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Applied Ethics

Assistant editor: Emma Ryman (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. added 2014-10-20
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). The Meaning of Life. In Henk Ten Have (ed.), Encyclopaedia for Global Bioethics. Springer.
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  2. added 2014-10-20
    Mary Jean Walker (2012). Neuroscience, Self-Understanding, and Narrative Truth. AJOB Neuroscience 3 (4):63-74.
    Recent evidence from the neurosciences and cognitive sciences provides some support for a narrative theory of self-understanding. However, it also suggests that narrative self-understanding is unlikely to be accurate, and challenges its claims to truth. This article examines a range of this empirical evidence, explaining how it supports a narrative theory of self-understanding while raising questions of these narrative's accuracy and veridicality. I argue that this evidence does not provide sufficient reason to dismiss the possibility of truth in narrative self-understanding. (...)
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  3. added 2014-10-19
    Richard Yetter Chappell, Against "Saving Lives&Quot;: Equal Concern and Differential Impact.
    Bioethicists often present "saving lives" as a goal distinct from, and competing with, that of extending lives by as much as possible. I argue that this usage of the term is misleading, and provides unwarranted rhetorical support for neglecting the magnitudes of the harms and benefits at stake in medical allocation decisions, often to the detriment of the young. Equal concern for all persons requires weighting equal interests equally, but not all individuals have an equal interest in "life-saving" treatment.
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  4. added 2014-10-14
    Shriniwas Hemade (2014). What is Business Ethics ? Daily Loksatta Column - Tattvabhan - The Philosophical Consciousness:10.
    What is Business Ethics ? Read the difference between Business Ethics and Professional Ethics. व्यवसाय आणि धंदा एकत्र आले की त्यांच्या मिसळणीतून नवेच प्रश्न निर्माण होतात. मालकाला धंदा हवा असतो आणि व्यावसायिक असलेल्या नोकराला अधिक वेतन हवे असते.. इथे व्यवस्थापनाचे, पण मूलत: नैतिक प्रश्न येतात..
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  5. added 2014-10-12
    Alison Reiheld (forthcoming). The Event That Was Nothing: Miscarriage as a Liminal Event. Journal of Social Philosophy.
    I argue that miscarriage, referred to by poet Susan Stewart as “the event that was nothing,” is a liminal event along four distinct and inter-related dimensions: parenthood, procreation, death, and induced abortion. It is because of this liminality that miscarriage has been both poorly addressed in our society, and enrolled in larger debates over women's reproduction and responsibility for reproduction, both conceptually and legally. If miscarriage’s liminality were better understood, if miscarriage itself were better theorized, perhaps it would not so (...)
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  6. added 2014-10-12
    Alison Reiheld, Gender Norms and Food Behaviors. Encyclopedia of Food and Agriculural Ethics.
    Food behaviors, both private and public, are deeply affected by gender norms concerning both masculinity and femininity. In some ways, food-centered activities constitute gender relations and identities across cultures. This entry provides a non-exhaustive overview of how gender norms bear on food behaviors broadly construed, focusing on three categories: food production, food preparation, and food consumption.
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  7. added 2014-10-12
    Alison Reiheld (2008). Paying for the Possibility of Disease: How Medicalization of Risk Conditions Affects Health Policy and Why We Must Bear It In Mind. Medical Humanities Report:3, 4, 6.
    In this paper, I sound a warning note about the medicalization of risk conditions such as high cholesterol, especially in a health care climate of resource scarcity.
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  8. added 2014-10-10
    Brendan Dill & Richard Holton (2014). The Addict in Us All. Frontiers in Psychiatry 5 (139):01-20.
    In this paper, we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1993; 2001; 2008) entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, (...)
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  9. added 2014-10-06
    Daniel Groll (2014). Four Models of Family Interests. Pedatrics 134:S81-S86.
    In this article, I distinguish between 4 models for thinking about how to balance the interests of parents, families, and a sick child: (1) the oxygen mask model; (2) the wide interests model; (3) the family interests model; and (4) the direct model. The oxygen mask model – which takes its name from flight attendants' directives to parents to put on their own oxygen mask before putting on their child's – says that parents should consider their own interests only insofar (...)
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  10. added 2014-10-06
    Benjamin Sachs (2014). The Relevance of Distributive Justice to International Climate Change Policy. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (2):208-224.
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  11. added 2014-10-06
    Russell Ford (2008). Of Dice and Men: Rethinking Business as a Game. In Patricia Werhane & Mollie Painter-Morland (eds.), Cutting-Edge Issues in Business Ethics. 109-120.
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  12. added 2014-10-02
    Robert Audi (2014). Church-State Separation, Healthcare Policy, and Religious Liberty. Journal of Practical Ethics 2 (1).
    This paper sketches a framework for the separation of church and state and, with the framework in view, indicates why a government’s maintaining such separation poses challenges for balancing two major democratic ideals: preserving equality before the law and protecting liberty, including religious liberty. The challenge is particularly complex where healthcare is either provided or regulated by government. The contemporary problem in question here is the contraception coverage requirement in the Obama Administration’s healthcare mandate. Many institutions have mounted legal challenges (...)
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  13. added 2014-10-02
    David Benatar (2014). Taking Humour (Ethics) Seriously, But Not Too Seriously. Journal of Practical Ethics 2 (1):24-43.
    Humour is worthy of serious ethical consideration. However, it is often taken far too seriously. In this paper, it is argued that while humour is sometimes unethical, it is wrong much less often than many people think. Non-contextual criticisms, which claim that certain kinds of humour are always wrong, are rejected. Contextual criticisms, which take issue with particular instances of humour rather than types of humour, are more promising. However, it is common to overstate the number of contexts in which (...)
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  14. added 2014-10-02
    David S. Oderberg (2013). The Morality of Reputation and the Judgment of Others. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (2):3-33.
    There is a tension between the reasonable desire not to be judgmental of other people’s behaviour or character, and the moral necessity of making negative judgments in some cases. I sketch a way in which we might accommodate both, via an evaluation of the good of reputation and the ethics of judgment of other people’s character and behaviour. I argue that a good reputation is a highly valuable good for its bearer, akin to a property right, and not to be (...)
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  15. added 2014-10-02
    Kyla Ebels-Duggan (2013). Moral Education in the Liberal State. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (2):24-63.
    I argue that political liberals should not support the monopoly of a single educational approach in state sponsored schools. Instead, they should allow reasonable citizens latitude to choose the worldview in which their own children are educated. I begin by defending a particular conception of political liberalism, and its associated requirement of public reason, against the received interpretation. I argue that the values of respect and civic friendship that motivate the public reason requirement do not support the common demand that (...)
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  16. added 2014-10-02
    Ruth Faden & Madison Powers (2013). Biotechnology, Justice and Health. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):49-61.
    New biotechnologies have the potential to both dramatically improve human well-being and dramatically widen inequalities in well-being. This paper addresses a question that lies squarely on the fault line of these two claims: When as a matter of justice are societies obligated to include a new biotechnology in a national healthcare system? This question is approached from the standpoint of a twin aim theory of justice, in which social structures, including nation-states, have double-barreled theoretical objectives with regard to human well-being. (...)
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  17. added 2014-10-02
    Daniel Hausman (2013). Motives and Markets in Health Care. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (2):64-84.
    The truth about health care policy lies between two exaggerated views: a market view in which individuals purchase their own health care from profit maximizing health-care firms and a control view in which costs are controlled by regulations limiting which treatments health insurance will pay for. This essay suggests a way to avoid on the one hand the suffering, unfairness, and abandonment of solidarity entailed by the market view and, on the other hand, to diminish the inflexibility and inefficiency of (...)
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  18. added 2014-09-29
    Christian Barry & David Wiens (forthcoming). Benefiting From Wrongdoing and Sustaining Wrongful Harm. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
  19. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher, Health Inequalities and Relational Egalitarianism.
    Much of the philosophical literature on health inequalities seeks to establish the superiority of one or another conception of luck egalitarianism. In recent years, however, an increasing number of self-avowed egalitarian philosophers have proposed replacing luck egalitarianism with alternatives that stress the moral relevance of distinct relationships, rather than the moral relevance of good or bad luck. After briefly explaining why I am not attracted to luck egalitarianism, I seek in this chapter to distinguish and clarify three views that have (...)
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  20. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (forthcoming). Relevance and Non-Consequentialist Aggregation. Utilitas.
    Interpersonal aggregation involves the combining and weighing of benefits and losses to multiple individuals in the course of determining what ought to be done. Most consequentialists embrace thoroughgoing interpersonal aggregation, the view that any large benefit to each of a few people can be morally outweighed by allocating any smaller benefit to each of many others, so long as this second group is sufficiently large. This would permit letting one person die in order to cure some number of mild headaches (...)
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  21. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (forthcoming). Review Of: Death or Disability?: The ‘Carmentis Machine’ and Decision-Making for Critically Ill Children. [REVIEW] Mind.
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  22. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (2014). Public Health Paternalism and ‘Expenditure Harm’. Hastings Center Report 44 (4):4.
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  23. added 2014-09-26
    Simon van Rysewyk & Janneke van Leeuwen (2014). Picturing Mind Machines, An Adaptation by Janneke van Leeuwen. In Simon Peter van Rysewyk & Matthijs Pontier (eds.), Machine Medical Ethics. Springer.
  24. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (2012). Review Of: Prevention Vs. Treatment: What’s the Right Balance? [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201203.
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  25. added 2014-09-25
    Andy Lamey (forthcoming). Ecosystems as Spontaneous Orders. Critical Review.
    The notion of a spontaneous order has a long history in the philosophy of economics, where it has been used to advance a view of markets as complex networks of information that no single mind can apprehend. Traditionally, the impossibility of grasping all of the information present in the spontaneous order of the market has been invoked as grounds for not subjecting markets to central planning. A less noted feature of the spontaneous order concept is that when it is applied (...)
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  26. added 2014-09-25
    Spencer Phillips Hey (forthcoming). Theory Testing and Implication in Clinical Trials. Philosophy of Science 2014.
    John Worrall (2010) and Nancy Cartwright (2011) argue that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are "testing the wrong theory." RCTs are designed to test inferences about the causal relationships in the study population, but this does not guarantee a justified inference about the causal relationships in the more diverse population in clinical practice. In this essay, I argue that the epistemology of theory testing in trials is more complicated than either Worrall's or Cartwright's accounts suggest. I illustrate this more complex theoretical (...)
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  27. added 2014-09-25
    Spencer Phillips Hey (2014). Ethics and Epistemology of Accurate Prediction in Clinical Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 10:1-4.
    All major research ethics policies assert that the ethical review of clinical trial protocols should include a systematic assessment of risks and benefits. But despite this policy, protocols do not typically contain explicit probability statements about the likely risks or benefits involved in the proposed research. In this essay, I articulate a range of ethical and epistemic advantages that explicit forecasting would offer to the health research enterprise. I then consider how some particular confidence levels may come into conflict with (...)
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  28. added 2014-09-25
    Glen Mazis (2011). &Quot;human Ethics as a Violence Towards Animals: The Demonized Wolf&Quot;. Spaziofilosofico, 3:291-304.
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  29. added 2014-09-24
    Danielle Bromwich & Annette Rid (forthcoming). Can Informed Consent to Research Be Adapted to Risk? Journal of Medical Ethics.
    The current ethical and regulatory framework for research is often charged with burdening investigators and impeding socially valuable research. To address these concerns, a growing number of research ethicists argue that informed consent should be adapted to the risks of research participation. This would require less rigorous consent standards in low-risk research than in high-risk research. However, the current discussion is restricted to cases of research in which the risks of research participation are outweighed by the potential clinical benefits for (...)
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  30. added 2014-09-24
    Pascal Massie & Lauryn Mayer (2014). Bringing Elsewhere Home: A Song of Ice and Fire’s Ethics of Disability. In Karl Fugelso (ed.), Studies in Medievalism. D S Brewer. 45-60.
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  31. added 2014-09-23
    Brian Treanor (2014). Emplotting Virtue. SUNY Press.
    ethics does not stress the rule-based components of action guidance does not mean that virtue ethics has no room for such rules. Indeed, action- guiding rules are an important part of a fully elaborated virtue ethics. Two substantive claims ...
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  32. added 2014-09-18
    Tomasz Żuradzki (forthcoming). Moral Uncertainty in Bioethical Argumentation: A New Understanding of the Pro-Life View on Early Human Embryos. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-17.
    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of (...)
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  33. added 2014-09-17
    Finn Janning (2014). Affirmation and Creation - How to Lead Ethically. Tamara Journal for Critical Organization Inquiry 12 (3):25-35.
    This paper proposes an alternative approach towards ethical leadership. Recent research tells us that socioeconomic and cultural differences affect moral intuition, making it difficult to locate a guiding organizational principle. Nevertheless, in this paper I attempt to open an alternative path towards an ethics that might serve as a guide for leaders – especially leaders who are leading a highly professionalized workforce. Using the Chilean writer Roberto Bolaño and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze as points of reference, I develop an (...)
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  34. added 2014-09-13
    Luara Ferracioli (forthcoming). Family Migration Schemes and Liberal Neutrality: A Dilemma. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    Those who believe that liberal states have a right to exclude prospective immigrants also believe that citizens should be able to invite romantic partners and family members to join them as new members of the state (as part of so-called family reunification schemes). In this essay, I argue that the privileging of romantic and familial ties by the liberal state cannot be justified. The reasons that count in favour of these relationships count equally in favour of a great array of (...)
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  35. added 2014-09-12
    Kok-Chor Tan (2014). Why Global Justice Matters. Journal of Global Ethics 10 (2):128-134.
  36. added 2014-09-12
    Kok-Chor Tan (2013). &Quot;the Demands of Global Justice&Quot;. Oeconomia 13 (4):665-679.
    This review essay discusses recent books by Nicole Hassoun, Laura Valentini and Pablo Gilabert. Topics I examine that are stimulated by these books include the distinction between global egalitarian obligation and humanitarian duties, the role of coercion in justifying global obligations, and the possibility of a third position that falls between humanitarianism and cosmopolitan egalitarianism.
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  37. added 2014-09-11
    Tim Henning (forthcoming). From Choice to Chance? Saving People, Fairness, and Lotteries. Philosophical Review.
    Many authors in ethics, economics and political science endorse the Lottery Requirement, i.e. the following thesis: Where different parties have equal moral claims to one indivisible good, it is morally obligatory to let a fair lottery decide which party is to receive the good. This article defends skepticism about the Lottery Requirement. Three broad strategies of defending such a requirement are distinguished: the surrogate satisfaction account, the procedural account and the ideal consent account. It is argued that none of these (...)
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  38. added 2014-09-10
    Fiorella Battaglia, Nikil Mukerji & Julian Nida-Rümelin (eds.) (2014). Rethinking Responsibility in Science and Technology. Pisa University Press.
    The idea of responsibility is deeply embedded into the “lifeworld” of human beings and not subject to change. However, the empirical circumstances in which we act and ascribe responsibility to one another are subject to change. Science and technology play a great part in this transformation process. Therefore, it is important for us to rethink the idea, the role and the normative standards behind responsibility in a world that is constantly being transformed under the influence of scientific and technological progress. (...)
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  39. added 2014-09-10
    Nikil Mukerji (2014). Technological Progress and Responsibility. In Fiorella Battaglia, Nikil Mukerji & Julian Nida-Rümelin (eds.), Rethinking Responsibility in Science and Technology. Pisa University Press. 25-36.
    In this essay, I will examine how technological progress affects the responsibilities of human agents. To this end, I will distinguish between two interpretations of the concept of responsibility, viz. responsibility as attributability and substantive responsibility. On the former interpretation, responsibility has to do with the idea of authorship. When we say that a person is responsible for her actions we mean that she is to be seen as the author of these actions. They can be attributed to her, such (...)
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  40. added 2014-09-10
    Nolen Gertz (2014). The Philosophy of War and Exile: From the Humanity of War to the Inhumanity of Peace. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The Philosophy of War and Exile argues that our current paradigms for thinking about the ethics of war - just war theory - and the suffering of war - PTSD theory - judge war without a proper understanding of war. By continuing the investigations of J. Glenn Gray into the meaning of how war is experienced by combatants we can find an alternative understanding of not only war, but of peace, culminating in a new theory of responsibility centered around embodiment (...)
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  41. added 2014-09-10
    Sandra Raponi (2014). What is Required to Institutionalize Kant's Cosmopolitan Ideal? Journal of International Political Theory 10 (3):302-324.
    Although Kant argues that a world republic with coercive public law is the only rational way to secure a lawful cosmopolitan condition, he states that it is an unachievable ideal, and he proposes a voluntary, non-coercive federation of states as a substitute. While some scholars have criticized Kant for moving away from this ideal due merely to pragmatic considerations, I argue that his rejection of a coercive world republic is based on his conception of state sovereignty and what is required (...)
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  42. added 2014-09-10
    Annabelle Lever (2013). A Democratic Conception of Privacy. Authorhouse, UK.
    Carol Pateman has said that the public/private distinction is what feminism is all about. I tend to be sceptical about categorical pronouncements of this sort, but this book is a work of feminist political philosophy and the public/private distinction is what it is all about. It is motivated by the belief that we lack a philosophical conception of privacy suitable for a democracy; that feminism has exposed this lack; and that by combining feminist analysis with recent developments in political philosophy, (...)
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  43. added 2014-09-09
    Franco Palazzi (forthcoming). Would Human Extinction Be Morally Wrong? Philosophia:1-22.
    This article casts light on the moral implications of the possibility of human extinction, with a specific focus on extinction caused by an interruption in human reproduction. In the first two paragraphs, I show that moral philosophy has not yet given promising explanations for the wrongness of this kind of extinction. Specifically, the second paragraph contains a detailed rejection of John Leslie’s main claims on the (im) morality of extinction. In the third paragraph, I offer a demonstration of the fact (...)
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  44. added 2014-09-06
    Michael Cholbi (forthcoming). Kant on Euthanasia and the Duty to Die: Clearing the Air. Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Thanks to recent scholarship, Kant is no longer seen as the dogmatic opponent of suicide he appears at first glance. However, some interpreters have recently argued for a Kantian view of the morality of suicide with surprising, even radical, implications. More specifically, they have argued that Kantianism (a) requires that those with dementia or other rationality-eroding conditions end their lives before their condition results in their loss of identity as moral agents, and (b) requires subjecting the fully demented or those (...)
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  45. added 2014-09-06
    Gregor Betz (2013). Climate Engineering. In Armin Grunwald (ed.), Handbuch Technikethik. Metzler. 254-257.
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  46. added 2014-09-05
    Rene Von Schomberg (2013). A Vision of Responsible Innovation. In Richard Owen (ed.), Responsible Innovation. 51-74.
    This Article outlines a vision of responsible innovation and outlines a public policy and implementation strategy for it.
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  47. added 2014-09-05
    Rene Von Schomberg (ed.) (2011). Towards Responsible Research and Innovation in the Information and Communication Technologies and Security Technologies Fields. Publications Office of the European Union.
  48. added 2014-09-05
    Rene von Schomberg (ed.) (2010). Understanding Public Debate on Nanotechnologies. Publications Office of the European Union.
    This book features the contribution of major European research projects on the governance and ethics of Nanotechnology. They focus on the responsible development of nanotechnology and on the understanding of public debate.
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  49. added 2014-09-04
    Marcel Verweij (2014). Curiosity and Responsibility. Philosophy in Relation to Healthy Food and Living Conditions. Wageningen University.
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  50. added 2014-09-02
    Steven Sverdlik, The Intrinsic Value of Retribution.
    Retributivist approaches to the philosophy of punishment are usually based on certain fundamental moral claims. One of these claims is also accepted, or at least treated sympathetically, by some consequentialists. It is this: -/- Intrinsic Value (IV): The deserved suffering of morally guilty wrongdoers has intrinsic value. -/- IV is sometimes supported by the construction of examples similar to Kant’s ‘desert island’. These are meant to show that there is intrinsic value in the suffering of a wrongdoer, even if none (...)
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