methodologies. The Departments of Internal Medicine at MCH and Community Health at the FM submitted the most protocols from their respective institutions, with 38 and 53% respectively. The CIBS’s average time to final approval for all protocols was 56 days, rising to 161 for the 40 protocols that required subsequent national-level review by the CNBS. Our results show that over its first 4 years, the CIBS FM & MCH has been successful in managing a constant demand for protocol review and that several broad quality improvement initiatives, such as investigator mentoring and an electronic protocol submission platform have improved efficiency in the review process and the overall quality of the protocols submitted. Beyond Maputo, long-term investments in training and ethical capacity building for CIBS across the country continue to be needed, as Mozambique develops greater capacity for research and makes progress toward improving the health of all its citizens. (shrink)