Search results for 'Privacy, Right of' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Justina Balčiūnaitė & Lijana Štarienė (2010). Right to Privacy V. European Commission's Expanded Power of Inspection According to Regulation 1/2003. Jurisprudence 121 (3):115-132.score: 162.0
    Regulation No 17: First Regulation implementing Articles 85 and 86 of the Treaty set out that in carrying out the duties assigned to it by Article 89 and by provisions adopted under Article 87 of the Treaty, the officials authorized by the EU Commission were empowered inter alia to enter any premises, land and means of transport of undertakings. Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 on the implementation of the rules on competition laid down in Articles 81 (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Birutė Pranevičienė (2011). Limiting of the Right to Privacy in the Context of Protection of National Security. Jurisprudence 18 (4):1609-1622.score: 132.0
    For the last several decades, ensuring human rights and national security have remained an important goal and a condition for existence of every state. The interests of national security often presuppose the need to narrow some natural rights, such as, for example, the right to privacy, the right to secrecy of communication, etc. Traditional concept of security is related to ensuring national security. According to the traditional concept of security, the state is considered the main object of security; (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Janet E. Smith (2008). The Right to Privacy. Ignatius Press.score: 123.0
    Foreword by Robert H. Bork -- Culture wars -- A distorted understanding of rights -- The right to privacy -- Griswold and contraception -- Roe and abortion -- Assisted suicide and homosexuality -- Political connections and natural consequences.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Stephen Coleman (2006). E-Mail, Terrorism, and the Right to Privacy. Ethics and Information Technology 8 (1):17-27.score: 117.0
    This paper discusses privacy and the monitoring of e-mail in the context of the international nature of the modern world. Its three main aims are: (1) to highlight the problems involved in discussing an essentially philosophical question within a legal framework, and thus to show that providing purely legal answers to an ethical question is an inadequate approach to the problem of privacy on the Internet; (2) to discuss and define what privacy in the medium of the Internet actually is; (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Michael Cranford (1998). Drug Testing and the Right to Privacy: Arguing the Ethics of Workplace Drug Testing. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 17 (16):1805-1815.score: 111.0
    As drug testing has become increasingly used to maximize corporate profits by minimizing the economic impact of employee substance abuse, numerous arguments have been advanced which draw the ethical justification for such testing into question, including the position that testing amounts to a violation of employee privacy by attempting to regulate an employee's behavior in her own home, outside the employer's legitimate sphere of control. This article first proposes that an employee's right to privacy is violated when personal information (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Ferdinand David Schoeman (ed.) (1984). Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy: An Anthology. Cambridge University Press.score: 108.0
    The aim of compiling the various essays presented here is to make readily accessible many of the most significant and influential discussions of privacy to be found in the literature. In addition to being representative of the diversity of attitudes toward privacy, this collection has a coherence that results from the authors' focus on the same issues and theories. The main issue addressed in this book is the moral significance of privacy. Some social science and legal treatments are included because (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Diane P. Michelfelder (2001). The Moral Value of Informational Privacy in Cyberspace. Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):129-135.score: 98.3
    Solutions to the problem ofprotecting informational privacy in cyberspacetend to fall into one of three categories:technological solutions, self-regulatorysolutions, and legislative solutions. In thispaper, I suggest that the legal protection ofthe right to online privacy within the USshould be strengthened. Traditionally, inidentifying where support can be found in theUS Constitution for a right to informationalprivacy, the point of focus has been on theFourth Amendment; protection in this contextfinds its moral basis in personal liberty,personal dignity, self-esteem, and othervalues. On the (...)
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. G. T. Laurie (2002). Genetic Privacy: A Challenge to Medico-Legal Norms. Cambridge University Press.score: 96.0
    The phenomenon of the New Genetics raises complex social problems, particularly those of privacy. This book offers ethical and legal perspectives on the questions of a right to know and not to know genetic information from the standpoint of individuals, their relatives, employers, insurers and the state. Graeme Laurie provides a unique definition of privacy, including a concept of property rights in the person, and argues for stronger legal protection of privacy in the shadow of developments in human genetics. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Jesper Ryberg (2007). Privacy Rights, Crime Prevention, CCTV, and the Life of Mrs Aremac. Res Publica 13 (2):127-143.score: 93.3
    Over the past decade the use of closed circuit television (CCTV) as a means of crime prevention has reached unprecedented levels. Though critics of this development do not speak with one voice and have pointed to a number of different problems in the use of CCTV, one argument has played a dominant role in the debate, namely, that CCTV constitutes an unacceptable violation of people’s right to privacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine this argument critically. It (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Carol J. Gill (2004). Depression in the Context of Disability and the “Right to Die”. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (3):171-198.score: 87.0
    Arguments in favor of legalized assisted suicide often center on issues of personal privacy and freedom of choice over one's body. Many disability advocates assert, however, that autonomy arguments neglect the complex sociopolitical determinants of despair for people with disabilities. Specifically, they argue that social approval of suicide for individuals with irreversible conditions is discriminatory and that relaxing restrictions on assisted suicide would jeopardize, not advance, the freedom of persons with disabilities to direct the lives they choose. This paper examines (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. J. L. Cohenova (2001). Democracy, Differences and the Right of Privacy. Filosoficky Casopis 49 (2):273-307.score: 87.0
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Kent Greenawalt (1976). Restricting the Right of Privacy: The Burger Court and Claims of Privacy. Hastings Center Report 6 (4):19-20.score: 87.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Bo Brinkman (2013). An Analysis of Student Privacy Rights in the Use of Plagiarism Detection Systems. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1255-1266.score: 86.7
    Plagiarism detection services are a powerful tool to help encourage academic integrity. Adoption of these services has proven to be controversial due to ethical concerns about students’ rights. Central to these concerns is the fact that most such systems make permanent archives of student work to be re-used in plagiarism detection. This computerization and automation of plagiarism detection is changing the relationships of trust and responsibility between students, educators, educational institutions, and private corporations. Educators must respect student privacy rights when (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Steffen Borge (2007). Unwarranted Questions and Conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 39 (10):1689-1701.score: 84.0
    This paper deals with two distinct topics; unwarranted questions and admittures. The traditional speech act analysis of questions needs revision, since among the felicity conditions of asking a question is believing that the question is warranted. Some questions are unwarranted according to my analysis. A question is unwarranted if the questioner is not standing in the right relation to the addressee, such that he can demand or expect a sincere answer. I use the idea of unwarranted questions to show (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. J. Burr & P. Reynolds (2008). Thinking Ethically About Genetic Inheritance: Liberal Rights, Communitarianism and the Right to Privacy for Parents of Donor Insemination Children. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (4):281-284.score: 84.0
  16. Robert Holley (2006). The Ethics of Scholarly Research and the Internet: Issues of Publication, Privacy, and the Right to Speak. Journal of Information Ethics 15 (1):27-34.score: 84.0
  17. Edita Gruodytė (2012). Legal Aspects of Regulation of Abortion in the Context of Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Jurisprudence 19 (2):739-752.score: 84.0
    Regulatory approach to the right to abortion in Europe is diverse and basically related to the issue of when the right to life begins and how this question is reflected in national legislation. Such an approach and diversity is tolerated by the European Court of Human Rights, but only if some specific standards and criteria formulated in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights are reflected in national legislation. Research of the Lithuanian legal acts conducted in (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Varvara Z. Mitliaga (2004). Online Privacy: Explaining the Nature and Special Features of the Right to Seek Protection. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 2 (3):159-167.score: 84.0
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Kiyoshi Murata & Yohko Orito (2008). Rethinking the Concept of the Right to Information Privacy: A Japanese Perspective. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 6 (3):233-245.score: 84.0
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. David J. Seipp (1983). English Judicial Recognition of a Right to Privacy. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 3 (3):325-370.score: 84.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Dan L. Burk (2008). Information Ethics and the Law of Data Representations. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):135-147.score: 83.0
    The theories of information ethics articulated by Luciano Floridi and his collaborators have clear implications for law. Information law, including the law of privacy and of intellectual property, is especially likely to benefit from a coherent and comprehensive theory of information ethics. This article illustrates how information ethics might apply to legal doctrine, by examining legal questions related to the ownership and control of the personal data representations, including photographs, game avatars, and consumer profiles, that have become ubiquitous with the (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Francesca Bignami (2009). Constitutional Patriotism and the Right to Privacy : A Comparison of the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. In Thérèse Murphy (ed.), New Technologies and Human Rights. Oxford University Press.score: 82.0
  23. Alexander Rosenberg (2000). Privacy as a Matter of Taste and Right. Social Philosophy and Policy 17 (02):68-.score: 81.0
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Robert B. Hallborg (1986). Principles of Liberty and the Right to Privacy. Law and Philosophy 5 (2):175 - 218.score: 81.0
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Anthony Bendall (2009). A Short History of the 'Right to Privacy'. Agora 44 (1):37.score: 81.0
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Clifford G. Christians (2010). In Nearly Every Survey of Public Opinion and the Media, Privacy is a Premiere Issue If the Press Wishes to Main its Credibility. The Laws Safeguarding Privacy Are Impressive, but Legal Prescriptions Are an Inadequate Foundation for the News Business. Privacy is Not a Legal Right Only but a Moral Good. For All of the Sophistication of Case Law and Tort Law in Protecting Privacy, Legal Definitions Do Not Match Today's Challenges. Merely Following the Letter of the Law Presumes the Law Can Be Determined ... [REVIEW] In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press. 203.score: 81.0
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. J. Angelo Corlett (2002). The Nature and Value of the Moral Right to Privacy. Public Affairs Quarterly 16 (4):329-350.score: 81.0
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Caroline Danielson (forthcoming). The Gender of Privacy and the Embodied Self: Examining the Origins of the Right to Privacy in US Law. Feminist Studies.score: 81.0
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. K. Lützén (2003). The Right to Privacy of E-Mails Raises Many Questions. Nursing Ethics 10 (1):2-3.score: 81.0
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Willis H. Ware (1977). Impact of Telecommunications Technology on the Right to Privacy. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 8 (4):2-5.score: 81.0
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Maurizio Passerin D'Entrèves & Ursula Vogel (eds.) (2000). Public and Private: Legal, Political and Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge.score: 77.7
    This collection provides a fresh and wide-ranging assessment on the changing nature of the public-private debate. For the first time, eight essays by scholars provide insight into this issue from a number of disciplinary perspectives. The focus of recent debates on this topic has been the delineation of acceptable boundaries between the public and the private in the economic, social and cultural spheres of modern societies. Tough questions are raised pertaining to the nature and scope of citizenship, privacy rights, the (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Kenneth G. Ferguson (2001). Caller ID – Whose Privacy is It, Anyway? Journal of Business Ethics 29 (3):227 - 237.score: 77.0
    Caller ID or CND (Calling Number Display) is an internationally-available telecommunication service first introduced into the United States about ten years ago. Caller ID utilizes a new form of technology which enables telephone subscribers to identify the numbers (and/or names) of callers before picking up their telephones. This service has been widely assailed as an invasion of the caller''s right to anonymity, a right which allegedly subsists as an important component of the caller''s right to privacy. However, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. George E. Panichas (2014). An Intrusion Theory of Privacy. Res Publica 20 (2):145-161.score: 77.0
    This paper offers a general theory of privacy, a theory that takes privacy to consist in being free from certain kinds of intrusions. On this understanding, privacy interests are distinct and distinguishable from those in solitude, anonymity, and property, for example, or from the fact that others possess, with neither consent nor permission, personal information about oneself. Privacy intrusions have both epistemic and psychological components, and can range in value from relatively trivial considerations to those of profound consequence for an (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Annabelle Lever, Feminism, Democracy and the Right to Privacy.score: 75.7
    This article argues that people have legitimate interests in privacy that deserve legal protection on democratic principles. It describes the right to privacy as a bundle of rights of personal choice, association and expression and shows that, so described, people have legitimate political interests in privacy. These interests reflect the ways that privacy rights can supplement the protection for people’s freedom and equality provided by rights of political choice, association and expression, and can help to make sure that these (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Laurence Ashworth & Clinton Free (2006). Marketing Dataveillance and Digital Privacy: Using Theories of Justice to Understand Consumers' Online Privacy Concerns. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 67 (2):107 - 123.score: 75.0
    Technology used in online marketing has advanced to a state where collection, enhancement and aggregation of information are instantaneous. This proliferation of customer information focused technology brings with it a host of issues surrounding customer privacy. This article makes two key contributions to the debate concerning digital privacy. First, we use theories of justice to help understand the way consumers conceive of, and react to, privacy concerns. Specifically, it is argued that an important component of consumers’ privacy concerns relates to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Meng-Hsiang Hsu & Feng-Yang Kuo (2003). The Effect of Organization-Based Self-Esteem and Deindividuation in Protecting Personal Information Privacy. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (4):305 - 320.score: 75.0
    In this research we apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to study decisions related to information privacy protection. A TPB-based model was proposed to investigate whether organization-based self-esteem and perceived deindividuation can be employed to measure the strength of the perceived behavioral control construct. In addition, we examined if the addition of a causal path linking subjective norms to attitudes and another causal path linking organization-based self-esteem to subjective norms enhanced our research model's predicting power. Our study shows that (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Beate Rössler (ed.) (2004). Privacies: Philosophical Evaluations. Stanford University Press.score: 75.0
    This ambitious, interdisciplinary collection responds to present intellectual debates concerning the value and limits of privacy. Ever since the beginning of modernity, the line of demarcation between private and public spaces, and the distinction between them, have continually been challenged and redrawn. Such developments as new technologies that introduce previously unforeseen possibilities for infringement upon privacy and the modern spectacles of television talk shows and “reality-TV” give added urgency to the discussion on privacy. This collection examines the fundamental issues structuring (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Claudia Wiesemann (2011). Is There a Right Not to Know One's Sex? The Ethics of 'Gender Verification' in Women's Sports Competitions. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (4):216-220.score: 74.0
    The paper discusses the current medical practice of "gender verification" in sports from an ethical point of view. It takes the recent public discussion about 800-meter runner Caster Semenya as a starting point. At the World Championships in Athletics 2009 in Berlin, Germany, Semenya was challenged by competitors as being a so called "sex impostor". A medical examination to verify her sex ensued. The author analyses whether athletes like Semenya could claim a right not to know that is generally (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Vicente Medina (1994). HIV and Entrenched Social Roles: Patients' Rights Vs. Physicians' Duties. Public Affairs Quarterly 8 (4):359-375.score: 73.0
    Physicians, so it will be argued have by virtue of their profession a weightier obligation than patients to disclose their HIV infection, and also have a duty to refrain from performing exposure-prone invasive procedures. This argument supports both the AMA and CDC guidelines on HIV infected health care workers (HCWS), while undermining the recommendations against disclosure suggested by the National Commission on AIDS (NCA). The argument is divided into three parts. First, a distinction is made between entrenched and fuzzy roles. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Herman T. Tavani (2007). Philosophical Theories of Privacy: Implications for an Adequate Online Privacy Policy. Metaphilosophy 38 (1):1–22.score: 72.0
    This essay critically examines some classic philosophical and legal theories of privacy, organized into four categories: the nonintrusion, seclusion, limitation, and control theories of privacy. Although each theory includes one or more important insights regarding the concept of privacy, I argue that each falls short of providing an adequate account of privacy. I then examine and defend a theory of privacy that incorporates elements of the classic theories into one unified theory: the Restricted Access/Limited Control (RALC) theory of privacy. Using (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Andrew Belsey & Ruth F. Chadwick (eds.) (1992). Ethical Issues in Journalism and the Media. Routledge.score: 72.0
    This book examines the ethical concepts which lie at the heart of journalism, including freedom, democracy, truth, objectivity, honesty and privacy.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Herman T. Tavani (2008). Floridi's Ontological Theory of Informational Privacy: Some Implications and Challenges. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):155-166.score: 72.0
    This essay critically analyzes Luciano Floridi’s ontological theory of informational privacy. Organized into two main parts, Part I examines some key foundational components of Floridi’s privacy theory and it considers some of the ways in which his framework purports to be superior to alternative theories of informational privacy. Part II poses two specific challenges for Floridi’s theory of informational privacy, arguing that an adequate privacy theory should be able to: (i) differentiate informational privacy from other kinds of privacy, including psychological (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Stine Lomborg (2012). Negotiating Privacy Through Phatic Communication. A Case Study of the Blogging Self. Philosophy and Technology 25 (3):415-434.score: 72.0
    The article provides an instructive in-depth analysis of communicative practices in the personal blog. Its aim is to document the discursive dynamics and interactional ethics of blogging, with a specific focus on negotiations of the blogging self in-between public and private. Based on key findings from an empirical case study of personal blogs, the article addresses the negotiation of the blogging self from three interdependent perspectives: the network structures, patterns of interaction, and thematic orientations of the blog. Instead of approaching (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Frans A. J. Birrer (2005). Data Mining to Combat Terrorism and the Roots of Privacy Concerns. Ethics and Information Technology 7 (4):211-220.score: 72.0
    Recently, there has been a heavy debate in the US about the government’s use of data mining in its fight against terrorism. Privacy concerns in fact led the Congress to terminate the funding of TIA, a program for advanced information technology to be used in the combat of terrorism. The arguments put forward in this debate, more specifically those found in the main report and minority report by the TAPAC established by the Secretary of Defense to examine the TIA issue, (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Makoto Nakada & Takanori Tamura (2005). Japanese Conceptions of Privacy: An Intercultural Perspective. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (1):27-36.score: 72.0
    This paper deals with intercultural aspects of privacy, particularly with regard to important differences between Japanese and the Western views. This paper is based on our discussions with Rafael Capurro – a dialogue now represented by two separate but closely interrelated articles. The companion paper is broadly focused on the cultural and historical backgrounds of the concepts of privacy and individualism in “Western” worlds; our main theme focuses on different concepts of privacy in Japan and their sources in related aspects (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Lars Øystein Ursin (2008). Biobank Research and the Right to Privacy. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (4):267-285.score: 71.0
    What is privacy? What does privacy mean in relation to biobanking, in what way do the participants have an interest in privacy, (why) is there a right to privacy, and how should the privacy issue be regulated when it comes to biobank research? A relational view of privacy is argued for in this article, which takes as its basis a general discussion of several concepts of privacy and attempts at grounding privacy rights. In promoting and protecting the rights that (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Stephen P. Marks (forthcoming). Human Rights and the Challenges of Science and Technology. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-7.score: 71.0
    The expansion of the corpus of international human rights to include the right to water and sanitation has implications both for the process of recognizing human rights and for future developments in the relationships between technology, engineering and human rights. Concerns with threats to human rights resulting from developments in science and technology were expressed in the early days of the United Nations (UN), along with the recognition of the ambitious human right of everyone “to enjoy the benefits (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Benjamin J. Goold (2002). Privacy Rights and Public Spaces: CCTV and the Problem of the “Unobservable Observer”. Criminal Justice Ethics 21 (1):21-27.score: 70.7
    (2002). Privacy rights and public spaces: CCTV and the problem of the “unobservable observer”. Criminal Justice Ethics: Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 21-27. doi: 10.1080/0731129X.2002.9992113.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Janice Richardson (2011). The Changing Meaning of Privacy, Identity and Contemporary Feminist Philosophy. Minds and Machines 21 (4):517-532.score: 69.0
    This paper draws upon contemporary feminist philosophy in order to consider the changing meaning of privacy and its relationship to identity, both online and offline. For example, privacy is now viewed by European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) as a right, which when breached can harm us by undermining our ability to maintain social relations. I briefly outline the meaning of privacy in common law and under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in order to show the relevance (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.) (2012). I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press.score: 69.0
    'I know what you're thinking' is a fascinating exploration into the neuroscientific evidence on 'mind reading'.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000