This paper addresses the question how to analyze multimodal public discourse in such a way that the resulting reconstruction of the rhetor’s accountability either obliges the rhetor to acknowledge the argumentative reconstruction as valid or to refute its validity in a meta-discussion. This is a challenge for discourse theory as well as for argument theory because multimodal discourse seems far removed from the ‘standard’ propositional format of an argument. We argue that multimodal discourse should be analyzed as a coherent and (...) relevant discourse, assuming the possibility of instant interactions between all modes. We introduce a method that allows us to account for an argumentative reconstruction in a systematic way. We illustrate our method by analyzing the ABC news item titled Hu Jintao Visit: Economics and Panda Bears of January 20, 2011, holding ABC news as a rhetor accountable for several far reaching standpoints that are implied in the multimodal format. (shrink)
Four experiments examined the strategies that individuals develop in sentential reasoning. They led to the discovery of five different strategies. According to the theory proposed in the paper, each of the strategies depends on component tactics, which all normal adults possess, and which are based on mental models. Reasoners vary their use of tactics in ways that are not deterministic. This variation leads different individuals to assemble different strategies, which include the construction of incremental diagram corresponding to mental models, and (...) the pursuit of the consequences of a single model step by step. Moreover, the difficulty of a problem (i.e. the number of mental models required by the premises) predisposes reasoners towards certain strategies. Likewise, the sentential connectives in the premises also bias reasoners towards certain strategies, e.g., conditional premises tend to elicit reasoning step by step whereas disjunctive premises tend to elicit incremental diagrams. (shrink)
The mental model theory postulates that reasoners build models of the situations described in premises, and that these models normally represent only what is true. The theory has an unexpected consequence. It predicts the existence ofillusions in inferences. Certain inferences should have compelling but erroneous conclusions. Two experiments corroborated the occurrence of such illusions in inferences about what is possible from disjunctions of quantified assertions, such as, “at least some of the plastic beads are not red.” Experiment 1 showed that (...) participants erroneously inferred that impossible situations were possible, and that possible situations were impossible, but that they performed well with control problems based on the same premises. Experiment 2 corroborated these findings in inferences from assertions based on dyadic relations, such as, “all the boys played with the girls.”. (shrink)
The expert is a vital role in multicriteria decision-making, which provides source decision opinions. In the existing group decision-making activities, the selection of experts is usually conducted artificially, which relies on personal subjective experience. It has been the urgent demand for an automatic selection of experts, which can help to determine their weights for the follow-up decision calculation. In this paper, an expert classification method is proposed to solve the problem. First, the CatBoost classification algorithm is improved by integrating the (...) 2-tuple linguistic, which can effectively extract the features of samples. Second, the framework of the expert classification is designed. The flow combines the expert resume collection, expert classification, and database update. Third, a decision-making case is analyzed for the expert selection issue. The experiment and result indicate that the proposed classifier performs better than the classic methods. The proposed classification method of the decision experts can support the automatic and intelligent operation of the decision-making activities. (shrink)
Quantum B-algebras, the partially ordered implicational algebras arising as subreducts of quantales, are introduced axiomatically. It is shown that they provide a unified semantic for non-commutative algebraic logic. Specifically, they cover the vast majority of implicational algebras like BCK-algebras, residuated lattices, partially ordered groups, BL- and MV-algebras, effect algebras, and their non-commutative extensions. The opposite of the category of quantum B-algebras is shown to be equivalent to the category of logical quantales, in the way that every quantum B-algebra admits a (...) natural embedding into a logical quantale, the enveloping quantale. Partially defined products of algebras related to effect algebras are handled efficiently in this way. The unit group of the enveloping quantale of a quantum B-algebra X is shown to be always contained in X, which gives a functorial subgroup X× of X. Similar subfunctors are obtained for the non-commutative extensions of BCK-algebras and effect algebras. The results of Galatos, Jónsson, and Tsinakis on the splitting of generalized BL-algebras into a semidirect product of a partially ordered group operating on an integral residuated poset are extended to a characterization of twisted semidirect products of a po-group by a quantum B-algebra. (shrink)
Many real-world complex systems have multiple types of relations between their components, and they are popularly modeled as multiplex networks with each type of relation as one layer. Since the fusion analysis of multiplex networks can provide a comprehensive insight, the structural information fusion of multiplex networks has become a crucial issue. However, most of these existing data fusion methods are inappropriate for researchers to apply to complex network analysis directly. The feature-based fusion methods ignore the sharing and complementarity of (...) interlayer structural information. To tackle this problem, we propose a multiplex network structural fusion model, which can construct a network with comprehensive information. It is composed of two modules: the network feature extraction module and the network structural fusion module. In NFE, MNSF first extracts a low-dimensional vector representation of a node from each layer. Then, we construct a node similarity network based on embedding matrices and K-D tree algorithm. In NSF, we present a nonlinear enhanced iterative fusion strategy. EIF can strengthen high-weight edges presented in one or more networks and weaken low-weight edges. The retention of low-weight edges shared by all layers depends on the tightness of connections of their K-order proximity. The usage of higher-order proximity in EIF alleviates the dependence on the quality of node embedding. Besides, the fused network can be easily exploited by traditional single-layer network analysis methods. Experiments on real-world networks demonstrate that MNSF outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in tasks link prediction and shared community detection. (shrink)
We performed an integrated study of multistage hydraulic fracture stimulation of two parallel horizontal wells in the Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota. There are three distinct parts of this study: development of a geomechanical model for the study area, interpretation of multiarray downhole recordings of microseismic events, and interpretation of hydraulic fracturing data in a geomechanical context. We estimated the current stress state to be characterized by an NF/SS regime, with [Formula: see text] oriented approximately [Formula: see (...) text]. The microseismic events were recorded in six vertical observation wells during hydraulic fracturing of parallel wells X and Z with three unusual aspects. First, rather than occurring in proximity to the stages being pressurized, many of the events occurred along the length of well Y, a parallel well located between wells X and Z that had been in production for approximately [Formula: see text] years at the time X and Z were stimulated. Second, relatively few fracturing stages were associated with an elongated cloud of events trending in the direction of [Formula: see text] as was commonly observed during hydraulic fracturing. Instead, the microseismic events in a few stages appeared to trend approximately [Formula: see text], approximately 30° from the direction of [Formula: see text]. Earthquake focal plane mechanisms confirmed slip on faults with this orientation. Finally, the microseismic events were clustered at two distinct depths: one near the depth of the well being pressurized in the Middle Bakken Formation and the other approximately [Formula: see text] above in the Mission Canyon Formation. We proposed that steeply dipping N75°E striking faults with a combination of normal and strike-slip movement were being stimulated during hydraulic fracturing and provided conduits for pore pressure to be transmitted to the overlaying formations. We tested a simple geomechanical analysis to illustrate how this occurred in the context of the stress field, pore pressure, and depletion in the vicinity of well Y. (shrink)
In 2002, Dvurečenskij extended Mundici’s equivalence between unital abelian l -groups and MV-algebras to the non-commutative case. We analyse the relationship to Bosbach’s cone algebras and clarify the rôle of the corresponding pair of L -algebras. As a consequence, it follows that one of the two L -algebra axioms can be dropped.
We draw an analogy between Hilbert's program (HP) for mathematics and Newell's program (NP) for cognitive modeling. The analogy reveals that NP, like HP before it, is fundamentally flawed. The only alternative is a program anchored by an admission that cognition is more than computation.
Stanovich & West (S&W), following all relevant others, define the rationality debate in terms of human performance on certain well-known problems. Unfortunately, these problems are very easy. For that reason, if System 2 cognition is identified with the capacity to solve them, such cognition will not enable humans to meet the cognitive demands of our technological society. Other profound issues arise as well.
We recast parts of decision theory in terms of channel theory concentrating on qualitative issues. Channel theory allows one to move between model theoretic and language theoretic notions as is necessary for an adequate covering. Doing so clarifies decision theory and presents the opportunity to investigate alternative formulations. As an example, we take some of Savage’s notions of decision theory and recast them within channel theory. In place of probabilities, we use a particular logic of preference. We introduce a logic (...) for describing actions separate from the logic of preference over actions. The structures introduced by channel theory that represent the decision problems can be seen to be an abstract framework. This frame-work is very accommodating to changing the nature of the decision problems to handle different aspects or theories about decision making. (shrink)
An incline S is a commutative semiring where r+1=1 for any r \in S . We note that the ideal lattice of an S-semimodule is naturally an S-semimodule and so is its congruence lattice when S is transitive. We prove that the categories of complete S-semimodules, together with dual functor, internal hom and tensor product, is a ⋆-autonomous category. We define the locally and globally maximal congruences which are related to Birkhoff subdirect product decomposition. We show that the categories of (...) S-semimodules, algebraic S-semimodules and topological S-semimodules are equivalent. Finally, we get a sheaf representation of any S-semimodule. (shrink)
The counterfactual account of physical computation is simple and, for the most part, very attractive. However, it is usually thought to trivialize the notion of physical computation insofar as it implies ‘limited pancomputationalism’, this being the doctrine that every deterministic physical system computes some function. Should we bite the bullet and accept limited pancomputationalism, or reject the counterfactual account as untenable? Jack Copeland would have us do neither of the above. He attempts to thread a path between the two horns (...) of the dilemma by buttressing the counterfactual account with extra conditions intended to block certain classes of deterministic physical systems from qualifying as physical computers. His theory is called the ‘algorithm execution account’. Here we show that the algorithm execution account entails limited pancomputationalism, despite Copeland’s argument to the contrary. We suggest, partly on this basis, that the counterfactual account should be accepted as it stands, pancomputationalist warts and all. (shrink)
Tradition wireless sensor networks transmit data by single or multiple hops. However, some sensor nodes close to a static base station forward data more frequently than others, which results in the problem of energy holes and makes networks fragile. One promising solution is to use a mobile node as a mobile sink, which is especially useful in energy-constrained networks. In these applications, the tour planning of MS is a key to guarantee the network performance. In this paper, a novel strategy (...) is proposed to reduce the latency of mobile data gathering in a WSN while the routing strategies and tour planning of MS are jointly optimized. First, the issue of network coverage is discussed before the appropriate number of clusters being calculated. A dynamic clustering scheme is then developed where a virtual cluster center is defined as the MS sojourn for data collection. Afterwards, a tour planning of MS based on prediction is proposed subject to minimizing the traveling distance to collect data. The proposed method is simulated in a MATLAB platform to show the overall performance of the developed system. Furthermore, the physical tests on a test rig are also carried out where a small WSN based on an unmanned aerial vehicle is developed in our laboratory. The test results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method proposed. (shrink)
The COVID-19 epidemic is associated with negative mood, which has the potential to be a powerful driver of creativity. However, the influence of negative mood on cognitive creativity and emotional creativity remains elusive. Previous research has indicated that self-focused attention is likely to be related to both negative mood and creativity. The current study introduced two self-focused attention variables to explore how negative mood might contribute to cognitive creativity and emotional creativity. Based on a sample of 351 participants, our study (...) found that negative mood during the outbreak of COVID-19 was associated with cognitive creativity and emotional creativity. Meanwhile, there were significant serial mediation effects of rumination and reflection in the relationship between negative mood and creativity and the psychological impact after exposure to the COVID-19 epidemic was positively correlated with emotional creativity but not with cognitive creativity. These results suggested that individuals, in real life and work, could achieve better creative performance through moderate self-focus. Moreover, individuals with different mood states can be induced to enhance their creativity in times of crisis through intervention training to promote reflection. (shrink)
In previous research comparing the Context-driven Model with the Default Model of meaning processing, the former was preferred. It predicts that contexts play an exclusively decisive role in meaning processing, whereas the latter holds that the inference of literal meaning generally goes through, unless it is subsequently defaulted or cancelled by the context it is associated with. The Standardization Model, which we added to our experiments, highlights that implicatures are figured out from standardized forms typically based on the mutual background (...) belief and speaker’s intention. We tested whether Chinese people’s processing of the gradable adjective scale conformed more to the Context-driven Model, the Default Model, or the Standardization Model. The results demonstrated that the Standardization Model is the most acceptable among the three. The findings of this study, which is the first study using the experimental paradigm on Chinese gradable adjectives, highlighted a need for further studies to investigate the same questions with different languages and cultures. (shrink)
The Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project Leg 2 logging-while-drilling data in Walker Ridge Lease Block 313 in the Gulf of Mexico detected gas hydrate in both coarse- and fine-grained sediments at sites WR313-G and WR313-H. The coarse-grained units are thin and highly saturated while the fine-grained unit is thick with low-saturation and fracture-filling gas hydrate. Unlike its coarse-grained counterpart, the seismic character of the fine-grained unit does not clearly indicate the presence of gas hydrate, which likely would have remained (...) undiscovered in the absence of drilling. In this paper, through frequency-domain acoustic full waveform inversion of ocean-bottom seismometer data along a 2D multichannel seismic transect near Sites WR313-G and WR313-H, we detect and quantify gas hydrate in the fine-grained unit. Key results are as follows. First, the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, which is not obvious in the reflection profile, can be discerned in the FWI results. Second, the gas hydrate in the fine-grained unit is mainly confined to the area between two sets of opposite-dipping normal faults implying that the fault architecture may be partially responsible for this gas hydrate accumulation and distribution. (shrink)
The Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Project Leg 2 logging-while-drilling data in Walker Ridge lease block 313 in the GOM detected gas hydrate in coarse- and fine-grained sediments at sites WR313-G and WR313-H. The coarse-grained units are thin and highly saturated, whereas the fine-grained unit is thick with low saturation and fracture-filling gas hydrate. Unlike its coarse-grained counterpart, the seismic character of the fine-grained unit does not clearly indicate the presence of gas hydrate, which would likely have remained undiscovered in (...) the absence of drilling. In this paper, through frequency-domain acoustic full-waveform inversion of ocean-bottom seismometer data along a 2D multichannel seismic transect near sites WR313-G and WR313-H, we detect and quantify gas hydrate in the fine-grained unit. Key results are as follows: First, the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, which is not obvious in the reflection profile, can be discerned in the FWI results. Second, the gas hydrate in the fine-grained unit is mainly confined to the area between two sets of opposite-dipping normal faults implying that the fault architecture may be partially responsible for this gas hydrate accumulation and distribution. (shrink)
Mental representations are more than emulations. Different types of representations, including external representations, various mental models (distorted and abstract), and emulative models, can all play important roles in human cognition. To explain cognitive performance in a specific task, a systematic analysis of the underlying representational structures and their interactions is needed.